Leadership assumes much more importance in the modem government since the size and the number of organizations continue to grow. Further, there is a need for effective participation of hundreds and thousands of individuals who are continually Joining the organization with little prior knowledge of what the organizations are striving to do. They involve in more and more complex functions of individual duties. A combination of several factors separates the individual members more and more from a personal connection with the organization he Joins.
The tie becomes impersonal cold and UN-inspiring. Generally, in many Government organizations work is divided departmentally. Each will work independently. To provide link there is a need for a leader. Again, the division of labor tends to separate and isolate individual members from the central purpose. In every organization the tendency is both for the departmental heads and for the rank and file members to see the organization’s problems in terms of primarily of their functional effort. Only competent leaders can correct the tendencies which functionalism and division of labor create.
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The leader alone can keep tile entire group committed to the goals which could produce the best results. Thus, the multiplication of organizations, functions, departments, and subordinate geographic units lead to [he increased importance of leadership. In this connection it is necessary to mention that formerly it was thought born leaders were enough to handle the situation. Now the scene underwent a change. The demand is for effective leaders in many fields, on many fronts and at successive levels of authority.
There are not enough born leaders to go round. We have to develop them. In view of our need the idea of leadership should also change. We do not look towards a unique individual set apart with unusual personal qualities. Organizations requires people who can administer it. In this connection it is necessary to clarify certain doubts. Generally, leadership tends to be expressed in terns of power to command or ability to dominate. Commanding by itself is not adequate as a basis for getting things done.
Command is an exercise of power over people. But leadership is interested in how people can be brought to ark together for a common end effectively and happily. It implied the use and creation of power with people. It is cone?Ned about the process by which result is Nadine. Thus, we RNA cord?clued that in every organization the whole man has to be appealed to and persuaded to do the job. There is n need for total involvement in the organization. This will be ensured only by a good leader. Let us try to define leadership.
Evict executive whether he deals with the people directly or indirectly is potentially in a position to lead people. He has the task of bringing them into an effective working harmony. To achieve this, there is a factor now as leadership. Leadership is defined as the activity of influencing people to cooperate towards some goal which they come to find desirable. This definition may BC elaborated further. There are at least four distinct flickers in the definition. First, it is useful to explain the way by which people rise to leadership.
Second, the process of influencing requires study. Thirty, the nature of goals which people will find desirable has to be analyses. And faith, the qualities exhibited by leaders in action can be considered. Some details, though brief, are required to explain the above mentioned factors. The executive who is also the leader, sometimes gets his chance to lead because the situation in which he finds himself’ is one where the best results come in terms of leading than IL 1 terms of commanding. It is the situation and not the person alone which allows the leader to function.
Thus every leader is as ranch a product of the setting of his life and times as of his own will to power. Sometimes we find self constituted leaders who will push his way up by a combination of a strong personality with a vigorous, assertive ego and a steady deem?national accomplish certain results. The wagon process, is through a democratic political process where a leader is selected from the group. In this there is a understanding between the leader and the led. In this situation ere leader chosen by the group has the most advantageous conditions for success.
Yet in another way he is in comparatively greater difficulty because he is always being tested. However, the leader selected by a group has the best chance of winning and holding his following. Finally, people get the chance to be leaders through a method commonly found in many organizations where boards of directors or trustees appoint top executives who n turn select the lower executives. Here the group has vested interest which brought all of them to The problem of the leader is to show them that in serving the a common platform?. Report group they tire serving themselves; that in being loyal to the organization as a whole they are also loyal to themselves. 31. 3 LEADERSHIP THEORIES Leadership is one of the most important topics which was widely researched both by the individuals and institutions. Studies by Ronald Lippies and Rail K. White, at the University of Iowa, Bureau of Business Research of the Ohio State University and University of Michigan have undertaken pioneering studies on leadership. The important theories of leadership are trait theory, situational theory, group theory, etc.
We will now discuss some of these theories to gain a broad understanding of leadership. Trait Theory Studies on leadership in the beginning concentrated on the qualities of leaders. The major Leadership Concepts in Organization -11 question that was always asked was what qualities or traits anneal a person a leader. S o m e believed that leaders we boo& and are not made. This is what is popularly called the ‘Greaten Theory’ of Leadership. These born leaders possess certain traits and characteristics, certain natural abilities which allow them to become leaders.
