Lifespan Psychology Power Point Lecture, Chapter 1, Module 1. 1 – Presentation Transcript 1. Chapter 1: Introduction Module 1. 1 Beginnings 2. What is Lifespan Development? • Lifespan Development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan. 3.
Things to keep in mind about Lifespan Psychology: • Lifespan Psychology is a scientific, developmental approach that focuses on human development • Scientists who study the lifespan know that neither heredity nor environment alone can account for the full range of human development • Development is a continuing process throughout the lifespan • Every period of life contains potential for growth and decline in abilities 4.
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Three Major Areas of Study in Lifespan Development • Physical development • Cognitive development • Personality and Social development 5. Age and Range of Lifespan Psychology Lifespan: From conception to death Divided into these age periods of study: • Prenatal period • Infancy • Toddlerhood/Preschool • Middle childhood • Adolescence • Young adulthood • Middle adulthood • Late adulthood • Death/Dying 6. Key Issues in Lifespan Psychology • We will discuss these issues all quarter: – Cultural factors – Continuous vs. iscontinuous change – Critical periods vs. sensitive periods – Lifespan approach vs. particular periods approach – Nature vs. nurture 7. Major Theoretical Perspectives in Lifespan Psychology What is a Theory? A broad, organized explanation and prediction concerning phenomena of interest. Theories of Lifespan Development: • Psychodynamic • Behavioral • Cognitive • Humanistic • Contextual • Evolutionary 8.
Psychodynamic Theory – Freud • Perspective: Psychodynamic • Theory: Psychoanalytic Theory • Theorist: Freud • What develops: Focus on inner person, unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior • How development proceeds: Behavior motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts • Principles: – Personality has three aspects-id, ego, and superego – Psychosexual development involves series of stages-oral, anal, phallic, genital • Other key terms: pleasure principle, reality principle, fixation 9.
Psychodynamic Theory – Erikson • Perspective: Psychodynamic • Theory: Psychosocial Theory • Theorist: Erikson • Primary focus: Focus on social interaction with others • How development proceeds: Development occurs through changes in interactions with and understanding of others and in self knowledge and understanding of members of society • Principles: – Psychosocial development involves eight distinct, fixed, universal stages. – Each stage presents crisis/conflict to be resolved; growth and change are lifelong • Other key terms: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. uilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role diffusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, ego-integrity vs. despair 10. Behavioral Theory – Classical Conditioning • Perspective: Behavioral • Theorist: John B. Watson • What develops: Focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli • How development proceeds: Behavior is result of continuing exposure to specific environmental factors; developmental change is quantitative • Principles: Classical conditioning • Other key terms: Stimulus substitution; conditioned automatic response 11.
Behavioral Theory – Operant Conditioning • Perspective: Behavioral • Theorist: B. F. Skinner • What develops: Focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli • How development proceeds: Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by association with negative or positive consequences • Principles: Operant conditioning • Other key terms: Deliberate actions on environment; behavior modification; reinforcement; punishment; extinguished behavior 12.
Behavioral Theory – Social-Cognitive Learning • Perspective: Behavioral • Theorist: Albert Bandura and colleagues • What develops: Focus on learning through imitation • How development proceeds: Behavior is learned through observation • Principles: Social-cognitive learning occurs through four steps: attend/perceive, recall, accurately reproduce, motivated to carry out behavior • Other key terms: Model; reward; “Fearless Peter” 13.
Cognitive Theory – Jean Piaget • Perspective: Cognitive perspective • Theorist: Jean Piaget • What develops: Focus on processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world • How development proceeds: Human thinking is arranged in organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions; understanding of world improves through assimilation and accommodation • Principles: Classical conditioning • Other key terms: Schemes and schemas; 14.
Cognitive Theory – Memory • Perspective: Cognitive perspective • Theorist: Information-processing approach • What develops: Focus is primarily on memory • How development proceeds: Information is thought to be processed in serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from stage to stage (Stage theory model); information is stored in multiple locations throughout brain by means of networks of connections (connectionistic model) • Principles: Cognitive development proceeds quickly in certain areas and more slowly in others; experience plays greater role in cognition • Other key terms: neo-Piagetian theory 15.
