Reasons Students Gets Poor Grades Assignment

Reasons Students Gets Poor Grades Assignment Words: 3509

Data were collected from the drop out students, instructors, gender officers and guidance and counseling office of the Leistering through questionnaires, interview and focus group discussion. Moreover, secondary data were collected from the university registrar. The results of the study reveal that though the enrollment rate of female students increased from time to time there is a wide gap between the two sexes. Moreover, the dismissal rates of female students are greater than males.

The major factors that caused female students to be dismissed from the university include harassment, homesickness, lack of assertiveness training, teachers gender insensitivity, absence of special support program, poor time management, anxiety, financial problems lack of proper guidance, and unseeing service and department placement without interest. Ethiopia is one of the poorest and educationally disadvantaged countries in the world.

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Rose (2003: 1) predicted based on the data of 1 993/94 that when the primary gross enrolment ratio was just 30 percent for boys and 19 percent for girls. It was predicted that “in spite of recent enrolment increases, with no other changes to admission rates or to progression rates within the system, by 2008/09 almost thirds of the school-aged population would still remain out of primary school, and the gender gap would worsen”. The existing literature also reveals unsatisfactory pictures of a stark gender imbalance against females.

As Seymour (1 991 ) indicated, after a long time in 1974 the rate Of female enrollment at the tertiary level in the Department of Pedagogy, Jimmy University ** Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Baobab University Ethiopia. J.. Educe. & Sc. Country reached only 6 percent. The same study also indicated that the number of graduates in the country over decade that is between 1963 and 1973 was only 6. 7 percent. It is very evident that gender issues have received high priority in education policy in Ethiopia since the ewe government came to power in the early 1 sass.

A specific objective of the Education and Training Strategy is to use education to change attitudes towards the role of women in development (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia {FIDE}, 2002). This included giving attention to gender issues in curriculum design, placing special emphasis upon the recruitment, training and assignment of female teachers, and giving financial support to raising the participation of women in education.

The education of girls was also supported by a number of other government policies such as population and social policy, women’s policy, etc (Rose, 2003) The Women’s Policy primarily aims to institutionalize the political, economical, and social rights of women by creating an appropriate structure in government offices and institutions so that the public policies and interventions can be gender-sensitive and can ensure equitable development for all Ethiopians men and women (Transitional Government of Ethiopia {TAG}, 1994).

Consistent with the above policy, Article 25 of the new Constitution guarantees all persons equality before the law, and prohibits any discrimination on grounds of gender. In addition, Article 35 iterates principles of equality of access to economic opportunities, including the right to equality in employment and land ownership ((Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia {FIDE}, 1995). Moreover, a National Education Policy, which aims at raising the enrollment rate and retention of Volvo. 5 No. 1 September ,2009 2 girls, is being developed and implemented. The Ministry of Education is in the process of reviewing the education curricula.

In the education sector development program gender is mainstreamed in the different components such as curriculum, teacher training, capacity building and through distance education to enhance the participation and performance of female students at different levels (Transitional Government of Ethiopia {TAG}, 1 994) Despite the positive effects of sensitivities policies, factors that constrain girls’ entry into tertiary educational institutions seem to exert a greater impact on gendered access in the contemporary context than factors that facilitate it. Bookie Sightseeing, et al. 2000) indicates that socio-economic and cultural factors, which inhibit girls’ access to education in the primary and secondary levels effectively, cut off their access to tertiary education. They cite factors such as inadequate educational facilities; maladies or inappropriate curricula; the devaluation of girls’ education; teenage pregnancies; financial considerations; early marriages; the timing of girls’ initiation ceremonies and psychological, social and cultural barriers that portray women as perpetual minors and which in turn negatively affect girls’ and women’s perceptions of higher education.

Some girls clearly do enter tertiary institutions despite numerous obstacles, but for most girls, the battles to overcome gender impediments and obtain qualifications once they are enrolled continue unabated. They often encounter an institutional culture that has not been transformed and that remains hostile to their gender needs. Within this culture, they either negotiate their specific needs as discretely and unobtrusively as possible, or dropout when the environment makes Trend and causes of Female Students Dropout learning untenable.