The trait approach is particularly concerned with identifying the personality’ Waits of leaders, Later, behave?oral studies have revealed that the leadership qualities large roll totally minors a n d they can be acquired through learning, train?g experience. Several studies tried trap and identify the important traits and there was wide variation in the traits identified by the scholars. Keith Devised for example, identifies four important traits for a successful leader biz. Intelligence, social maturity and breadth?,inner motivation and achievement, d r I v e and human relations attitude.
We will study some of these characteristics later in this unit. Group Theory Group theory was also developed by social psychologists. This then reemphasizes that the leader provides benefits to his followers. According to this theory, the followers depend upon those leaders who satisfy their needs. B e y extend support ar?d cooperation as I o n g as the leaders satisfy their needs and motivate them to achieve the objectives and stills of the organization. Hollander and Julio have reemphasized this point when they said. E person in the role of leader who FL?lifts expectations and achieves group goals provides rewards for others which are reciprocated in the form of status, esteem, and heightened influence. Because leadership embodies a two-way influence relationship, recipients of influence assertions may respond by asserting influence in The very sustenance of the relationship depends upon some yielding to turn influence on both sides. Situational Theory. Both trait and group theories were found inadequate to provide an overall theory of leadership.
Therefore, the scholars turned their attention to the situational aspect of adders. They begun a search for situational variables which influence leadership roles, skills and behavior. This tektite believes that leadership emerges from the situations a n d is influenced by the situation. As a result leadership differs from situation to situation. F. E. Fielder, who is important proponent of this theory, feels that people welcome leaders because of situational factors. He reemphasizes that it is not meaningful to speak of an effective leader or an ineffective leader.
We can only speak of a leader’s tends to fix effective in one situation and ineffective in another situation’. 31. LEADERSHIP QUALITIES Certain qualities are essential in any leader because they are vital to take the individual towards success. Deficiencies can be eliminated by conscious effort. Good qualities can be strengthened. But it is not possible to cultivate all the attributes since some are oriole innate than others. An exhaustive list is not possible. However, certain specific and easily identifiable traits are enlisted here on the basis of practical experience although ,several of them fall under psychological terns.
AAA the,qualities listed however, do not necessarily appear in every leadership situation nor are the? Al equally required of every leader. The aim is to present a comprehensive picture of all desirable qualifications. I) It is generally agreed that possession of a generous and unusual endowment of physical and nervous energy is the secret of the most successful leaders. Those who rise in any marked way above the general public have more drive, more endurance, greater pour of body MD mind than the average person. Robust health and basic strength is an users for the effectiveness of the leader.
Everyone of us realism how important is the physical and nervous conditions in our working. Sluggishness, apathy, fatigue are generally considered to be the stumbling elements of good leader. The leader also must recognize that his Job is more demanding than the average worker. Therefore, the leader should be careful about his health and vitality. It) The second quality which is clearly predominant in every good leader is a strong sent of a dominant purpose and direction. The leader is one who k?saws much better what he wants to get it done and where he wants to go.
It means he possesses clarity and precision as to the objectives, purpose or aims he want to achieve. Iii) The next quality pertains to enthusiasm. The mere presence of a sound purpose is not enough. It must be felt to be sound by all. A sound purpose must be supported by dynamic emotion, hope, will to win and a robust sense of Joy in the Job. Thus enthusiasm is essential. It is important because it is self sustaining. If the leader has real vigor on the physical side and definite objective on the mar?al horizon, then enthusiasm is an automatic offspring.
Enthusiasm can be deliberately increased but it requires great energy, and deep intellectual conviction. A good leader is always conscious of this fact. He should be a known enthusiast. V) Affection and friendliness are essential in a good leader. Infant, affection and friendliness are positive motivating forces over the conduct of those upon whom it is expressed. This will work in more than one direction. The tendency is for friendliness and affection to evoke a reciprocal response. However, the leader has to guard against scoop?Nancy-another-valedictorians with it in the name of friendly?sees affection. ND The followers must be able to trust their leaders. The followers want to feel a sense of solidarity, of honesty and reliability towards the leader. The people should gain the rust or confidence. In start they want the leader to possess integrity. It is not necessary being a paragon of virtue because it is not possible. But what is required is acting appropriately to the expectations of the group we may hasten today here that where there is a divergence of views relating to the major objectives of the organization then the leader should maintain his integrity and convince the followers.