Cognitive Theory – Cognitive Neuroscience • Perspective: Cognitive perspective • Theorist: Cognitive Neuroscience Approach • What develops: Focus on cognitive development through lens of brain • How development proceeds: Approach considers internal, mental processes, but focuses specifically on the neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and other cognitive behavior • Principles: Associations between specific genes and wide range of disorders are identified • Other key terms: Autism; schizophrenia 16.
Humanistic Theory – Rogers and Maslow • Perspective: Humanistic Perspective • Theorist: Carl Rogers; Abraham Maslow • What develops: Focus on each individual’s ability and motivation to reach more advanced levels of maturity; people naturally seek to reach full potential • How development proceeds: Free of supernaturalism, approach recognizes human beings as a part of nature and holds that values (religious, ethical, social, or political) have their source in human experience and culture • Principles: All people have need for positive regard resulting from underlying wish to be loved and respected; positive regard comes from others • Other key terms: Free will; positive self-regard; self-actualization 17.
Contextual Theory – Bronfenbrenner – Bioecological • Perspective: Contextual Perspective • Theorist: Urie Bronfenbrenner/Bioecological Approach • What develops: Focus relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds • How development proceeds: Development is unique and intimately tied to person’s social and cultural context; four levels of environment simultaneously influence individuals • Principles: Each system contains roles, norms, and rules that can powerfully shape development; • Other key terms: Microsystem; ecosystem; exosystem; macrosystem; chronosystem 18. Sociocultural Theory – Vygotsky • Perspective: Sociocultural Perspective • Theorist: Lev Vygotsky • What develops: As children play and cooperate with others, they learn what is important in their society and advance cognitively in their understanding of world • How development proceeds: Approach emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members • Principles: Development is a reciprocal transaction between people in the child’s environment and the child. Other key terms: Social interactions, zone of proximal development (ZPD), interpsychological and intrapsychologial levels 19. Evolutionary Theory • Perspective: Evolutionary Perspective • Theorist: Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz • What develops: Through a process of natural selection traits in a species that are adaptive to its environment are creative • How development proceeds: Behavior is result of genetic inheritance from ancestors • Principles: Ethological influence (examines ways in which biological makeup affects behavior) • Other key terms: Behavioral genetics; relationship to psychological disorders (e. g. , schizophrenia) 20.
Why are there so many theories (perspectives) of Lifespan Development? • Each perspective is based on its own premises and focuses on different aspects of development • Same developmental phenomenon can be examined from a number of perspectives simultaneously 21. Testing (Researching) the Theories: The Scientific Method 2. Identify questions of interest 3. Formulate a hypothesis 4. Carry out research 5. Evaluate data that either lends support to the hypothesis or refutes it 6. Report findings 22. Two types of Research: 1. Experimental research – used to determine cause and effect 2. Correlational research – used to determine a relationship 23. 1.
Experimental Research: How to determine cause and effect Important parts of an experiment: • Groups – Treatment/experimental – Control • Variables – Independent – Dependent • Random subject selection and assignment Watch the following videos to learn more about experiments 24. Watch the clips to see how theories may be tested… 25. The Independent and Dependent Variables 26. The Independent and Dependent Variables (cont. ) 27. The Independent and Dependent Variables (cont. ) 28. The Independent and Dependent Variables (cont. ) 29. The Independent and Dependent Variables (cont. ) 30. Experimental and Control Group 31. Experimental and Control Group (cont. ) 32. Experimental and Control Group (cont. ) 33. 2. Correlational Research: How to determine a relationship •
Correlational findings determine – Positive relationship – Negative relationship – No relationship • Types of correlational studies: – Naturalistic observation – Ethnography – Case studies – Survey research – Psychophysiological methods Watch the following videos to learn more about correlations 34. Correlational Studies 35. What is a correlation? 36. Correlations (cont. ) 37. Correlations (cont. ) 38. Correlations (cont. ) 39. Correlational Studies • Do not prove cause and effect • Do provide important information – Correlation Coefficient 40. Choosing Research Settings • Field study – Capture behavior in real-life settings – Participants may behave more naturally – May be used in correlational studies and experiments – Often difficult to exert control over situation and environment • Laboratory study – Hold events constant – Enables researchers to learn more clearly how treatment affect participants 41.
