Leaders can be seen as ‘persuaders’, someone who will take responsibility, encourage discussion and input, inspire and motivate the team, encourage staff to create change. Different factors will contribute to the need for all of these styles to be used. If a quick decision is needed then perhaps an instruction will be necessary which will be the style of a manager, if new ideas are needed then collaboration between the whole group would be encouraged which would be the style of a leader.
If a leader can be skilled in selecting the appropriate style then this will have a positive effect on individuals and group as the individuals and group will trust and respect the leader to make the best decisions and develop them. There are many theories on leadership styles; the Trait theory is one that SUccessfUl leaders will display certain traits. A core set of traits has been identified, and people who possess these traits have the potential to be a leader.
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The traits are: achievement drive, leadership motivation, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, knowledge of business, emotional maturity, charisma, creativity and flexibility. Another theory is the Democratic theory that all decisions should be discussed amongst the team and the leader has the final decision; this can work well in a team environment but can hinder kick decisions as agreement should be reached. Another theory is The Great Man theory which looks at the fact great leaders are born. This theory states that these leaders such as Caesar, Elizabeth I and Lincoln possess abilities different to other humans.
Although this theory can be likened to the Trait theory in the respect these people possessed certain attributes which made them great leaders. This combined with strong desire to succeed, determination and a clear goal can produce a ‘Great Man’. I believe a mixture of the Democratic and Trait theories work for me in my role. The reason being is that there can be emergency tuitions in my work which require decisive action to be taken meaning I need to direct my team to ensure the issue is resolved as soon as possible.
Other situations involve an element of problem solving in which a collaborative approach is best, therefore using the democratic leadership style will bring out the skills and knowledge of the entire team to come up with the best solution. By ensuring I understand the more appropriate form of leadership suited to a task and applying my knowledge and skills this ensures my team have confidence in my ability and creates an open and honest working environment, where my team ill come and discuss any issues they may have.
Leading a team effectively The team I lead has a common sense of purpose which is to provide planned and reactive maintenance to the IGMP areas whilst building and maintaining a good relationship with the client. The reason this is important is to ensure the team are working together to achieve the same goal and not working against each other. This directly supports the overall vision of Emcee as we are supplying a service to the client.
If my team are building and maintaining good relationships with the client this creates an environment of trust which s important in discussions with the client to agree works to be carried out and if schedules need to change. Overall a company needs to have clear direction or vision so its employees understand what is expected of them and what the common goal is. This way success can be measured by all in the company, so if my team complete the planned and reactive tasks and the client is happy with the service they have been given then my team has met their goal.
It is important for me to communicate effectively with my team for them to fully understand what the message is. If the message is not communicated in the erect way then this can lead individuals not keeping to the task in hand and effectively working away from what is required of them, through no fault of their own. If I am communicating an important company message I will ensure this is done in a timely manner with the team all together, being available to answer any questions or concerns the team may have.
If I need to explain a way of completing a task with an individual I would do this on a one to one basis in a situation where will be able to demonstrate as well as explain to them. When communicating it is essential to have open body language and be actively existing to ensure my team feel comfortable with what I am communicating. If need to deliver constructive feedback this will be done in an honest and open manner with a full explanation of the effects of the error or mistake and a two way discussion around what can be improved. It is important for the leader to be able to motivate the team and individuals to achieve the necessary tasks.
What the leader also needs to ensure is that these individuals and teams are also getting the development opportunities they require and are fulfilling their objectives. The reason this is important is that it can lead to higher productivity, improved work quality and encourage team work. This is essential to ensure the teams and therefore the companies goals are met and the task is achieved. A theory of motivation which was developed by David McClellan, built on the work of Measles Hierarchy of Needs (explained later in this assignment).
In Miscellany’s motivation theory he describes three main dominant motivators which are achievement, affiliation and power. By identifying which driver is the individuals dominant motivator you can adapt your leadership style and structure the task to ensure they are engaged with the work they are doing. For example; people motivated by achievement need challenging tasks as they are motivated by overcoming difficult problems. Feedback should be given to them in a fair and balanced way. Individuals who are motivated by affiliation need to work in a group environment and personal feedback and praise will keep them motivated and on task.
