It means any decision should be based on a thorough research and experimentation rather than mere guess work or assumptions (Taylor, 1911). His theories and techniques are focused on how to Increase the operational output via optimization of resources, standardization of procedures and tools, work allocation and Incentive system. Mostly engineers have welcomed the Tailor’s Principles of SMS and conducted wide research (Wren, 2011), Though his theories were Intended for American Industry, soon they have been adopted and practiced worldwide with mixed results (Wren, 2011).
In the following sections each of the entry there were no objective methodologies to determine how fast a Job should be done. Past experience or expert Judgment was the widely used method to determine the time required to complete a task. Tailor’s technique was basically to split the main Job into most possible smallest distinct parts based on number of movements required to complete the Job. This technique helps to reduce unwanted steps in the completion of Job. This is turned as waste reduction by doing the Job in ‘one best way’ (Locke, 1982).
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Frank Gilberts (1923) has worked on Tailor’s motion study to determine amount of time spent for each motion by performing the task. During sass, ass Australian manufacturing industry has adopted Tailor’s dream technique widely. It has provided complete control of the labor process, their work and their freedom at the point of production (Wright, 1993). In the contemporary management practices, time study has been used routinely in most of the industrialized countries. However, resistance to adopt time related techniques has not disappeared (Locke, 1981).
For example, Scott-Grant (2013) is one of the popular training institutes in England which practice time and motion study for better performance. However it was a struggle for the employee to complete the task within the given time so, they used method and time study which is focused on easy methods and with less time taken. 2. Standardization of tools & procedures: Prior to the SMS era, the standards of toolboxes are heavily fragmented to the extent of every workman having his own customized private tool box.
Taylor emphasized the importance of having standard tools and procedures to enhance operational output, for example, standardizing the shape and size of coal shovels (Locke, 1982). In the current situation many companies re applying this principle of standardizing tools and procedures, which are for easy adoption. This technique was the foundation for ‘human engineering’ and has been adopted beyond manufacturing industries, such as banking and software firms (Euro, 2007). 3. The task: The term task and goal’ are used interchangeably in the management theories.
In respect to time study in SMS recommended by Taylor, every individual worker should be assigned a particular number of assignments termed as tasks (Locke, 1982). In automotive industry, to complete a product, many employees with different specified task are involved. Managers divide the task into sub-task for the employees. For example, to complete a car, there are engineers whose task is to research and develop the car and designers who did the finishing process of the car. In the contemporary management practice, feedback based goal setting is highly adopted.
Higher performance were observed by assigning specific challenging goals, which are based on time study and skill matching concept, instead of having a vague goals. This has enabled organizations to develop functional and effective task monitoring system. 4. Incentive System: Taylor has emphasized higher wages as the devotional factor for adopting SMS principles and applying it on the regular day-to- day task. He recommended 30-100% higher wages for the workers who adopt SMS principles (Boohooed, 1961). This incentive principle of Tailor’s SMS approach has received several criticisms.
Experimentation by Locke has proved this point. Incentive system has received 30% as favorable motivational factors. It was also found that money bonus is critical for workers than executives (Locke, 1982). Time study incentive has reduced the differences between management and work force in factors to improve the relation between management and labor. Though the conflicts eve been reduced between management and labor with comparison to 20th century, the conflict has not been completely eliminated. Taylor did not consider the fact that increasing incentives would lead to wanting for more aspiration. . Work allocation & employee selection: Taylor was a strong believer of individual performance than group performance. He also believed that individual reward will increase the productivity than a group reward. This has been proved to some extent in the works of Janis (1972) and Late, Williams & Harking (1979) (Locke, 1982). He also emphasized on management responsibility for providing basic training for new employees. He recommended the scientific selection of the employees to have a group of “first class” work force.
Wren (1979) has mentioned that scientific selection principle has given the new direction for industrial psychology and personal management. Ryan (1947) has summarized the evidence of having benefits by implementing shorter work weeks and providing rest pauses in-between the working hours to eliminate fatigue. In contemporary work culture these principles are very much adopted (Locke, 1982). The selection or rejection of employee is conducted by the manager through certain selection process. For example, testing the employees before hiring them.
If it is in insurance industry, managers will conduct some test to determine suitable employee for the company (Settle, 2013). From this illustration it is stated clearly that the selection theory of Taylor is implemented in current management. Conclusion: Even many organizations have criticized Taylor for his work, his ideas has improved and controls the organization. Some of the principles are still widely used in modern organizations with slight modifications. Through his concepts Taylor established a ground work for other researchers. His success was attained by enormous struggle ND he has a huge role in the change of modern organization.