How to measure developmental change • Longitudinal Studies – Measuring individual change over time • Cross-Sectional Studies – Measuring people of different ages at same point in time • Sequential Studies – Combination of both longitudinal and cross-sectional 42. Be a Critical Thinker! • Consider the source. • Evaluate credentials. • Understand difference between anecdotal and scientific evidence. • Find details of research-based advice. • Do not overlook cultural context of information. • Recognize that popular consensus does not guarantee scientific validity. Lifespan psychology lecture 3. 2 – Presentation Transcript 1. Chapter 3: The Preschool Years Module 3. 2 Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years 2. Piaget – Preoperational Thinking * Preoperational Stage- 2-7 years Preschool years time of stability and change – lack use of operations and organized, formal mental processes * Characterized by symbolic thinking; mental reasoning and use of concepts increase * Still not capable of operations : organized, formal, logical mental processes that characterize school age children. It is only at the end of preoperational stage that the ability to carry out operations comes into play. 3. Piaget – Preoperational Thinking * Symbolic function: * Ability to use symbols, words, or object to represent something that is not physically present * Language allows preschoolers to: * Represent actions symbolically * Think beyond present to future * Consider several possibilities at same time 4. Centration * Centration is the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects. * Preschoolers are unable to consider all available information about a stimulus.
Instead, they focus on superficial, obvious elements that are within their sight. These external elements come to dominate preschoolers’ thinking, leading to inaccuracy in thought. Which row has more buttons? 5. Conservation * (Click on the below or cut and paste the URL) * http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=B65EJ6gMmA4 6. Conservation * Conservation is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. * Because they are unable to conserve, preschoolers can’t understand that changes in one dimension (such as a change in appearance) does not necessarily mean that other dimensions (such as quantity) change. Children who do not yet understand the principle of conservation feel quite comfortable in asserting that the amount of liquid changes as it is poured between glasses of different sizes. * They simply are unable to realize that the transformation in appearance does not imply a transformation in quantity. * The main reason is that their tendency toward conservation prevents them from focusing on the relevant features of the situation. They cannot follow the sequence of transformations that accompanies changes in the appearance of a situation. * Piaget regarded children’s development of conservation as a skill that marks the transition from the preoperational period to the next stage, concrete operations. 7. Transformation * Transformation is the process in which one state is changed into another. Adults know that if a pencil that is held upright is allowed to fall down, it passes through a series of successive stages until it reaches its final, horizontal resting spot. * In contrast, children in the preoperational period are unable to envision or recall the successive transformations that the pencil followed in moving from the upright to the horizontal position. If asked to reproduce the sequence in a drawing, they draw the pencil upright and lying down, with nothing in between. Basically, they ignore the intermediate steps. 8. Egocentrism * Preschoolers do not understand that others have different perspectives from their own * Egocentric thought takes two forms: Lack of awareness that others see things from a different physical perspective * Failure to realize that others may hold thoughts, feelings, and points of view that differ from their own * Egocentrism lies at heart of several types of behavior during the preoperational period. * Preschoolers may talk to themselves, even in the presence of others, and at times they simply ignore what others are telling them. Rather than being a sign of eccentricity, such behavior illustrates the egocentric nature of preoperational children’s thinking: the lack of awareness that their behavior acts as a trigger to others’ reactions and responses. * Consequently, a considerable amount of verbal behavior on the part of preschoolers has no social motivation behind it but is meant for the preschoolers’ own consumption. 9. Intuitive Thought Curiosity blossoms and answers to wide variety of questions sought * Often act as authorities on particular topics * Leads preschoolers to believe that they know answers to all kinds of questions, but there is little or no logical basis for this confidence 10. Late Stages of Intuitive Thought * Slowly certain qualities prepare children for more sophisticated forms of reasoning * Begin to understand the notion of functionality (the idea that actions, events, and outcomes are related to one another in fixed patterns. ) * Begin to show an awareness of the concept of identity (the understanding that certain things stay the same, regardless of changes in shape, size, and appearance) 11. Information Processing Approach Changes in kinds of “mental programs” that children use when approaching problems * Changes analogous to way computer program becomes more sophisticated as a programmer modifies it on basis of experience 12. Two Approaches * Understanding numbers * Memory development 13. Understanding Numbers * Preschoolers follow a number of principles in their counting. * They know they should assign just one number to each item and that each item should be counted only once. * Preschoolers may demonstrate a surprisingly sophisticated understanding of numbers, although their understanding is not totally precise. * By age 4, most are able to carry out simple addition and subtraction problems by counting and they are able to compare different quantities quite successfully. 