Human Assignment

Human Assignment Words: 2572

Armstrong (2001 ) sets out three specific training objectives to the employees. The first objective is to develop the competences of employees and improve their performance. Second objective is to help people grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resources can be met from within the organization, and the thirdone is to reduce the learning duration for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfer or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible.

It is very important herefore for the organization to offer systematic training and career development programs for their employees. Training has been recognized to help employees in their current jobs and help meet current performance requirements by focusing on specific skills required for the current need. Its benefits may extend throughout a person’s career and help develop that person for future responsibilities. Training is very crucial to any public sector organization to improve the performance and competence of its employees.

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According to Ngirwa (2009), if an organization wants to remain competitive it as no choice but to train their employees. The amount, quality and quantity of employee training carried out vary extremely from organization to organization. Cole (2002), identified factors which influence the quantity and quality of employee training and development activities like; the degree of change in the external environment, the degree of internal change, the availability of suitable skills within the existing staffs and the extent to which management see training as a motivating factor in work.

Therefore, the study will examine how the training and development program is being provided to mployees in Public sector organizations and how it affects their performance of work. 1. 1 Statement of the problem, It has been recognized that training and development programs improve knowledge, skills and the capacity of an individual for doing a particular job. Most of the public sector organizations in Tanzania have special units or sections which provide staff training and development so as to cope with the constantly changing demands of the work environment.

Developing capacities and competencies of the Public Service to enable it deliver services effectively and efficiently entails availing Government employees pportunities to undergo training which would enable them acquire new knowledge, skills, and appropriate working culture and attitudes. It is for this reason that over the years the Government has been emphasizing on the need for Government employees to continuously undergo training. The Government has taken number of efforts to ensure training and development activities are taken seriously by all Public Service office in Tanzania.

The Government through Public Service Commission as the head of Public Service organizations in the county has issued several policies as the key guidelines or training and development activities in all Public Service sectors. A key policy statement on the importance of training in the public service is the Public Service Management and Employment policy (PSMEP) of 1 999 (revised in 2008) which states that “all Public Service organizations shall develop a training programme, based on the skills requirements as identified in their human resource plans.

The programme shall be funded from their budget allocation, and shall aim to meet both the organization’s capacity requirements and individual employees’ personal and career development goals, within the resources available”. URT Training Policy (2013). The other instruments are Public Service Act Cap 289 and The Public Service Standing Orders Of 2009. The Government has also created an enabling environment by developing and issuing Training Needs Assessment Guidelines. Moreover, the Government has established various training institutions.

In this regard, the Tanzania Public Service College (TPSC), the Tanzania Global Learning Agency (TaGLA), the local government college (HOMBORO) and the Institute of African Leadership for Sustainable Development (UONGOZI Institute) were established. The Kinondoni municipal is among of the public sector rganization which organizes training and development activities to its employees in almost every year. However, there has been a concern that training and development activities in this office areunsystematic. This public service organization view training as something to be implemented when time and budgets allow.

Resources are thought to be expended on training which has little practical relevance to improving staff and organizational performance. The interaction with some of the employee depicted that little attention is being paid by the Management on the planning and implementation of training program. Due to this problem, most of the employeesgo for higher education or short-term courses through their own arrangements. Thereafter, they only request the permit to go for the training from the employer. As a result many staffs in Kinondoni municipal are not able to go for further studies.

This may lead to the lack of competence and hence low staff performance. There can be also a problem of low staff retention in the Office. This study therefore, will examine the process of training and development activities, how is carried out, its role and how this affect the individual staff performance in the public sector organizations asically in the Kinondoni municipal council. 1. 20bjectives of the study 12. 1 General objectives The overall objective of the study will be to find out the impact of training and development function on the administrative staff performance in the Kinondoni Municipal Council. . 22 Specific objectives 1 . To assess the existing training and development process used in the Kinondoni Municipal Council.. 2. To find out whether staff training and development activities have any positive impact on the performance of Kinondoni Municipal Council administrative staff 3. To assess impacts of raining and development activities on the organizational performance of the Municipal. 4. To propose suitable training and development procedures for the Kinondoni Municipal Council. 1. Research questions This study focus in the following questions:- 1 . How is the program of training and development being organized in Kinondoni 2. What are the positive impacts of training and development activities on the performance of administrative staff? 3. What are the impacts of training and development activities on the organizational performance? 4. What are the training and development procedures suitable for Kinondoni Municipal? . 4Significance of the study The study that I will conduct has many advantages to both private and public sectors.

This is because it will reveal the critical relationships between training and development with the performance of the employees in work places. It will also provide senseful importance of training and development programmes in public sectors organizations for improving their performance. On the part of the employees, the study will help them to understand importance of involving themselves in training and development activities, in order that they gain new knowledge and skills for the purpose of improving heir capability in performing jobs efficiently and effectively. 1. Limitation of the study The study is expected to be constrained by number of blockages; these include limited budget, lack of enough time to conduct the study and reluctance of some administrative staffs to give the required information to researcher. 1. 6Scope of the study The study will be on the impact of training and development on the performance of administrative staffs in public sectors organizations in Tanzania. It will be conducted as a CHAPTER 2. 0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Introduction This chapter reviews both theoretical and empirical literature related to the tudy.

It comprises theories related to the training of employees at working place. It defines some of the basic concepts used in staff development and training, training objectives, types and methods of training and problems facing training and development of employees. It furthers discuses findings of related researches and the knowledge gap to be covered by this study. 2. 2 Theoretical literature review 22. 1 Concept of Training One most important area of the Human Resource Management function is training and development for the effective use of human resources.

