Materials c. Procedure Abstract Many different teaching strategies have been assessed to help increase the behavioral repertoires of Individuals with developmental disabilities and Autism. This study the effect of positive reinforcement of grade 2 students on Bed SCM regarding on their cooperation In class. The results Indicate that the Impact of positive reinforcement on their studies will motivate them to study hard. CHAPTER 1 Reviewed literature Behavior modification focuses on behaviors and behavior changes.
Behaviors are what a person does or says. The purpose of behavior modification is to elf change behaviors that have a social impact on one’s life while improving a specific aspect of that person’s life (Enlightenment, 2008). According to Matter and Goldstein (2001 ), “All behavior follows a set of consistent rules. Methods can be developed for defining, observing, and measuring behaviors, as well as designing effective interventions” (p. 96). Behaviors have one or more dimensions that can be measured.
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These dimensions include the frequency or number of times a behavior occurs, the duration or how long a behavior occurs, and the intensity or hysterical force involved in a behavior (Enlightenment, 2008). Behavior modification is a field of psychology that analyzes and modifies human behaviors (Enlightenment, 2008). It is the consistent application of positive or negative consequences to reinforce the occurrence of a desirable behavior and/or to reduce the occurrence of an undesirable behavior.
As stated by Enlightenment (2008), analyzing a behavior means to 7 determine the relationship between the environment and that behavior to better understand why a person behaved the way he or she did, and modifying a behavior means to create and put into place procedures to help people change that behavior. Four major figures in psychology were influential in the development of the scientific principles on which behavior modification, a theory of psychology that has been around since the early ass’s, is based.
The first major contribution of behavior modification was Edward Thorniness development of the law of effect, in 1911, which states behaviors that generate a positive effect on the environment are more likely to occur in the future (libertine’s, 2008). An example of the law of effect pertaining o education is students receiving credit for doing their homework. This theory implies that students who consistently earn credit for completing their homework are more likely to continue this behavior. In 1913, John Watson started a movement called behaviorism.
Watson believed that observable behaviors were an appropriate subject matter of psychology and that all behaviors were controlled by outside events (Enlightenment, 2008). Behaviorism can be witnessed in schools when students who live in abusive and/or unstructured environments misbehave because 8 they have tot been exposed to or taught socially acceptable behaviors by their parents. These students’ undesirable behaviors are often a result of negative, unhealthy events that take place in their homes.
In the mid-ass’s, Ivan Pavlov’s experiments discovered the basic process of respondent conditioning (Enlightenment, 2008). Respondent conditioning, also known as classical conditioning, pairs a stimulus and response that occurs naturally with another stimulus to elicit a response that does not occur naturally. This theory is demonstrated in the classroom when teachers use the statement, “give me five”. This specific behavior management technique is used to quickly and quietly cue students to stop what they are doing.
Students are expected to give the teacher their undivided attention while he or she speaks to the class. Teachers who implement this technique have conditioned their students to behave in a specific manner which is unrelated to the usual meaning of the statement. B. F. Skinner is considered to be one of the most influential ass’s, Skinner expanded the field of behaviorism first developed by Watson by laying out the principles of operant condition which claims that the 9 consequence of a behavior controls the future occurrence of that behavior (?FL altering, 2008).
Skinner’s work has influenced the field of education, as well as the field of psychology. He believed that positive reinforcement was more effective than punishment when trying to change and establish behaviors. Through his work, Skinner identified five main obstacles to learning. These obstacles are a fear of failure, the task is too long and complicated, the task lacks directions, clarity in the directions is lacking, and there is little or no positive reinforcement (Frisson, 2008). Skinner also recognized that people can be taught age-appropriate skills using the following techniques.
These techniques are giving the learner immediate feedback, breaking tasks down into small steps, repeating the directions as many times as possible, working from the most simple to the most complex tasks, and giving positive reinforcement (Frisson, 2008). Behavior modification is used in many areas to assist in changing people’s problematic behaviors. These behaviors are considered to be socially unacceptable and inappropriate for one’s age and/or ability. Additionally, these behaviors are often disruptive to one’s life.