14. Memory Recollections of events are sometimes, but not always, accurate * Typically accurate in responses to open-ended questions * Partly determined by how soon memories are assessed * Affected by cultural factors * Autobiographical memory * Largely inaccurate before age 3 * Not all last into later life * Memories are also affected by cultural factors. For example, Chinese college students’ memories of early childhood are more likely to be unemotional and reflect activities involving social roles, such as working in their family’s store, whereas U. S. college students’ earliest memories are more emotionally-elaborate and focus on specific events such as the birth of a sibling. 15. Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development Vygotsky saw children as apprentices, learning cognitive strategies and other skills from adult and peer mentors who not only present new ways of doing things, but also provide assistance, instruction, and motivation. * Focused on the child’s social and cultural world as the source of cognitive development. * According to Vygotsky, children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own because of the assistance that adult and peer partners provide. 16. Culture and Society Influences * Nature of the partnership between developing children and adults and peers determined largely by cultural and societal factors 17. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) The level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent. * When appropriate instruction is offered within the zone of proximal development, children are able to increase their understanding and master new tasks. * Cognition increases through exposure to information that is new enough to be intriguing, but not too difficult * Greater improvement with help = greater increases in zone of proximal development 18. Scaffolding * Support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth * Aids in development of overall cognitive abilities 19. Cultural Tools * Actual, physical items or intellectual and conceptual framework for solving problems * Language Alphabetical and numbering schemes * Mathematical and scientific systems * Religious systems * The nature of the tools available to children to solve problems and perform tasks is highly dependent on the culture in which they live. 20. Language Development * During preschool years: * Sentence length increases at a steady pace * Syntax is ways in which children at this age combine words and phrases to form sentences – doubles each month * Enormous leaps in number of words used through fast mapping * Language blooms so rapidly between the late twos and the mid-threes that researchers have yet to understand the exact pattern. 21. Fast Mapping New words are associated with their meaning after only brief encounter * By age 6, the average child has a vocabulary of around 14,000 words * Vocabulary acquired at rate of nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day 22. Language Development * Use plurals and possessive forms of nouns (such as “boys” and “boy’s”), * Employ the past tense (adding “-ed” at the end of words, although not always correctly, as in “I goed to the store with daddy. “) * Use articles (“the” and “a”). * Ask, and answer, complex questions * (“Where did you say my book is? ” and “Those are trucks, aren’t they? “). * Extend appropriate formation of words to new words 23. Language Developemnt Preschoolers also learn what cannot be said as they acquire principles of grammar * Although they still make frequent mistakes, 3-year-olds * Follow principles of grammar most of time * Are correct in their grammatical constructions more than 90 percent of time 24. Private Speech * Private speech, originally termed egocentric speech (Vygotsky, 1962/ 1934), is speech that is self-directed and used for the purpose of emotional, psychological, and behavioral regulation. * It is traditionally studied in children because private speech is externally voiced until around age 8, after which point it becomes internalized (Diaz & Lowe, 1987). However, people continue to use private speech through adolescence and into adulthood as a means of self-regulation (John-Steiner, 1992). * Researchers have distinguished between three kinds of private speech (Berk, 1986): task-irrelevant (e. g. , thinking about what to cook for dinner); task-relevant, non-facilitative (e. g. , thinking about how frustrating the task at hand is); and task-relevant, facilitative (e. g. , figuring out how to best solve a problem). In children, these different kinds of private speech predict performance on tasks, emotional adjustment, and reactions to challenging situations (Manning, White, & Daugherty, 1994). 25. Private Speech of Children * Speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves * Performs important function. Serves to try out ideas, acting as sounding board * Facilitates children’s thinking and helps them control their behavior * Serves an important social function 26. Practical Communication * Pragmatics is the aspect of language relating to communicating effectively and appropriately with others * Helps children to understand the basics of conversations * Turn-taking * Sticking to a topic * What should and should not be said, according to the conventions of society * Use of different language in various settings 27. Social Speech * Before the age of 3: * Speak only for their own entertainment * Apparently unaware if anyone else can understand * During preschool years: * Begin to direct their speech to others * Want others to listen Become frustrated when they cannot make themselves understood * Begin to adapt their speech to others through pragmatics * Piaget contended that most speech during the preoperational period was egocentric: Preschoolers were seen as taking little account of the effect their speech was having on others. However, more recent experimental evidence suggests that children are somewhat more adept in taking others into account than Piaget initially suggested. 