New media requires convergence of telecommunications and computers. Multi-media includes audio visual media and entertainment (CD/DC-ROOMS, Cad’s and DVD’s). An example of convergence and multi-media are the internet and web TV because they blend pictures, sound, text, animation and full motion. Convergence is the integration of telecommunication, data communication and mass immunization into one single medium. It is essentially new media technology known as multi-media because of it’s diverse mediums.
Convergence has levels of infrastructure, transportation, management, services and types of data. It serves many functions and is used widely by individuals and businesses. “Mobile and wireless technology will spread the network society to the most remote places and the deepest pores of the world” (van Dick 2006:59). I agree completely with the above statement because telephony, satellite broadcasting and internet are relatively cheap and easily accessible even in rural areas in developing countries.
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Technology can now also be accessed without the restrictions of wires and fixed access points. “Guilder’s Law… Bandwidth grows at least 3 times faster than computer power” (van Dick 2006:59). Cellular phones are a great asset in the network society. This multi-media item serves many purposes and is highly accessible,compact, portable, user-friendly, time-saving and inexpensive. The price of the cellophane depends on the number of features it may contain.
Some cellophanes are cheap and can perform basic functions although most cellular phones today can perform a wide variety of functions, the user can; sake phone calls, leave voice messages, send Sums (short messaging services), Mom’s (multi-media messaging), take photographs and capture videos as well as store or send these photos and videos either through MS or Bluetooth, print these photo’s, play games, play music, play video’s, radio, internet services via the cellophane web browser or an application called opera mint, e-mail, fax, receive news, weather, advertisements and many many more tasks. The evolution started with the analogue cordless cellular phones and car phones. Since the asses three generations of digital mobile telephony have appeared” (van Dick 2006:47). GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) started in Europe and has been accompanied by GAPS (General Packet Radio Service) since 2000 which is 5 times faster than GSM. 2. 3 The role of mobile technology phones in rural development “Since the asses mobile technology has gradually replaced fixed telephony.
In developing countries, new telephone construction even starts with more telephony as it requires for less investment” (van Dick 2006:47). Computers and internet are not as easily accessible in rural areas as cellular phones are. Cellophanes have even substituted for fixed-line telephony. Nearly 80% of the South African population are cellophane owners. The advanced technology keeps people living in rural areas abreast with society and helps bridge the digital divide. The term digital divide refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with very limited or no access at all. ” (Digital divide. 2009) The usefulness of cellular phones is more relevant to individuals living in rural areas because of the lack of so many other resources. “there are various restrictions on connectivity in South Africa.
Wireless community networks are particularly useful in areas where commercial telecommunications services are unavailable or unaffordable. Development of Wireless User Group (HUG) infrastructure and applications in the cities helps train members in wireless technology skills and provides a proving ground for new technology and applications that may have large social benefits in informal communities and rural areas of South Africa and neighboring countries” (South African wireless community networks. 009). “Telecoms provides relatively poor voice and internet service in underdeveloped rural areas of South Africa, although it is investigating ways to improve service using wireless technology. The Independent Communications Authority of South Africa has licensed several small telecoms firms to operate regional networks in remote, under-served areas of the country” (South African wireless community networks. 2009). These attempts are moving at a slow rate however as the initiative is highly costly.
The inaccessible nature of broadband in rural communities has stimulated development great medical, educational and economic value, giving affordable telephone and internet access when coupled with initiatives such as One Laptop per Child that aim to provide low-cost devices- assuming the regulator continues to remove obstacles to peopling Wife community networks. ” (South African wireless community networks. 2009). 2. 4 Conclusion The role of mobile and wireless technology in the network society proves to be multi- faceted and highly useful to individuals all over the world including individuals in underdeveloped rural areas.
The accessible, inexpensive usefulness of a cellular phone helps serve many functions that once was unavailable to those living in rural communities. One of the key functions of the cellophane is the availability of internet access without fixed-line and expensive broadband costs that now helps to bridge the gap of the digital divide. QUESTION 3: REGULATED AND UNREGULATED CIT MARKETS “Liberation’s is the process of making a regulatory environment more relaxed in an effort to stimulate competition… Presentation is a regulatory environment that that prepares the market for private companies to operate in a less government-regulated environment” (Lessee 2001:32). To form a better understanding of the economic aspect of the network society one needs to grasp the main concepts such as, liberation’s, the difference between regulated and unregulated markets and distinguishing between monopolies and oligopolies in the telecommunications and CIT sector. Telecommunications liberation is the liberation of communications markets,since the asses, allowing competition amongst various communications services.