Their requirements may vary from the need for childcare for parent, the need for women’s residences, for safe and accessible transport to and from educational institutions at all hours, to an institutional culture which values omen’s intellectual capacities and skills (Bookie Sightseeing, et al. 2000). In order to ensure that every girl enjoys her fundamental right to education, different strategies and intervention programs were developed and implemented by the government of Ethiopia through the already established gender machinery.

Special effort has been made to bridge the gender gap in development through taking affirmative actions across various ministries and at all levels of education. The ministry of education is taking many measures to improve girls’ enrollment in the higher education. One of the measures is asking affirmative action strategies. As per the strategy, for tertiary level enrollment Ethiopians Higher Education Entrance Qualification Certificate (CHEESE) grades favor girls. That is for girls the entrance result is lower than their male counterparts.

As a result, the number of female students enrolled in higher learning institutions is relatively increasing at an alarming rate. Despite this fact, experiences of the researchers show that the dropout rate of female students in higher learning Institutions is so high as compared with their male counterparts. It even exceeds their rate of graduation (Behave, 998). Here, it seems clear that though the Ministry of Education has tried to increase the enrollment of girls in higher learning institutions, many female students are dropped out from higher learning institutions in each year and in every semester.

Thus, the problem of female students’ dropout at tertiary level learning Wide M. & Gateaux 3 institutions seems worth stressing. To the best knowledge of the researchers, it appears much has not been done to investigate the probable causes to the problem at hand. It is in the light of this problem that the researchers were initiated to undertake this study in the aforementioned area. Thus, the general objective of the study is to assess the trend of female students’ dropout rate and to investigate the major factors that cause female students to dropout from the higher learning institutions.

To achieve the above stated objectives, the following research questions are raised What looks like the state of girls’ enrollment and dropout rate in higher learning institutions of Ethiopia? What are the factors that cause female students to drop out from higher learning institutions? METHODOLOGY Subjects of the study This study as conducted on one higher learning institutions of Ethiopia, Jimmy University. Hence, the population of this study included all readmitted female students of Jimmy University, (Faculty of education).

The reason behind selecting faculty of education is that from the dismissed students the majority of them are from this faculty. From the total 362 readmitted students of the year 2007/2008 in Jimmy Universities, 130 students were selected and taken as samples of the study by stratified sampling techniques. The researchers believe that these readmitted students can represent the target population as hey consist of different departments. In addition, six instructors, gender officers, and guidance and counselors of the university were also selected as a sample Ethiopia.

J.. Educe. & SC. For the study by using purposive sampling technique. September ,2009 4 Data Collection Instruments This study adopted the descriptive research design. The data input for the study were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The data were collected using the following techniques. Questionnaire Survey: This was done for all selected readmitted students of faculty of education. The questionnaire survey helped to generate both alliterative and quantitative data pertaining to causes of female student dropout.

For this purpose both open and close-ended types of questions were prepared and distributed Key Informant Interview: Structured types of interview guides were prepared for instructors, university gender officers and the university guidance and counselor officers. Focus Group Discussion: This was done to triangulate, supplement, and enrich the results of the other methods. Based on the outputs and processes started through the questionnaire survey and key informant interview, key discussion questions ere raised for female students for further discussion.

To undertake the focus group discussion, two focus groups, each comprising 8 students, were made and discussion points were raised. Documentary Review: The researcher employed this instrument to gather data and relevant statistics regarding student admission and attrition. The information was gathered from unpublished materials such as reports and statistical abstracts. The information was expected to supplement the primary data collected. Methods of Data Analysis In this study, both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques were employed.

The data collected through questionnaire survey and documents were presented through frequency distributions and percentage. On the other hand, data from interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed, classified and presented in a narrative form. The qualitative data were interlined with the quantitative data to further enrich and enhance the information collected. Findings and Discussion In this part, the quantitative and qualitative data collected through different means of data collection tools are presented.

The quantitative data collected via the questionnaire and from documents are processed, unmarried and presented in tables followed by brief descriptions of the data. The data gathered through interview and focus group discussions is presented qualitatively in narrative summary forms after quantitative data description. Generally, for the sake of convenience, related items or concepts have been treated together. Thus, the findings and discussions are with respect to the question of the study.