28. Learning from the Media * What do children learn from television? * Potent and widespread stimuli * Average preschooler watching more than 21 hours of TV a week * More than third of households with children 2 to 7 years of age say that television is on “most of the time” in their homes * Preschoolers spend three-quarters of an hour reading on the average day * What do children learn from computers? * Becoming influential in lives of preschoolers Seventy percent of preschoolers between the ages of four and six have used a computer * A quarter of them use one every day for an average of an hour a day, and the majority use it by themselves. * With help from their parents, almost one-fifth have sent e-mail * Too early to know effects of computer usage—and other new media such as video games—on preschoolers 29. Television Watching * American Academy of Pediatrics * Recommends that exposure to television should be limited * Suggests that until age of 2, children watch no television, and after that age, no more than 1 to 2 hours of quality programming each day 30. Television Watching * Preschool children * Often do not fully understand plots * Unable to recall significant story details Make limited and often erroneous inferences about motivations * Difficulty separating fantasy from reality * Not able to critically understand and evaluate advertising messages 31. Who cares for our children? 32. Out-of-home Care * Increasing number of children in out-of-home care * Some benefits to educational activities before formal schooling * Cognitive and social benefits from high quality preschool experiences 33. Varieties of Early Education * Child care centers – typically provide care for children outside the home, while their parents are at work. (Child-care centers were previously referred to as day-care centers .
However, because a significant number of parents work nonstandard schedules and therefore require care for their children at times other than the day, the preferred label has changed to child-care centers. ) * Although many child-care centers were first established as safe, warm environments where children could be cared for and could interact with other children, today their purpose tends to be broader, aimed at providing some form of intellectual stimulation. Still, their primary purpose tends to be more social and emotional than cognitive. * Family child care programs – Some child care is provided in family child-care centers , small operations run in private homes.
Because centers in some areas are unlicensed, the quality of care can be uneven, and parents should consider whether a family child-care center is licensed before enrolling their children. In contrast, providers of center-based care, which is offered in institutions such as school classrooms, community centers, and churches and synagogues, are typically licensed and regulated by governmental authorities. Because teachers in such programs are more often trained professionals than those who provide family child care, the quality of care is often higher. * Preschools – Preschools are explicitly designed to provide intellectual and social experiences for children. They tend to be more limited in their schedules than family care centers, typically providing care for only 3 to 5 hours per day.
Because of this limitation, preschools mainly serve children from middle and higher socioeconomic levels, in cases where parents don’t need to work full time. * Montessori * Reggio Emilia * School-age child care 34. Early Education (EE) Programs * Children in EE programs: * Are more verbally fluent, show memory and comprehension advantages, and achieve higher IQ scores than at-home children * Are more self-confident, independent, and knowledgeable about social world in which they live than those who do not participate * Other studies find that early and long-term participation in child care is particularly helpful for children from impoverished home environments or who are otherwise at risk. 35. Early Education Programs (cont. ) However, Children in EE programs also: * Are found to be less polite, less compliant, less respectful of adults, and sometimes more competitive and aggressive than their peers * Have a slightly higher likelihood of being disruptive in class extending through the sixth grade (when spending 10+ weeks) * Poor programs actually may harm children 36. Characteristics of Quality Child Care * Providers are well trained * Appropriate overall size and ratio of care providers to children – Single groups should not have many more than 14 to 20 children, and there should be no more than five to ten 3-year-olds per caregiver, or seven to ten 4- or 5-year-olds per caregiver. Curriculum is carefully planned and coordinated among teachers * Language environment is rich, with a great deal of conversation * Caregivers are sensitive to children’s emotional and social needs, and they know when and when not to intervene * Materials and activities are age appropriate * Basic health and safety standards are followed 37. Preschool in the United States * No coordinated national policy on preschool education * Decisions about education have traditionally been left to states and local school districts * No tradition of teaching preschoolers * Status of preschools in United States is traditionally low 38. Head Start In the United States, the best-known program designed to promote future academic success is Head Start. Born in the 1960s when the United States declared a War on Poverty, the program has served over 13 million children and their families. The program, which stresses parental involvement, was designed to serve the “whole child,” including children’s physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social and emotional development. * Whether Head Start is seen as successful or not depends on the lens through which one is looking. * Although graduates of Head Start programs tend to show immediate IQ gains, these increases do not last.