It removes the barrier to the market allowing new members to compete with established ones. The service providers are generally allowed to set their prices and business strategies freely. “In rapidly growing economies (egg Thailand and Malaysia) or in countries with attractive potential markets (egg Mexico) governments face strong pressures from the business community to offer access to new communications services at cost-based prices” (Lessee 2001:34). Regulation is basically liberation’s. Put simply it is the regulation of the communications market to allow fair competition amongst all members. In the last decade a general development could be observed in CIT regulatory approaches towards the uptake of technological developments in society. The first policy views on CIT developments (egg. ,US Federal Government, Singapore, Japan), for instance, show the preference for a largely unregulated CIT most countries around the world, more traditional sectors of the emerging CIT environment, such as the telecommunications sector… Where still largely regulated by national governments” (Starting points for CIT . 006). Regulation means the regulation of markets that were unregulated as a result of deregulation (a state of very little or no regulation of service provision.. “(Lessee 2006:41) A monopoly is a market structure in which one seller produces for the entire industry or market. “When we discuss a monopoly, or oligopoly, etc. We’re discussing the market for a particular type of product… Len the textbook case of a monopoly, there is only one firm producing the good. In a real world monopoly, such as the operating system monopoly, there is one firm that provides the overwhelming majority of sales…. D a handful of small companies that have little or no impact on the dominant firm. ” (What you need to know about monopolies and monopoly power. 2009). A monopoly situation occurs when only one seller exists in a market, the product is unique in that no other product can satisfactorily replace it and, barriers prevent easy entry and exit to the market for other firms. The barriers prevent other companies from entering a market, allowing big-shot official firms to earn above- normal profits because of reduced competition. Government can regulate to grant monopoly status to firms.
Barriers to exit can also discourage entry to a market, this reverts a firm from leaving a market, even when there is a decline. “An oligopoly is a market having few firms (but more than one firm) on the supply side and Avery large number of buyers on demand side… The key distinguishing feature that sets oligopoly apart from competition and from monopoly is that oligopolies are strategically linked to one another. ” (Oligopoly theory. 2009). Basically oligopolies allow free access to the market and allows competition from more players.
Regulation has to deal mainly with allowing fair and equal competition in the markets, where new and business can both enter the market and be free to set their win prices and business strategies. Regulation is the liberation’s of the CIT market. Monopoly is a market structure where there is one seller for the entire industry and where barriers are placed to restrict or limit competition. Oligopolies have more than one firm and is more liberalized allowing competition. “Internet has been perhaps the most outstanding innovation in the field of communication in the history of mankind.
As with every single innovation, internet advantages outweighs its disadvantages. ” (Advantages and disadvantages of the internet. 2009). We set out to see if this statement is true, that the advantages do outweigh the disadvantages. The internet is a revolutionary ” network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope” (Internet. 2009). The human race has come a long way in our development and there is no proof of this growth like the internet.
This unsurpassed innovation that serves so many purposes and has become so vital to our day-to-day existence. The multitude of functions this tool performs for the average individual and for big companies is immense. The internet in the workplace is a vital in some companies. Here is a list of the many purposes and advantages of the internet: Communication: The internet has had a huge social impact, social networking sites (backbone, namespace) are becoming ever popular as well as the usefulness of email and coatrooms. Information: The wealth of information available on the internet is indescribable.
Search engines such as yahoo and Google allow you to research any subject matter, e-education allows students like us to contact and interact with other students and share knowledge and information. “Doctors can use the Internet and e- mail to get in touch with nurses located in clinics in very remote and rural areas to hare medical knowledge and advice, and also offer solutions and Medicare to patients in these remote areas (tell-medicine)” (Lessee 2006:106) Entertainment: online gaming, downloaded games, music, videos, news, hobbies-almost anything can be found.
Services: online banking, Job-hunting (and personally, submitting assignments to UNIONS via manias) E-commerce: business deals that require the transferring of information through the internet, online shopping allows you to purchase something without even having to leave your home. Political impact: online campaigning, demonstration of society, group manipulation. Economic impact: “some f the economic effects of the Internet are… Growth, profitability and worldwide expansion” 4. Disadvantages of the internet for small and big users There are many relevant disadvantages of the internet and these are as follows: Privacy: theft of personal information (name, address, credit card number), hacking occurs when people invade or break into your private files and misuse the information found. Loss of identity: “People who visit chat rooms usually use pseudonyms or disguise their true identities” (Lessee 2006:107). This can be dangerous and misleading as people are sometimes tricked into bestowing their rust. Pedophilia also visit children’s sites under false identities and pretend to be young, while they prey on children who communicate with each other on these sites” (Lessee 2006:107). Pornography: especially child pornography is a serious concern. “Currently most governments are introducing strict laws to deal head on misuse of data, copyright issues, money laundering and gambling are a cause for concern. Illegal businesses also target the Web to sell their illegal goods.
Business security: “Businesses on the web run the risk to lose some of their business as a exult of the copying of their ideas by other businesses, or being invaded by hackers, who may sell those ideas to their competitors” (Lessee 2006:110). 4. 4 Conclusion Despite the fact that the Internet is a huge asset and an irreplaceable tool to the everyday functions of the individual and large scale businesses alike there are disadvantageous that we need to be wary and cautious about.