Trends of Female Students’ Enrollment and Dropout rate The trends of new student admission help secure the participation of students at freshman level alone. In order to determine the annual growth rate of all students from freshman through graduating years, it seems imperative to examine trends of students’ enrollment by sex in different academic years. In response to this, Table I indicates the enrollment of both male and female students in six years time. 5 Table I. Enrollment of regular undergraduate Degree program of Jimmy University, Faculty of Education Academic Female Male Year # % # % 200112 33 16. 2 162 83. 08 2002/3 69 11 . 69 521 88. 31 2003/4 237 21 . 37 872 78. 63 2004/5 235 20. 71 900 79. 29 2005/6 263 21 . 21 977 78. 79 2006/7 294 26. 23 827 73. 77 Overall 1,131 19. 9 4,259 80. 31 Source from Jimmy university registrar office As it is clearly depicted in Table l, the total number of female students enrolled with in the consecutive six years (2001/2 -2006/7) in the faculty of education was increasing from year to year. For instance, the enrollment of females in the year 2001102 was only 33 (16. 9%) of the total. This figure rose to 29426. 2%) of the total in the year 2006/7.

Nevertheless, from the total enrollment of 5,390 students in the six consecutive years, the number of females was only 1, 131 (19. 69%). From the Table I, one can clearly understand hat though the enrollment of students in Total 195 590 1109 1135 1240 1,121 5390 the University (faculty) is increasing from year to year, it should be noted that it is far from reaching gender equity in higher education. For instance, the percentage of male students enrolled in the year 2006/07 is 73. 77 % while the percentage of females enrolled in the same year is only 26. 23%.

In other words, even though there is a steady increase in the general number of male and female students’ enrollment, there is still wide gender disparity that is the gap between the two sexes is yet wide and a subject of discussion.

From the total admitted female students (263) in the faculty of education Jimmy University, in the year 2005/6 academic year 1 85 students that is 70. 23% were dismissed within one academic semester. In other words, half of the female admitted students were dismissed in a single academic year. Nevertheless, a look at the dismissal rate of students indicates that male’s dismissal is by far lower (15. 45%) than their female counterparts, that is 70. 23%. As illustrated in Table l, the dismissal rate of female students is by far greater than their male counterparts. For instance, while the dismissal rate of female students in mathematics is 19. % of female students enrolled, it is only 2. 48% for females from the total males enrolled in the department. A look at the total dismissal rate indicates that while the total dismissal rate (for all departments) female students is 6. 47%, it is only 1. 3% for males giving a male – female ratio of 1 which implies that for each and every 1 male student dismissal, there are 6 female dismissals. Causes of Students Dropout From the above discussions, it is clear that though the enrollment of students in higher learning institutions has shown improvement over the past few years, the number of dropouts is parallel to enrollment.

If that is a case, what are the causes of high dropout among female students? Respondents were asked through close and open-ended questions to list the possible factors that cause female students to dropout from higher learning institutions. The responses of the respondents are presented in the following section. Lack of Female Role Model Teachers One Of the most convincing arguments for increasing the number Of women teachers in schools relates to the positive impact that doing so has on girls’ education.

There is evidence to show a correlation between the number of women teachers and girls’ enrollment, especially in sub-Sahara Africa (UNESCO, 2003). In other words, Trend and causes of Female Students Dropout the presence and/or absence of female teachers at any level have impact on enrollment and retention of female students. To see the existence of female teachers as well as whether students learn 7 by female teachers or not and to see its effect on students learning questions were raised for females students in the university and their response is presented in the Table Ill.