If he fails, he should quit after giving a reasonable time, making clear to the group the grounds on which he has acted. But these are extraordinary illustrations. Integrity is demanded for another reason also. In a complex society like ours there are conflicting demands. It becomes impossible to have a computer?t opinion about many issues. Yet the poor?ion sought and a decision is expected. In this situation, people expect is integrity. This is a major problem of entire life philosophy the leader to possess co?nipple of the individual. To these above general qualities, Chester Bernard adds four other qualities of leader.
They are (I) vitality and endurance; (it) decisiveness; (iii) persuasiveness, and (v) responsibility and intellectual capacity, in that order of priority. Millet identifies eight elites which a leadership should possess. They are (I) good health; (it) a sense of mission; (iii)’interest in other people; (iv) intelligence; (v) integrity; (vi) persuasiveness; (vii) Judgment and; (**:;I) loyalty. -,reek Your Progress 1 Note: I) Use the space below for your answers. It) Check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. I ) Explain the significance of leadership. 2) What is Trait Theory? 3) Explain.
Curatorial Theory of leach! Crisis. 4) What qualities are urination for a leader’? 31 . G FUNCTIONS OF LEADERS Leader has a significant role in the organizational Life. The success or tailors of organizations are greatly dependent upon how well the leaders persons his functions. It is necessary, therefore, to know as to what functions: ; leader personnel. Hick! , and Cellulite have identified eight important functions of a leader. ‘Eye are (I) arbitrarily;;gig, (ii) suggesting; (iii) supplying objectives; Alva) cataloging; (v) providing security; (vi) representing; (vii) inspiring; and (viii) praising.
Chester Bankcard identifies three main functions of tic executives. They are to 11 lunatic 1 communications in the organization, to secure essential services from individuals, and to formulate purposes and objectives. The work of a leader is restricted neither to the eight functions identified by Hicks and Gullet nor to the three functions identified by Bernard. Broadly, the work of a leader, who will be an executive, includes the following: v) planning and defining policies and procedures. Organizing the activities of all the individuals. Legating authority and responsibility controlling them towards the desired results supervising Lee work of the group giving general orders and guidelines interpreting and transmitting policies viii)training the key subordinates to carry executive load ix) coordination and ) stimulating and vitality’s all the individuals who are contributing their efforts. A leader should support definite objectives in the organization so that it becomes easier for the people to understand tic goals of the organization. If the objectives are sound then it is possible for the lead?r become sound.
The leader must be certain that he has a sound and 10 therefore an appealing purpose before he tries to win followers. In this exercise the leader should try to interpret the experiences of his followers occasionally so that the finer points could be explained to them. It could be convincing since the experience old benefit the followers. In sum it means the leader should take the followers into confidence while . ere objectives of the organization. The process of drawing out support from the followers for any aim is often a crucial one for the leader.
It is possible only when the followers are convinced that the interest’s and the desires of them are being tattle adequate care. Leadership is not a matter of hypnosis or salesmanship. It is a matter of bringing out from within the individuals, positive impulses, motives and efforts. In fat leadership is known by the personalities it enriches and not by those it dominates or captivates. 3 1 Leader as Executive 651 The most important aspect of the leaders with which we are really interested is that of executives whose primary duty is to direct some departments or its units or some enterprise. 1 1 this respect they Minus first be able to do the executive Job. It means they should see that it is done. This requires a detailed analysis. In every organization there are many tasks and activities to be carried out. There is always a need for sub-division and FL?national distribution of duties. It requires coordination. Further, the executive at the top cannot possibly know all tic details. This situation is confronted by all the top executives corporations, Government departments etc.
As the size of the organization increases the technical command of the top executive who is the leader of the organization seems to decrease considerably. It is true that in every leadership situation the leader has to possess enough grasp of the ways and anneals to give wise guidance to the staff as a whole. Due to [he complexities, the Job of leading has its own special techniques and these are different in kind from tic special techniques of directing or operating line or staff departments. In a large organization tic top executive posts require primarily a coordinative responsibility.
