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Viruses are composed depending on specimen from two or three parts. Either they contain genetic material, which called a deoxyribonucleic acid, also DNA or DNA, is, or called from ribonucleic acid, abbreviated RNA or RNA. Scientists therefore speak of so-called RNA and DNA viruses, which differ in their structure. The genetic material is shaped like a thread for some of the pathogens, in other, it is annular. Depending on their size, viruses can either four or include up to several hundred genes, reports the science program “Planet Wissen” the television station WDR, SWR and BR-alpha.
In milder flu cases is often without laboratory investigation. For more severe disease conditions or in individual cases due to increased pre-existing conditions of health risks but a laboratory analysis is usually carried out, with which can be confirmed or excluded influenza clear. For this purpose, the patient is usually a blood sample.
Structure of a virus
The genetic material of the virus is surrounded by the so-called capsid, a protein structure that serves the genetic information as a kind of packaging. The capsid is composed of a set for each virus type number of subunits called capsomeres. The capsomeres consist in construction of other protein subunits: the protomers. Under certain conditions, namely when the capsid is directly linked to the nucleic acid in the genetic material, it is also called the nucleocapsid. The interior of the capsid is called a core or core.
Viruses with capsid shell
Some viruses of the above-described construction are now complete. In others, the capsid is against further surrounded by an envelope. This is made up of so-called lipids, i.e. natural substances, which are not mostly water. Proteins (proteins) and glycoproteins (proteins with sugar deposits) also penetrate the lipids. Glycoproteins are also spikes (spikes, sting), because they made ??the shell of the virus protrude. (Viruses and bacteria in comparison: Differences)