Enlightenment (2008) noted that,” A wealth of research in behavior modification demonstrates that these 10 behaviors often can be controlled or eliminated with behavioral intervention” One field that consistently uses behavior modification is education, especially in the areas of classroom management and teaching students with special needs. The field of developmental disabilities has received more behavior modification research than any other area (Enlightenment, 2008), as individuals with disabilities often have behavioral deficits that are able to be overcome with the use of behavior edification.
Behavior modification continues to play a major role in special education. It is used to create effective teaching methods and to control problematic behaviors such as not cot plying with school and/or class rules. It is also used to improve inappropriate social behaviors including temper tantrums, interrupting, and difficulty sharing. Furthermore, behavior modification is used to improve functional skills deficits pertaining to personal hygiene and toileting, promoting self- management, and training teachers (Enlightenment, 2008).
Statement of the Problem The purpose of my paper was to explore behavior modification by using rewards to encourage positive, observable behavior changes in my students. Teachers have an opportunity to positively impact their students’ behavior, in addition to their education. I wanted to see if the idea of behavior modification was an effective method for teaching and encouraging students’ age-appropriate behaviors and social skills.
I researched the use of rewards and positive reinforcement with regards to behavior modification by creating a classroom more interacting and participation on the classroom. One aspect of teaching is educators’ abilities to effectively manage their students’ behaviors. Many teacher education programs expose preserve teachers to numerous strategies for managing students’ behaviors because the most challenging aspect of teaching continues to be Wetted and Mercer (2003), “The area of behavior interventions in classrooms receives more attention than many other aspects of schooling” (p. 9). This is not surprising as teachers are expected to deal with discipline problems that were once a cause for suspension or expulsion from school since more and more students are being included in public school settings, in part due to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Quinn et al. , 2001). Another area teachers struggle with is whether or not students should be rewarded for behaviors that are expected of them. Some educators believe that it is not their responsibility to provide incentives for students; they feel that this is the Job of parents.
However, research in the area of behavioral skills training claims that feedback in the form of positive reinforcement is essential to teaching individuals appropriate behaviors and expectations (Enlightenment, 2008). Wetted and Mercer (2003) note that, “The most controversial issues in behavior management have been the use of rewards to n- motivate and teach students to follow classroom rules and routines and to complete academic assignments” (p. 88).
The appropriate use of positive reinforcement and behavior modification are important for success in the classroom, as frequent reprimands, low expectations, and infrequent praise often result in students who exhibit challenging behaviors (Morgan, 2006). Educators can use strong classroom management skills to end, or at the very least avoid, an increase in problematic behaviors. Significant of the study This study focused on the impact of positive reinforcement on their studies will motivate them to study hard.
It is used to create effective teaching methods and to control problematic behaviors such as not cot plying with school and/or class rules. It is also used to improve inappropriate social behaviors including temper tantrums, interrupting, and difficulty sharing. All of only students were classified as having special needs and were placed in my learning resource classroom due to cognitive and/or behavioral deficits that required specialized support from a special education teacher. Many of my students had a difficult time appropriately interacting with adults and peers, especially in the area of manners.
These students often required numerous verbal prompts and reminders from adults working with them to use manners. Unfortunately, the previous approach of verbally prompting my students to use appropriate manners did not have the intended positive effect of improving their social interactions. Scope and limitation This study considered the effect of positive reinforcement on the lassoer setting whom we wanted to see if the idea of behavior modification was an effective method for teaching and encouraging students’ age-appropriate behaviors and social skills on the particular setting on classroom.
Definition of Terms Behavior – What a person says or does. Cooperative Learning. – Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. Classroom management- A set of skills needed by a teacher to plan, implement, and maintain a learning environment in which students learn decision- Discussion. -There are a variety of ways to stimulate discussion.
Motivation- A driving force that encourages an action or behavior to occur Positive reinforcement- positive reinforcement involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. Reward- Something that is given in return for doing something else. Skills- An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or Job functions involving ideas (cognitive kills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills).