The four sleep theories: Adaptation/protection theory: animals need to protect themselves from predators at night. Repair/restoration theory: It helps us recuperate from depleting daily activities; Growth/development: deep sleep coincides with the release of growth hormones from pituitary gland ( infancy), less in the adult life; Learning/memory: is important for learning and consolidating, storage and maintenance of memories.
Low awareness: sleeping, dreaming, anesthesia and coma; middle awareness: automatic processing for activities that requires minimal attention: walking while talking on cell; high awareness-controlled processing for activities that requires focused attention: drive and study Diagonals- problems with sleep: insomnia persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep: narcolepsy irresistible onset of sleep during walking hrs; sleep apneas repeated interruption of breathing while sleep, loud snoring or poor-quality sleep.
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Paranoiacs- abnormal sleep: nightmares bad dreams during REAM sleep; night terror abrupt awakenings with feeling of panic during NORM.
REAM-rapid-eye-movement sleep (paradoxical sleep, dreaming) and NORM-non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (stage 1-4 sleep) Drug abuse: drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to oneself or other, impulsive, frequently and intense; addiction: person feels compelled to use a specific drug; psychological dependence: mental desire or craving to achieve a drug’s effects; physical dependence: change to body processes that make a drug necessary for minimum daily functioning; tolerance: decreased sensitivity to the drug requiring higher doses of It; withdrawal: drug is withheld and user undergoes painful reactions such as physical pain and Intense craving.
The four main drug categories: depressants (sedatives): alcohol, mentality; stimulants: cocaine, caffeine, methamphetamine; opiates (narcotics): heroin, morphine; hallucinogens: LSI and Arizona. Hypnosis: trance-like state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus. Classical conditioning/Bolivian conditioning: learning through involuntary paired association, conditioning-learning (before, during and after controlling). Operant controlling/: Learning through voluntary responses and consequences Neutral stimulus: an unlearned stimulus that does not elicit a response. Conditioned stimulus: a learned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response as a result of repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned emotional response; likes, dislikes prejudices and fears.
Positive punishment: Is the addition of a stimulus that decreases the likelihood of the response occurring again; Negative punishment: Is the taking away of a reinforcing stimulus decreasing the likelihood of the response occurring again. Cognitive social learning theory: a perspective that emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning behavior. Observational Learning: learning a new behavior or info by watching other. Encoding: processing info into the memo system; storage: retaining info over time; retrieval: recovering info from memo storage The theories related to Emory decay- Decay theory: memo deteriorates over time; Interference: forgetting due to retroactive or active Interference; motivated forgetting: painful memo failure: info is momentarily inaccessible.
Retrograde amnesia: old memo are lost, new memo k, temporary; Interrogated amnesia: old memo k, can’t form new memo, often permanent. Repressed Memories are related to anxiety-provoking thoughts or events that are supposedly prevented from reaching consciousness. Concepts are mental representation of a group or category (higher order-animal, basic level- bird, lower order- robin bird). Building blocks of language: Phonemes: the smallest basic nit of speech and sound; morpheme: the smallest meaningful unit of language, combination of phonemes; grammar: rules that specify how words and phrases should be combined to express thoughts Language Acquisition Device (LAD) children have neurological ability to analyze language and extract the basic grammar rules.
IQ (intelligence quote) Heckler Adult Intelligence Scale and CEQ: emotional intelligence (the ability to empathic and manage one’s emotions and relationships. Savant syndrome: a condition in which a person with generally limited mental abilities exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited filed. Standardization: the development of uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test; Reliability: a measure of the consistency and stability of test scores when a test is redistricted; Validity: the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure. Critical period: a period of special sensitivity to specific types of learning that shapes the capacity for future development.
Longitudinal design: research approach that measures individuals of various ages ate 1 point in time and give info about age differences; Cross-sectional design: research approach that measures a ingle individuals or a group of same-age individuals over an extended period of time and gives info about age’s changes. Piglet’s four stages of cognitive development: seniority stage (0-2); operational (2-7); concrete operational (7-11); formal operational (1 1 and over) Object permanence understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen. The zone of proximal development Whisky suggests that the most effective teaching focuses on tasks in between those that a learner can do without help (the lower limit) and those that he or she cannot do even with help (the upper limit).
