Planning Involves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the tasks must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed. Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Managers outline exactly what organizations should do to be successful. Planning is concerned with the success of the organization In the short term as well as In the long term. ORGANIZING: Organizing can be thought of as assigning the tasks developed in the planning stages, to various Individuals or groups within the organization. Organizing Is to rate a mechanism to put plans into action.
People within the organization are given work assignments that contribute to the company’s goals. Tasks are organized so that the output of each Individual contributes to the success of departments, which, In turn, contributes to the success of divisions, which ultimately contributes to the success of the organization. INFLUENCING: Influencing Is also referred to as motivating, leading or directing. Influencing can be defined as guiding the activities of organization members in the direction that helps the organization move towards the fulfillment of the goals. The purpose of influencing is to increase productivity.
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Human-oriented work situations usually generate higher levels of production over the long term than do task oriented work situations because people find the latter type distasteful. CONTROLLING: Controlling Is the following roles played by the manager: 1 . Gather Information that measures performance 2. Compare present performance to pre established performance norms. 3. Performance parameters. Controlling is an ongoing process. Nature and Characteristics of Management 1 . Management is goal-oriented: The ultimate purpose of management is to achieve retain goals over a period of time.
The goals must be realistic and achievable that ensures efficient utilization of the resources and satisfies the enterprise objectives. 2. Management is universal: Where ever there is a business activity or non business activity, management comes into the fore. Be it a small family function or a multi core business activity, you need people and other resources to make it a success. 3. Management is an Integrative Force: Team work creates synergy and accomplishment of the firm’s objectives by the unified and co-ordinate efforts of all he individuals working for that firm. . Management is a Social Process: You can become an excellent manager without becoming a good leader, but you cannot be an excellent leader without becoming a good manager. This explains it all. Management is a social process since it involves people and their inter personal relationship. A good manager succeeds in motivating, guiding and extracting work from people working under him. 5. Management is multidisciplinary: Management takes inspiration from disciplines like Engineering, sociology, psychology, economics, anthropology etc. 6.
Management is a continuous Process: Management is a dynamic and an on-going process. A business has to die on its own. 7. Management is Intangible: The success of management can only be measured by the results being shown by the company like its market share and net profits. But the image of the company gets boosted if it has iconic performers in the form of managers. 8. Management is an Art as well as Science: Theory combined with practical application makes management a special body or entity backed up by ethical considerations and influenced by social obligations.
SCOPE OF MANAGEMENT Management determines the very survival of the organization o Management concepts are applied in both business and non-business organizations o In countries like USA the demand for management consultants is widespread and they have more clients from, 1) Government 2) Hospitals 3) Universities 4) Schools 6) Community agencies etc In India it is sad to see that only graduates coming out of reputed business schools being placed in the cream of positions by the corporate and others who pass out from the so called second grade institutes struggling to ground themselves.
Many institutes offer management courses in the undergraduate and graduate levels for name sake that fail to implant the core purpose and perspective of the concepts of management in the minds of individuals. Also lack of expert faculty who have wide exposure and industry experience make the course dull and lifeless. ) Management is said to be “Universal” and applied to all the organizations of the society, whether it is large or small, profit making or non-profit making, and a manufacturing or service enterprise 8) Managing is the key social function and management is the effective, integrative, institutive, determining, and differential organ of the society 9) Management is the organ of leadership, direction and decision in a business enterprise and responsible for producing the results. 0) Management has evolved as the most lucrative academic discipline by itself offering huge scope for the graduates to perform and excel as teachers. Management faculty is in great demand all over the world and is as well compensated for their services. 1 1) New disciplines of management like Public Health, Health care, Information Technology, Labor management are gaining importance 2) Effective management is aimed at improved productivity (efficient people produce effective results-so ‘RIGHT PEOPLE FOR THE RIGHT JOB’ becomes essential).
The society has various facets like government, suppliers, local community, competitors, unions, stock-holders, customers etc. The manager is the spokesperson in-charge of negotiating and spending much of his time to predict and influence the future environment and take pro-active measures. This is the managerial function relating to the environment. Significance: 1 . It helps in Achieving Group Goals – It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the resources in effective manner to achieve goals.
It directs group efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. By defining objective of organization clearly there would be no wastage of time, money and effort. Management converts disorganized resources of men, machines, money etc. Into useful enterprise. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a manner that enterprise work towards attainment of goals. 2. Resources productively. This leads to efficacy in management. Management provides axiom utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible alternate use in industry from out of various uses.
It makes use of experts, professional and these services leads to use of their skills, knowledge, and proper utilization and avoids wastage. If employees and machines are producing its maximum there is no under employment of any resources. 3. Reduces Costs – It gets maximum results through minimum input by proper planning and by using minimum input & getting maximum output. Management uses physical, human and financial resources in such a manner which results in best combination. This helps in cost reduction. 4. Establishes Sound Organization – No overlapping of efforts (smooth and coordinated functions).
To establish sound organizational structure is one of the objective of management which is in tune with objective of organization and for fulfillment of this, it establishes effective authority & responsibility relationship I. E. Who is accountable to whom, who can give instructions to whom, who are superiors & who are subordinates. Management fills up various positions with right persons, having right skills, training and qualification. All Jobs should be cleared to everyone. . Establishes Equilibrium – It enables the organization to survive in changing environment.
It keeps in touch with the changing environment. With the change is external environment, the initial co-ordination of organization must be changed. So it adapts organization to changing demand of market / changing needs of societies. It is responsible for growth and survival of organization. 6. Essentials for Prosperity of Society – Efficient management leads to better economical production which helps in turn to increase the welfare of people. Good management makes a difficult task easier by avoiding stage of scarce resource. It improves standard of living.
It increases the profit which is beneficial to business and society will get maximum output at minimum cost by creating employment opportunities which generate income in hands. Organization comes with new products and researches beneficial for society. Management Administration Definition Art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. Formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies. Nature executing function, doing function decision-making function, thinking function Scope Decisions within the framework set by the administration.
Major decisions of an enterprise as a whole. Level of authority Middle level activity Top level activity Status Group of managerial personnel who use their specialized knowledge to fulfill the objectives of an enterprise. Consists of owners who invest capital in and receive profits from an enterprise. Usage Used in business enterprises. Popular with government, military, educational, and religious organizations. Influence Decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, beliefs and decisions of the managers. Influenced by public opinion, government policies, customs etc.