Training s the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an individual for doing a particular job. In the present situation training is increasingly viewed as a means of not only fostering the growth Of the individual employee but also as an integral part of organizational growth. Ngirwa (2009), defined training as a learning process in which employees acquire knowledge, skills, experience and attitudes that they need in order to perform their job better for the achievements of their organizational goals. It is the bridge between job requirements and employee present specifications.

This means that changing hat employee knows how they work, or their attitudes towards their jobs and organization. Training is a systematic process of increasing the knowledge and skills of the staff for doing a specified job by providing a learning experience. Flippo, (1984), defined training as the process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It also tries to improve skills and add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to mould him to be fit for a higher job when given involving higher responsibilities.

Thus Employee training is the planned and systematic odification of behavior through learning events, activities and programs which results in the participants achieving the levels of knowledge, skills, competencies and abilities to carry out their work effectively (Gordon 1992). Armstrong (1996), expressed an understanding of training by emphasizing that training should be developed and operated within an organization by appreciating learning theories and approaches if the training is to be well understood.

Sherman et al (1996), added that, the success of a training program will depend more on the organization’s ability to identify their needs nd care with which it prepares the program so that if the trainees do not learn what they are supposed to learn, the training has not been successful. They also indicated that training experts believe that if trainees do not learn, it is probably only because some important learning principle had been overlooked. What they are saying is that the success or failure of a training program is frequently related to the recognition and application of basic psychological principles of learning.

It can also mean that even though the organization might have done all that is necessary to ensure a successful raining program, the wrong candidate might have been selected for the training program. Training programs should seek to change the skills, knowledge, or attitudes of employees. Programs may be focused on improving an individual’s level of self-awareness, increasing an individual’s competency in one or more areas of expertise, or increasing an individual’s motivation to perform his or her job well. Wexley and Latham, (1 991 2. . 2 Concept of Development According to Prasad (2006), development is a broadly to the nature and direction of change induced In employees, particularly managerial personnel, through the process of training. It takes the form of learning activities that prepare people to exercise wider or increased responsibilities. It does not concentrate on improving performance in the present job. Harrison (2000) defined development as a learning experience of any kind whereby individuals or groups acquire knowledge, skills, values and behaviors.

It is more career than job oriented and is concerned with the longer-term development and potential of the individual. Development covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those which bring about growth of the personality; helps individual in the progress towards aturity and actualization of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but better man and women. It refers to the future – oriented training and on personnel growth of the employee. As the job and career progress, employees need new skills and abilities.

Therefore, employee development helps that person to improve ability to handle a variety of assignments; improves performance at all levels in their present jobs; helps to sustain good performance of the staff throughout their carrier exploring their full potential; answer the availability of required numbers of ersonnel with the needed skills so as to meet the present and anticipated future needs of the organization and also to provide the opportunities for the staff to fulfill their career aspiration, and to answer that the managerial resources of the organization are utilized optimally.

According to Itika (2008) development sees the employees as adaptable resources with a variety of skills and places within the organization and it is also concerned with giving the individual the right mix of skills, experiences and contacts to enable them to achieve their full potential. 2. 2. 3 Difference between Training and Development The difference between training and development is that, training is the acquisition of knowledge and skills for present tasks, which help individuals, contribute to the organization in their current positions.

To be successful, training must result in a change in behavior, such as the use of new knowledge and skills on the job. Where by development provides the employee with knowledge and skills that are intended to be used in the future. Hence the purpose of career development is to prepare employees to meet future agency needs, thereby ensuring the organization’s survival. Training was used to give employees the job-specific skills, xperience, and knowledge they need to do their jobs or improve their job performance. (Prasad, 2006). Training is much more limited in terms of scope and overall impact on an organization.

The content of training programs can lose relevance quickly; it is typically a one-time event, whereas development refers to the broadest view of knowledge and skills acquisition, development is an ongoing and topical. Training is a short-term process; individual staff learns technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Whereas development, is a long term educational and theoretical knowledge for general purpose (Prasad, 2006). . 2. 4 Administrative staff According to Ngirwa (2009), the administrative staffs are those employees who provide indirect service to the mainstream work flow of the organization.

They include a wide range of expert and support services. These are bursar’s services, personnel assistant, planning officers, internal audit, secretarial services, public relations department, human resource management, etc. In this study the administrative staffs in the Kinondoni municipal council are those who support the supervisors and coordinators in facilitating the effective and efficient performance of the organization. These include; ursar’s, accountants, personnel assistant, planning officers, internal auditors, secretaries, public relations and human resource personnel. . 2. 5 Purpose of the Staff Training and Development Program Training and development are used by organizations to improve the skills of employees and enhance their capacity to cope with the constantly changing demands of the work environment. Agencies that wish to be viable must develop strategies to maximize their human resources. According to Adams (2002), training makes employees feel that they are part of the organization’s family. Training creates the sense of belonging in all employees. It creates the professional development and enhances the employee’s skills.

It also makes knowledgeable workforce with fewer mistakes. (Prasad 2006) added that training increasing job satisfaction and employee morality, enhancing the employee motivation, raising the ability to obtain new technologies, developing the innovation in strategies and products and reducing employee turnover in organization. 2. 2. 6 Training and Development Process According to Armstrong (2006), training and development program should be systematic in that it is specifically designed, planned and implemented to meet defined needs.

Thus a good training and development program should involve the following fundamental steps: determining training needs assessment, developing training objectives and plan, developing training methods, identifying the trainees and finally, evaluating the effectiveness of training development program.

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