The executive leader in such a situation should be more than a goad technician. The conductor of an orchestra is the best example of coordinator. Thus, the coordinative technique means ability to formulate, transmit, interpret and supervise the working of people from top to . Bottom. There may be some variations in the organizations. But there are certain broad aspects which are Compton in many leadership positions. The effectiveness with which the purpose is being realized depends mostly on the technical grasp of the leader. It means he should be Franklin with standards of sound performance and related matters of technical reincarnation.
The leader should be in a position to make use of the available expertise shrewdly. The expert should be on tap and not on top. Now it is for the leader to take advantage of this situation, Hal addition, there is more and more to leadership in other directions. It is the ability to make a team out of a group of individual workers, to foster a team spirit, to bring their efforts together into a unified Total action. It is in this broader sense that the real skill of leaders is being increasingly viewed. Ultimately the leader has to get results. There must be action and accomplishment. The group objectives should be realized.
This is very important and also vital. It is essential that the leader should take human experience in hand and make it the way he believes it should take. Decision-making is, psychologically, one of weighing evidence, sorting out alternatives, and making n choice by which one is willing to stand. Exercising sound judgment is essential. The leader has to understand certain very well known elements. If these are carefully followed, the results of Judgments are sure to BC utter than if no conscious attempt is made. L. Et us list out those enamels. In the first instance, the leader should recognize the problem he faces.
Secondly he has to gather all the facts and data relevant to the problem. The next step is its classification and arrangement into related groupings. The fourth step is the formulation o possible T solution. The fifth step will be checking of this possible solution and finding out whether it is the good solution. Thus testing is necessary to get sound results. Finally, adoption or acceptance of the trial solution as valid and useful. This kind of reoccurred is called inducting thinking or sometimes called scientific method. Decision made as a result of a careful adherence to these steps will be far more sound than the random selection.
The procedure has certain difficulties but under the circus?stances is the best method. It Concepts I Organization-11 The leader must be careful about announcing the decisions. We most impress upon his followers with the fact that a decision has been reached and there is no scope for functions in opinion, hesitation; delay etc. He must act and support his decision. It is his responsibility and cannot escape it. Sometimes it is at this point that many leaders reveal their weaknesses. The capacity and the willingness to arena decisions can be cultivated.
Prior planning and standard routine will be useful in several decisions. There is a need for taking counsel, eliminate confusion from the followers. It is necessary to state that there is no place for stubbornness, obstinacy or inflexibility on the part of the leader. Finally, the real leader will stand ready courageously to pay the price of seeing his decision through without blaming others for his own errors. The next important function of leader, particularly in public organizations, is the opacity to delegate authority to subordinates, to carryout their essential duties.
Leadership becomes effective when others are persuaded to accept the assignments given to them and proceed to carryout their duties. In effect, leadership is dependence upon the faithful performance of one’s associates and subordinates. Some people try to do everything by themselves. They do not trust others. They dislike inter-dependence. But in every organized effort in large groups dependence upon one another becomes essential. The leader has no choice except to delegate authority to others. The essence of delegation is to confer discretion upon others to SE their Judgment in meeting specific problems within the framework of their duties.
Management leadership must then accept the responsibility for how this discretion is exercised. Intelligence in a personality is excellently in-built than most others. In the context of organization, the intelligence of a person is sell lass the capacity to see the problem. It is also the ability to appraise situation readily and tackle it. This capacity differs from personal to person. It is difficult to develop the intelligence by conscious effort. But it can be safely stated that there are many leaders who have made up the efficiency through date?animation, integrity and friendliness.
In this connection, mention may be made regarding two other qualities as special evidences of intelligence-namely imagination and a sense of humor. The capacity for imagination can be improved by deliberate effort. Imagination is essential in more than one way. A sense of humor is important as a lubricant. It will facilitate smooth flow of communication without hurting anybody. 3 .. Leader as Teacher 152 The next important aspect of leadership is that of staff development. In this connection it is important to mention that a good leader is a good teacher. A good