Table Ill. The presence female role model teachers in the university Item Have you ever taught by female teachers in the university? A. Yes B. No Total If your response to the above question is “No” what do you think is the reason? A. Since there are no female teachers in the department B. There are female teachers in the department but not assigned to us C. Since there is no male teachers in the university D. Others Specify Total As it is clearly presented in Table Ill female respondents were asked whether they were taught by female teachers in the university or not; 40 (37. 3%) of the respondents replied they were taught while the other majority, I. E. 68 (62. 96 %) responded that they were not ever taught by female teachers. Those who said no to the question were in turn requested to mention the reason why female teachers did not teach them. Most of them, I. E. 50 (73. 52%) replied that they were not taught by female teacher since there are no female teachers in the department. While others stated that even though there are female teachers in the department they are not assigned for them. On the other 4068 108 37. 03 62. 96 100. 0 50 73. 52 14 4 68 20. 58 5. 88 100. Hand, very few respondents mentioned that they were not taught by female teachers since there are no female teachers in the university. To identify the impact of absence of role model female teachers on students’ academic performance, students were in turn asked to mention probable impacts. Consequently, they stated the impacts on issues such as being used as role model, understanding problems easily, and ease approaching them. Most of them reported that since they have not taught by female teachers they failed to get good role models that they imitate to be like them or they feel that one day they can be like them.

Some Ethiopia. J.. Educe. & SC. Times, since they do not have female teachers, they feel that females can not be lecturers in the university. If they see female teachers teaching us, they can be motivated or encouraged to learn. Besides, female teachers unlike male teachers can understand the problems of female students easily. For instance, (respondents replied) if female students are sick u to menstruation problems, female teachers can understand it easily than male teachers. Thus, the presence of females in the university is vital.

Likewise, those students who reported that female teachers had taught them were asked to mention the benefits they get from being taught by female teachers in the university. They stated that since female teachers know the problems of female students better than male teachers do, they could understand us better. In addition, since they passed many challenges while they were students, they can share their experiences to solve the problem hat we face today. Sometimes female teachers also struggle for the rights of the female students.

They also stressed that they are pleased when female teachers teach them because they are symbols for female students in that females can reach at higher level if they work hard like males. Furthermore, they reveal that while they face problems in the university, they openly discuss the problems and find solutions with female teachers. Since they are sympathetic to female problems, they make the students free to say whatever they want to say. This makes students learn freely and feel relaxed. They give chance to ask and answer questions in the classroom.

From the response of the female students, one can understand that the presence of female teachers in the higher institutions that can serve as a role model has a significant effect on the female students’ Volvo. 5 NO. 1 September , 2009 8 success in higher learning institutions. This implies that the absence of female teachers in universities in adequate amount can have a negative repercussion on the success of female students in the university. Research findings by LESSON (2003) show that in countries where there are equal numbers of ale and female primary teachers, there is close to gender parity in student intake.

By contrast, in countries where women constitute only 20% of teachers, there are far more boys than girls entering school. However, as highlighted in the same study from Nepal, such large-scale trends mask more complex patterns of the local level. The relationship between women teachers and females’ enrollment is more than a simple cause and effect, as there are many factors that prevent female students from attending school, it also influence the number of women teachers. Increasing the number of omen teachers has to be accompanied by other strategies to promote females’ education.

There are different reasons for the generally positive relationships between girls’ enrollment and women teachers. Supporting the above idea scholars such as Randall and Jennifer (2008) pointed out in their research that there is a mutually reinforcing relationship between the level of girls’ enrollment and the declining level of female faculty members in the secondary and tertiary systems. Without role models that are proportional to the number of women in society, the education system continues to uphold ale power and authority roles.

This becomes strikingly evident at the university level, where only small percent of faculty members are women. Lack of Assertiveness Training for Female Students Assertiveness training, which is a behavioral technique, help students Trend and causes of Female Students Dropout develops the necessary social skills to manage interpersonal and academic situations more effectively, and to feel better about themselves in those interpersonal and academic situations. One of the roles of the higher learning institutions to bring gender equity is 9 providing such skills.

Thus, to see to what extent the sample higher institutions Offer such training for female student, respondents were asked for the same their response is presented in the Table IV. Table IV. Provision of assertiveness training in the university Item Have you received any assertiveness training in the university? A. Yes B. No Total The Table IV indicates that the majority, 78 (78. 2%) of the students replied that the university did not provide assertiveness training for female students and thus they are not benefited from such strategies of developing confidence. While the rest 30 (27. ) of the respondents replied that they are benefited from such strategies. This result indicates that the sample university has given less attention to the provision of assertiveness training for female students to develop self-confidence among female students. Information collected through focus group discussion with students also confirmed the fact that though there is no any sort of assertiveness training given by the university, they have got some sort of informal advice from the senior female students when they were in their first year at the university.

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