In this zone of proximal development (ZAP), tasks and skills can be readily developed with the guidance and encouragement of a more knowledgeable person. Kohlrabies stages of moral development: presentational: moral is based on rewards, punishments, and exchange of favors- punishment- obedience and instrumental-exchange orientation; Conventional: Judgments are based on compliances with rules and values of society- good-child and law and order orientation; Observational: individuals develop personal standards for right and wrong, and they define morality in term of abstract principles and values that apply o all situations and societies- social contact and universal-ethics orientation.
Erosion’s eight stages of psychosocial development: trust x mistrust 01), autonomy x shame and doubt (1-3), initiative x guilt (3-6), industry x inferiority (6-12), identity x confusion (12-20), intimacy x isolation (early adulthood), generatively x stagnation (middle adulthood), ego integrity x despair (Late adulthood) The importance of resilience: the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats, which seem to account for the resilient child success. Homeostasis: a body tendency to maintain a stable Tate. /Optimal-arousal theory: organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an needs prioritize needs, with survival needs at the bottom ( needs that must be met before others) and social, spiritual needs at the top. Extrinsic motivation: based on obvious external rewards or threats of punishment vs.. Intrinsic motivation: resulting from personal enjoyment of a task or activity. Too much of extrinsic affects intrinsic.
The three components of emotion: biological, cognitive, and behavioral ‘d, ego, superego 3 mental structures that form personality (Freud)/personality relatively table and enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions. Conscious, preconscious, unconscious 3 levels of consciousness (Freud) Defense mechanisms when the ego fails to satisfy the id and superego, anxiety slips into to conscious awareness and triggering it. Understand Fraud’s five psychosocial stages of development: oral (weaning from breast), anal (toilet training), phallic (identifying same sex-parent), latency ( interacting with same-sex peers), genital ( relationship with opposite sex) Objective are more used because can be administered to a large # of people quickly and evaluated in standardized fashion vs.. Ejective tests uses unstructured stimuli that can be perceived in many ways. Self-efficacy by Bandeau affects which challenges we choose to accept and the effort we expend in reaching goals. Abnormality: patterns of emotion, thought, and emotions considered pathological for 1 or more of 4 reasons: deviance, dysfunction, distress, or danger. Medical model the perspective that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and possibly cured; Psychiatry the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. Neurosis and psychosis Insanity is the legal term indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his own actions because of mental illness.
The subcategories of mental disorders in the ADSM: anxiety, mood disorders, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders, personality disorders, sleep disorders, etc 7 psychological perspectives of abnormal behavior: biological, calculators, behavioral, evolutionary, humanistic, psychodrama, cognitive. Psychoanalysis designed to bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness ( Freud) Humanistic therapy seeks to maximize personal growth through effective restructuring ( emotional) Cognitive therapies focus on changing faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors. Psychopathology the study of drug effects on the mind and behavior.
SECT (electronegative therapy) biomedical therapy in which electrical current is passed through the brain. Cryosurgery ( lobotomy) cutting the nerve fibers between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus. Therapy formats Therapy formats: groups, family, and marital therapy and telepathy/ electronic therapy Cultural issues in therapy affects he types of therapy developed and the perceptions of the therapist. Social psychology the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings and actions are affected by others Attributions explanations for behaviors or events and attitudes learned predisposition to respond to objects, people, and events in a particular way.
Conformity: the act of changing behavior as a result of a real or imagined group pressure Obedience: the act of following a direct command, usually from an authority figure Four factors in obedience: 1- legitimacy and closeness of the authority figure,2- mementoes of the victim,3- assignment of responsibility, 4-modeling or imitating Prejudice a learned generally negative attitude directed toward specific people solely because of their membership in an identified group, refer to an attitude and discrimination refers to actions. Aggression: any behavior intended to harm someone and altruism actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper. Bystander effect people fail to intervene in situations because they are expecting someone to do it. Diffusion of responsibility spreading the responsibility among all other group members.