# Ravel Demand Forecasting for Gold Coast Assignment

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The land use analysis brings together consideration for both physical development as well as the social characteristics of the urbanize area from which it is being examined. The use of maps and satellite images related to the given land area was used to analyses the current land and the transportation network. It can also be said that the satellite images gave one, the ability to identify land uses by being able to easily Justify the difference between industrial, residential, recreational and commercial areas within the given land mass.

Transportation planning (TAP) is a major part of engineering as it gives insight into the way citizen travel from one area to another and allows for the identification of roads that will need to be expanded in order to accommodate traffic flow. The planning of a road network is the key to fulfill the demand and supply of society in any given area and it is important to plan ahead for future developments to ensure the road network is adequate.

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Transportation planning uses analytical tools to analyze, forecast and evaluate transportation between zones via major links and nodes linking the network together. The aim is to negative effects on the road network such as congestion, accidents and environmental pollution due to poor planning. Transportation planning requires a four step procedure. The following are key roles performed in this report in order to generate trip production and attraction. 1. 1 Step 1: Trip generation Trip generation is the prediction of the traffic demands, trips, within the area.

During this step it calculates; the number of travelers leaving and entering a zone. The number of travelers leaving and entering is trip production and trip attraction respectively, this data is presented in a table for easy accessibility. . 2 Step 2: Trip distribution This step allows the calculation of trips from an origin I, to destination J. This data is then presented in an O-D matrix. Although trip origins and destination traveling to and from are of the same location, its trip production and attraction are not always teen same. 3 step 3′ Moe sconce The analysis of mode choice determines the type of transport used in each area. It also measures the proportion of travelers taking different modes of transportation. Modes of transportation can be divided into private and public transport, which include walking, driving by car or even public buses. In this report however, the mode of transport was car vehicles. 1. 4 Step 4: Traffic Assignment Traffic assignment is also known as route assignment or route choice. It is selection of routes which run between the origin and destination in a table. . 5 Study area The given land area features a diverse grouping of land which has many different uses. The main classification of land can be defined as industrial, commercial, residential and recreational. The given study area also holds many different schools, churches, petrol stations, golf courses, hospitals and universities. It can be said that al these different uses effect the production and attraction of each zone and with correct analysis gives insight into the road networks strain during peak hour flows throughout the day.

The roads throughout the study area consist of bitumen for which the analysis will only consider roads with a speed limit of km/her and above. The reason for this investigation in primarily to give insight into whether or not the road network of the Gold Coast will be able to sustain the traffic flow in the future, due to the inflation of residence moving to the urbanize area. The future plan will e advised and will most likely give a proposal for new roads or wider roads to be created within the road network to increase traffic flow and meet the supply and demand requirements of the Gold Coast.

It can also be inferred that a growth of public transportation may be advised such as subways, trams, busses and trains in order to reduce the strain on the road network and take the travelers underground or on rails in masses to reduce the trip generation on the study areas traffic network. 1. 6 Objective and Organization The objective of this assignment is to give an insight into the study of traffic analysis ND how it is critical in the design of the given study area to accommodate travel demands in year 2032.

It is a necessity to have adequate road networks that can sustain traffic in order to allow the growth and expansion of the Gold Coast population. The aim of this assignment also, is to give the reader an understanding of transportation planning and its key role in creating a city where transportation is a life line. Organization of the project will involve the analysis of the land and its separation into zones which will then allow for the centuries, nodes, links and injectors to be placed in order to associate the land area into a production and attraction table all throughout chapter 2 to 5.

This will produce trip generation to be entered into a software package called Visit’ which will result in an O-D matrix. Hence evaluation and analysis will be made in regards to the study area. 2. 0 Traffic Analysis Zone 2. 1 Dividing zones and method used for zoning This part of the report will further discuss the method used for zoning and how it can assist in the traffic analysis. The main reason for the need to divide the study area mailer before proceeding onto the four step methodology is so that the number of trips for each land use in an area can be determined.

With the number of trips conclave, teen travel mean AT can road can De totaled tongue Velum, wanly eliminates the variability of different traffic generation rates found in each zone. This logic can be interpreted through the usage of the trip generation rate summary table’ provided in appendix, through land use analysis. For example, if 200 houses are found in each zone and there are 20 zones, as a result, there will be more zones to analyses Just for one land use which is a tedious process.

In this report however, zoning was first done by breaking down the map through identifying the major and minor roads which runs horizontally and vertically throughout the map. It is then being broken down further if a zone seemed important enough to be analyses on its own. With that, land use analysis can be done throughout each zone. For instance, zone 11 has Smith Street motorway and Olsen Avenue as its major roads while having Engrave Avenue and Kumar Avenue as its minor roads contributing to the outline of the zone as shown in figure 1 .