On the other hand, it is clear that Head Start is meeting its goal of getting preschoolers ready for school. Preschoolers who participate in Head Start are better prepared for future schooling than those who do not. Furthermore, graduates of Head Start programs have better future school adjustment than their peers, and they are less likely to be in special education classes or to be retained in grade. Finally, some research suggests that Head Start graduates even show higher academic performance at the end of high school, although the gains are modest. 39. The Purpose of Preschool: An International View 40. Early Education Programs – Conclusions Studies show that those who participate and graduate from such preschool programs are less likely to repeat grades, and they complete school more frequently than those who are not in the programs. * For every dollar spent on program, taxpayers saved seven dollars by time graduates reached age of 27 + Questions and Answerd 1. Chapter 8 Human Development This multimedia product and its content are Any publicprotected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network. Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in Any rental, lease or lending of the program. Copyright ©part, of any images. 2008 2.
Prenatal development Theories of development Chapter 8 Overview Early and middle adulthood Adolescence Early and middle childhood Infancy Death and dying Copyright © 2008 Allyn Later adulthood & Bacon 3. Developmental psychology – The study of how humansTheories of Development grow, develop, and change throughout the life span 4. PiagetWhat did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development? proposed that cognitive ability develops in four stages, each involving a Fourqualitatively different way of reasoning and understanding the world stages of development – Sensori-motor stage – Preoperational stage – Concrete operational stage – Formal operational stage 5. During theWhat did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development? ensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years), infants gain an understanding of the world through their senses and motor activities – Infants act on objects and Major achievement of this stage is objectevents that are directly perceived permanence – The realization that objects continue to exist when they can no longer be perceived 6. During theWhat did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development? preoperational stage (age 2-7), children acquire symbolic function – During this stage, childrenUnderstanding that one thing can stand for another exhibit egocentrism – Belief that everyone sees what they see, thinks what they think, etc. 7. In theWhat did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development? oncrete operational stage (7 to 11 or 12 years), children acquire the concept of conservation – Understanding that a given quantity of matter stays the same despite rearrangement or change in its appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away – Conservation develops because children begin to understand Realizing that any change in the shape, position, or order ofreversibility matter can be reversed mentally 8. Piaget’s conservation of volume task 9. In theWhat did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development? formal operational stage (age 11 or 12 years and beyond) preadolescents and adolescents acquire the capacity for hypothetico-deductive thinking – The ability to apply logical thought to abstract and hypothetical situations in the past, present, and future 10. InformationWhat are some alternative approaches to Piaget’s theory? rocessing theorists argue that stage-like advances in cognition are due to Vygotsky’s socioculturalimprovements in processes such as working memory approach emphasizes that cognitive development occurs within a sociocultural context in which parents and teachers provide age- appropriate guidance 11. LawrenceWhat did Kohlberg claim about the development of moral reasoning? He presented moralKohlberg proposed a stage theory of moral development dilemmas to research participants and analyzed the moral reasoning that they He classified moral reasoning into three levels, with each leveldescribed having two stages – People progress through the levels and stages in a fixed order – Each level has a prerequisite stage of cognitive development 12. What did Kohlberg claim about the development of moral reasoning?
Preconventional level – Lowest level of moral development – “Right” is whatever Conventional level – Right and wrong aregains a reward or avoids punishment based on the internalized standards of others – “Right” is whatever is approved Postconventional level –by others or is consistent with the laws of society Highest level of moral reasoning – “Right” is whatever furthers basic human rights 13. Colby & StudiedKohlberg’s longitudinal study of moral development Conventional thinking (stages 3 and 4) ismoral reasoning at different ages Postconventional thinking (stage 5) firstnot predominant until after age 12 appears in adulthood, but is still rare in 30’s 14.
How does Erickson’s theory describe the process of psychosocial development? Erik Erikson proposed eight psychosocial stages that encompass the entire Each stage is defined by a conflict that must be resolved for healthylifespan personality development to occur 15. How does Erickson’s theory describe the process of psychosocial development? Autonomy vs. shame and Basic trust vs. basic mistrust – Birth to 1 year Industry vs. Initiative vs. guilt – 3 to 6 years doubt – 1 to 3 years inferiority – 6 years to puberty 16. How does Erickson’s theory describe the process of psychosocial development? Intimacy vs. isolation – Young Identity vs. ole confusion – Adolescence Ego integrity vs. Generativity vs. stagnation – Middle adulthood adulthood despair – Late adulthood 17. The development from conception to birth Copyright ©Prenatal Development 2008 18. What happens during each of the three stages of prenatal development? Period of the zygote – Zygote attaches to the uterine lining – Ends 1 to 2 weeks Period of the embryo – Major systems, organs, and structuresafter conception of the body develop – Ends when bone cells appear, 3 to 8 weeks after conception Period of the fetus – Rapid growth and development of body structures, organs, and systems – 9 weeks after conception until birth 19.