People motivated by power work best when they feel like they are in charge and they enjoy competition, feedback for power motivation should be concise and direct. In my team is it essential that I am constantly giving the team development opportunities and using either myself or other members kills and knowledge to assist and ensure that individuals have the support required to learn new skills and tasks. I have a range of experience and skills in my team and as a multi-disciplined team these must be shared and learnt to ensure effective issue resolution for the client.
Motivating to perform Performance assessment in the workplace is a crucial tool to enable the manager to understand and develop the team. Performance assessment can be carried out in many different ways and these can be both formal and informal. The formal methods of assessment can include an annual appraisal or can be task elated. This is an opportunity for the employee to discuss aspects of their performance and seek feedback from the manager. Informal assessments could be quick discussions around the daily or weekly tasks and informal feedback discussions.
Both types of assessment give the manager an opportunity to understand the employee’s feelings towards certain tasks and activities and can help the employee to understand what development areas they have and also what opportunities are open to them. To ensure a fair and objective formal assessment the tasks which have been expected of them need to be properly leaned, briefed and delegated effectively. SMART objectives should be set so as the employee fully understands what is expected of them and they are achievable.
The employee should know when the assessment is to take place, what is expected of them to prepare before the meeting and what to expect during the meeting. The manager would be expected to give specific feedback which is factual and balanced. Formal assessments should be documented as a record of performance. There are many factors which influence the way people behave at work, these can include their knowledge of the job, the skills they assess, their beliefs, the working environment and the sense of purpose they have. There are many theories of motivation and the application to individuals and teams one of these is Situational Leadership.
In this theory, which was developed by DRP. Paul Hershey and Ken Blanchard, it looks at a way to assess the ability for an individual to perform a task. It concentrates on a combination of ability and willingness of the individual and allows the manager to adapt their leadership style to recognize the changes in task and also ability of the staff. This model is based on the understanding there are 4 types of leader, these re; Telling, Selling, Participating and delegating. The theory describes there is no single best method of leadership and that effective leadership is task and individual relevant.
Styles and patterns of behavior at work can be influenced by an individual’s personality and there are many studies which show people can fall into predominant types, Junk’s theory is used as a basis for many ‘personality type’ questionnaires. It is important to recognize differences in personalities such as introverted, extroverted, sensing, intuition, thinking, feeling, judging and perception. Once an understanding is reached on an individual’s preference then adapting the way a task is presented or the communication towards the individual can ensure that the task is achieved in the most beneficial way.
Goal orientation is explored in Measles Hierarchical Needs theory, whereby there are five types of need which run in a sequential order – physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization, the final need cannot be satisfied until all the previous needs are. To look at applying this in the workplace a leader would need to ensure the specific goal given to the individual is important, specific, difficult UT attainable. An honest working environment, regular assessment, constructive feedback and opportunities to develop can help to offset negative attitudes in the workplace.
Negative attitudes can spread in the working environment quickly and need to be dealt with. A leader needs to acknowledge any concerns the employee has, a solution needs to be found which involves discussion between the leader and staff, time has to be made for feedback and praise should be given for positive behaviors or tasks done well Feedback is important in the workplace to improve communication and performance; feedback should always e a two way tool between manager and individual and should be positive and constructive.
Once there is a two way flow of communication trust can be built up and tasks planned effectively. There are many forms of feedback which include written and oral, all types however can be beneficial to the development of staff. For an employee to understand if a task has been done well or needs improvement then they need feedback on how they have been performing. Feedback should be given with the persons personality type in mind. Some individuals would not appreciate praise given in front of all the peers and would refer this to be given in private, others may relish in praise in front of their peers.
Written feedback is beneficial for appraisals as it can be brought to the meeting as evidence of something they have done well recently. All feedback should be given as soon as is possible after the event and should be based on fact and not feeling and also any constructive feedback should be structured so it will be beneficial to learning. As mentioned feedback should be two way so staff should be encouraged to give feedback to their manager, this can be by direct questioning, feedback forms or during appraisal discussions.