Figure 1 shows a sample of zone 11 divided by major and minor roads As mentioned n the previous paragraph, an area may generally consist of commercial retail, residential, financial institution, hospital and many others. These are broad categories which are further sub-divided. For example, residential land use can involve single family detached (urbanize or urbanize), estate housing or even high rise building with more or less than 20 dwelling units. From figure 2 dense areas usually appear to be of residential land use.

Also, other accessible land uses such as schools, universities, office buildings, retail and recreation are most commonly located in suburban areas. With that each of these land uses will generate different peak hour morning and afternoon rate through land use analysis. Figure 2 satellite view showing different land uses in zone 1 1 2. 2 Special considerations for zoning In deciding a zone and in order to derive the travel demand for road networks, there are several important issues that must be addressed. The zones must be balanced.

This meaner that when analyzing a particular zone, its surrounding zones need to be accounted for as well. This is because, travel demands of that particular area are also originated and destined to the surrounding area. With that, it introduces the need to account for external zones. External zones comprise of the same concept yet do not need scrutinizing like internal zones do. In this report, four external zones have been identified so as to create a balance in the travel demand of the study area. Further discussion of the analytical approach will be addressed in chapter 3.

Another factor in which was being avoided, was the size of the zone. Large zones can distort relationships of the travel demands. This meaner that during an analysis of a large zone, one might miss out on several important land uses which generate travel emends towards the zone. Therefore, an ideal way to properly analyses zoning is to keep it within an average visible size and by paying attention to the dense areas as they produce the majority of the travel demands. Location of the centered of a particular zone is very essential in this case.

In order to practice standardization Walton teen zones, centrals were located approximately at teen centre AT teen zone. I Nils was understood as trips were assumed to originate from that location outwards north, south, east and west towards its destination. However, some might argue that he zone centered should be placed on an origin which generates the most travel demand such as a residential housing area. Figure 3: Centuries and connectors of zone 1 1 2. 3 Results and comments In conclusion for this chapter, the study area has 15 internal zones and 4 external zones surrounding it.

Figure 4 shows internal and external zones in which the study area was divided. As discussed earlier, the division of the zones was done by major and minor roads. After which, land use analysis was done on each zone to further analyses the travel demand. The division of zones was made by approximation and logical thinking of its land use. However, difficulty was faced when residential housing had to be identified. This was because it was impossible to identify each and every type of household in order to match up with the trip generation summary rate table.

Therefore, the assumption for this was that strings of suburban houses were considered to be estate housings while in other non- developed areas were considered to be “single family detached, urbanize area”. Some others which do not fall within the two categories also include multiple dwelling units situated mostly in zones 6, 7, 8 and 9. Particularly addressing land uses in zone 1 1, a hospital is currently being built. Therefore in order to be one step ahead in calculating and accommodating the travel demand in the future, the Gold Coast hospital was identified.

External zones were plotted approximately 10 to 20 kilometers outwards from the study area. The areas were carefully identified through analyzing the source of trip production as it will have an influence, big or small, towards the travel demand of the study area. The distance of zone 19 on the other hand was marked as an average trip from Brisbane to its suburbs, Brisbane to Penlight and Brisbane to Gold Coast and was calculated to be 38 kilometers. This assumption will be further discussed in chapter 4.

Visit manual, the study area needs to be plotted with nodes, links, centered and connectors through zoning. Before generating the traffic demand, the area also needs production and attraction inputs which can be achieved through excel calculation. After which, the remaining of the four step procedure; trip distribution, mode choice and traffic assignment can further be implemented. This part of the report however, will discuss in great details of the process in which was undertaken to achieve the PIP values. Trip generation is basically the prediction of the number of trips to and from the zone centered.

It is understood that when choosing a piece of land from the map, its residential area which usually can be spotted as a dense location from the ‘Google’ map, is the targeted zone to be analyses as it is the source of trip production. The zones were divided by identifying the main roads and were further divided by its land use for example; residential, parks, cemetery or industrial. The centered was placed by a rough estimation of the centre of the zone or where the traffic seemed dense. Thus, non-residential areas are called attraction zones implementing the term trip attraction’ when analyzing its travel demands.

As stated in chapter 2, the methodology of estimating trip generation is done by studying various selections of areas having the same land use. For the given study area, below are teen steps proceeding In relying teen peak nor Ana ally PIP values AT teen year 2012 and 2032. Steps: In this report, trip generation are calculated based on its area either measured in square feet or acres by using ‘Google Maps Area Calculator Tool’. This tool allows accurate area calculation of a particular zone as shown in figure 5. Figure 5: Google Maps Area Calculator Tool showing the area for internal zone

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