In order to understand the culture diversity, we should take into account the well- known cultural dimensions identified by Egger Hefted where cultural data was initially collected from IBM employees from 70 countries, then further enhanced with data from commercial airline pilots and students in 23 countries, civil service managers in 14 countries, “up-market” consumers in 15 countries and “elites” in 19 HARM Group Assignment Hefted Shade By northeast countries.
The contributions from all this research data validated earlier findings ND helped Hefted to develop a model that identifies four primary Cultural Dimensions to assist in differentiating cultures. A fifth dimension was added after conducting an additional international study developed with Chinese employees and managers, and was applied to 23 countries. The five dimensions are :- Power distance (PDP) – the extent to which power hierarchy and inequality are acceptable in society and institutions. Masculinity / femininity (MASS) – the extent to which individuals are risk insensitive and tolerant to ambiguities and deviation from norms.
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It is referred to the distribution of emotional roles between the genders. Uncertainty avoidance (AJAX) – the extent to which individuals in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance are described as being more risk insensitive and less tolerant to uncertainty and deviations from norms. Individualism-collectivism (DIVIDE) – the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “l” or “We”. Long-term and Short Term Orientation (L TO) – refers to the degree to which the society upholds traditional values.
High or low dimensions predispose countries to resist or accept change. This port will present discussion on the influence of culture on human resource practices based on two main studies; 1] The influence of culture on human resource management processes and practices: the propositions for Serbia (Bilabial, 2009) and 2] Globalization implications for human resource management roles (Friedman, 2007). This report also takes a number of opinions and the results of other researches/studies as support in producing this report. 2. DISCUSSION Bilabial (2009) provides qualitative study and literature review examined how HER managers of multinational corporations operating in Serbia view human resource raciest, and how the influence of the culture affected the process. The study presented 11 propositions on human resource practices (such as Job analysis, recruitment and selection, human resource planning and career management) in Serbian cultural context, against selected Hypotheses cultural dimension such as high uncertainty avoidance, high power distance, collectivism and femininity.
Among HARM practices within Serbian cultural context highlighted in the study are as follows :- HARM Practices Serbian cultural context Job analysis Serbian organizations are likely to be considered High Uncertainty Avoidance and rage Power Distance. Job specifications in Serbian organizations are likely to be less specific and detailed. Recruitment practices Large Power Distance, High Collectivism and High Uncertainty Avoidance in Serbian organizations is likely to influence the designing of appropriate recruitment practices.
Evidence indicates that due to High Collectivism and High Power Distance it can be expected that Serbian organizations prefer internal recruitment. Serbians also prefer Jobs that offer them opportunities to work as part of a team and gain status and Job security, due to High Collectivism and High Uncertainty Avoidance ultra. Serbian organizations are likely to focus on employee referrals and word of mouth, networking events, and Job fairs rather than on newspaper ads and e- recruiting.
Selection process Large PDP, High Collectivism and Femininity in Serbian organization seem to promote non-standardized selection processes and methods, which rely on face-to-face interactions, recommendations by in-group member, unstructured interviews, personality tests and informal meetings. Promotion management Promotion criteria in Serbian organizations are based on seniority, interpersonal legislations, in-group favoritism, loyalty, and commitment to the organization.
Human resource planning (HARP) High Power Distance and Collectivism are likely to have the strongest influence on HARP and career management practices in Serbian organizations. Harps are rare, short-term oriented, centralized, and conducted with high flexibility. On the other hand, Friedman (2007) reports the globalization implication on the human resource management roles.
The report presents four key HER roles (strategic partner, change agent, administrative expert, employee champion), with associated ole deliverable, global challenges, and implications of Hypotheses five cross -cultural dimension The research finds human resource management implication of global trends and culture for each role are not mutually exclusive. Friedman (2007) pointed out that the best practices in human resource management were often not transferred across cultural differences and therefore.
In order to be effective in human resource management, he called for 1) a balance between the need to standardize best practices across national boundaries and 2) the need to adapt to local practices and customs. For example, determining which Jobs to outsource is strategic decision (strategic partner), and implementing that decision efficiently is an operational issue (administrative expert), with respect to the administrative expert role, human resource managers must use technology to deliver value in many locations in a timely and cost effective manner.
Strategic partner Change Agent Uncertainty avoidance (High uncertainty avoidance) to invest in HER activities with high strategic value, leader in high uncertainty avoidance cultures may require detailed plans on how to align HER activities with business objectives. High uncertainty avoidance) culture with high uncertainty avoidance may require greater formal structure like guidelines to overcome employee’s fear of uncertainty. A change agent believed to an expert may also overcome fear of the unknown.
Masculinity Femininity (Masculinity and feminine) tailor HER manager leadership style to culture (independent, achievement style)may be appropriate in masculine culture , collaborative in feminine culture. (High masculinity). In high masculinity cultures, plan to overcome resistance when making leadership assignments and responsibility to employees not viewed as leaders Individualism Collectivism (Individualism and collectivism). Balance strategic alignment on a company wide versus individual advancement when partnering with leaders.
Incentives can be individual or group based. Individual and collectivism. Select individual or team intervention techniques that are consistent with culture. For example, teamwork based intervention techniques may meet resistance in an individualism-oriented cultures Power distance High and low power distance. Focus partnering effort at top leadership in high power distance cultures (centralized power) or at many levels in low power distance ultras (decentralized) High power distance.
Change agents should focus their efforts at the top when power distance is high Administrative Expert Employee Champion High uncertainty avoidance Assurances should accompany technologies enhancement proposals when uncertainty avoidance is high. Communicate new administrative procedures, investments in detail to increase comfort level. High uncertainty avoidance. In high uncertainty avoidance cultures, employees may resist career development due to anxiety associated with the uncertainty of new responsibilities and reporting relationship.
Masculinity Femininity Masculinity and femininity. Leadership style that drive technology improvement should be consistent with culture. For example, style should focus on result in masculine cultures and collaborative in feminine culture. High masculinity. Advancement of female into higher management levels may be more difficult in high masculinity culture. Individualism Individualism and collectivism. Make incentives for achieving administrative improvement on an individual or collective basic congruent with the culture Collective.
Advocating for employees on individual basic may meet resistance in collectivist culture. Structure employee training and development program on an individual or group basic congruent with the culture Power distance High power distance. Superiors in high power distance cultures may resistance participation in tasks believe to be low status (benefits administration software) Low power distance. Providing career development and advocating for the rights of employees thought to have low status may be problematic in high power distance cultures.
In a nutshell, a framework of Whoopee’s cultural dimensions influences in selected human resources practices/policies can be summarized as per the following table :- . 0 Conclusion In conclusion, this report has described the five major factors of Hypotheses Cultural Dimensions framework, and then associated it with human resources practices based on findings of previous researches. The framework presented cultural characteristics among various culture I. E Serbia (Bilabial, 2009) and China (Buck et al. 010). Among the mutual findings are such; organization should design personal benefits/ compensation for employees in the individualism culture; for collectivism, the organization should look at whole team performance and benefit from the teamwork. In addition, the organization should build long-term relationships with employees for employees in Long-term orientation, but provide contractual employment relations and quick benefits for the ones of Short-term orientation.