A neonate, a newborn infant up to one month old, comes equippedInfancy with an impressive range of reflexes, built-in responses to certain stimuli that they need to ensure survival in their new world 20. How do infants’ perceptual and motor abilities change over the first 18 Robert Fantz found that infants prefer to fixate on somemonths of life? Newborn infants can discriminate between objects objects over others Newborns’ visual acuity is about 20/600, but improves rapidly during infancy 21. How do infants’ perceptual and motor abilities change over the first 18 Most infants develop motor skills in the sequence shown in themonths of life? Ages listed are averages – normal infants may reach any milestonefigure Motor development is largely determinedmonths earlier or later than average by maturation 22.
A person’s behavioral style or characteristic way ofTemperament responding to the environment 23. Thomas, Chess, and BirchHow does temperament shape infants’ behavior? Have pleasant(1970) identified three general types of temperament – Easy Havemoods, approach new people and situations positively – Difficult generally unpleasant moods, react negatively to new people and situations – Tend to withdraw, are slow to adapt, somewhat negative in moodSlow-to-warm-up Infant temperament is strongly influenced by heredity and is somewhat predictive of personality later in life 24. How do the four attachment patterns identified in infants differ?
Attachment is the strong affectionate bond a child forms with the mother or Harry Harlow found that contact comfort forms the basis ofprimary caregiver Human infants exhibit separation anxiety andattachment in rhesus monkeys stranger anxiety once attachment has formed, at about 6 to 8 months of age 25. SecureHow do the four attachment patterns identified in infants differ? attachment – About 65% of infants – Use mother as a secure base for exploring – Distressed by separation from caregivers, greet caregivers when they return – More cooperative and content than other infants – Display better social skills Avoidant attachment – About 20% of infants – Notas preschool children responsive to mother, not troubled when she leaves – May actively avoid contact with mother after separation 26. How do the four attachment patterns identified in infants differ?
Resistant attachment – 10 to 15% of infants – Seek close contact with mother, and tend not to branch out and explore – After separation, may display anger Disorganized/distoward mother; not easily comforted oriented attachment – 5 to 10% of infants – Protest separation, but exhibit contradictory and disoriented behavior when reunited 27. Mastery of language, both spoken and written,Early and Middle Childhood is just one of several important developmental processes that happen in early and middle childhood. 28. What are the milestones of language development, and how do various Babbling – Vocalization of basic speech sounds, whichtheorists explain them?
One-word stage – First words spoken at about 1begins between 4 and 6 months year – First words usually represent objects that move or that infants can act Two-word stage – Usually begins about 18-20 months Copyright © 2008 Allynon & Bacon 29. What are the milestones of language development, and how do various Telegraphic speech – Between 2 and 3 years, childrentheorists explain them? Childrenstart using short sentences that contain only essential content words follow grammatical rules in their speech, as indicated by overregularization – Misapplying a grammatical rule, such as adding “ed” to form a past tense Children say “goed”, comed”, “doed”, etc. 30. What are the milestones of language development, and how do various Learning theories – Language is acquired in the sametheorists explain them?
Noam Chomsky’sway as other behaviors– through imitation and reinforcement nativist position – Language ability is largely innate – The brain contains a Most researchers endorse an interactionistlanguage acquisition device approach – Acknowledging that infants have innate capacity for acquiring language, but also recognizing environmental influences on language learning 31. What outcomes are often associated with the three parenting styles Authoritarian parents – Make arbitrary rules, expectidentified by Baumrind? Authoritative parents – Setunquestioning obedience, punish transgressions high but realistic standards, reason with the child, enforce limits, and Permissive parents – Make fewencourage open communication and independence rules or demands, allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior 32. What outcomes are often associated with the three parenting styles Children with authoritative parents – tend to beidentified by Baumrind? appier and have higher self-esteem, and be more self-reliant, socially Children with authoritariancompetent, and responsible than their peers Children with permissiveparents – tend to be withdrawn, anxious, and unhappy parents – tend to be the most immature, impulsive, and dependent, and the least self-reliant and self- controlled 33. How do social learning, cognitive developmental, and gender-schema theorists Social learning theory – Gender roleexplain gender role development? Cognitive developmentaldevelopment results from modeling and reinforcement theory – Development occurs in stages marked by increasingly sophisticated Gender-schema theory – Childrenreasoning about the permanence of gender acquire schemas for maleness and femaleness from their culture and use them to process information about gender 34.
The developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompassesAdolescence the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood 35. AHow does puberty influence adolescents’ self-concepts and behavior? period of rapid physical growth and change that culminates in sexual maturity Puberty and self-concept – Early maturation in boys is associated with higher But may also be associated with greater aggression and hostility –self-esteem Early maturation in girls is associated with higher risk of eating disorders, earlier sexual experiences, more unwanted pregnancies, and earlier exposure to alcohol and drug use 36. How does puberty influence adolescents’ self-concepts and behavior?
FactorsIncidence of sexual activity increases dramatically through teen years Living with bothassociated with later onset of sexual activity include Involvement in sports Higher academic achievement biological parents Frequent attendance of religious services 37. MostIn what ways do parents and peers contribute to teens’ development? Parenting style affectsadolescents have good relationships with their parents adolescent behavior – Permissive parenting is associated with higher incidence of drug and alcohol use and lower motivation for academic success in adolescents – Authoritative parenting is associated with more psychological distress and Peer groups provide adolescents withlower self-confidence in adolescents standards of comparison and a vehicle for developing social skills 38.
What are the neurological and psychosocial characteristics of emerging Neuroimaging studies indicate that parts of the brain involved inadulthood? decision making and self control mature between the late teens and early Jeffrey Arnett has proposed that this age- range is a uniquetwenties developmental period, which he calls emerging adulthood – A period when individuals explore options and develop new skills in work and romantic domains before committing to adult roles 39. Middle Early adulthood – Ages 20 to 45 or 45 Early and Middle Adulthood Late adulthood – After age 65 or 70 Copyrightadulthood – Ages 40 or 45 to 65 © 2008 40.
Presbyopia –How does the body change in the early and middle adult years? Lens of the eye can longer accommodate adequately for near vision – Occurs Menopause – Cessation of menstruation,almost universally in mid to late 40s signifying end of reproductive capacity in women – Usually occurs between 45 and Gradual decline in testosterone in men – From age 20 until about 6055 41. In what ways does intellectual capacity improve and decline in adulthood? Young adults outperform older adults on tasks requiring speed or rote memory But older adults outperform younger ones on tests measuring general information, vocabulary, reasoning ability, and social judgment 42.
What are two themes of social development in early and middle adulthood? Establishment of an intimate partnership – Majority of adults marry and have Careerchildren – But they do so at later ages today than in past generations development – Job satisfaction is strongly related to satisfaction with other aspects of life, such as romantic relationships 43. The life expectancy in the United States has increasedLater Adulthood Peoplefrom 49 to 76 years from the beginning to the end of the 20th century older than age 65 constitute about 15% of the U. S. population 44. General slowing, theHow does the body change in the later adult years? eduction in the speed of neural transmission leading to a slowing of physical Development of chronic Decline in sensory capacity and mental functions But, physicalconditions such as arthritis, heart disease, high blood pressure exercise can improve strength and mobility in older adults 45. CrystallizedWhat happens to cognitive ability in later adulthood? intelligence tends to increase over the lifespan – Verbal ability and Fluid intelligence peaks in early 20s and declinesaccumulated knowledge slowly as people age – Reasoning and mental flexibility 46. What are some of the adjustment challenges in the social lives of older Most Altered living arrangements Loss of a spouse Retirement adults? older adults cope with these adjustments and maintain a sense of life satisfaction 47. Maintaining one’s physicalWhat are the components of successful aging? ealth, mental abilities, social competence, and overall satisfaction with life – An optimistic outlook – Eating a healthy diet – Staying active cognitively and socially 48. A developmental task for every elderly person is to acceptDeath and Dying the inevitability of death and to prepare for it 49. How do individuals with terminal illnesses respond to their circumstances? Elisabeth Kubler-Ross identified 5 stages people go through in coming to terms But,with death – Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance critics doubt the universality of these stages, and argue that reactions to impending death vary widely between individuals and across cultures