Motivation is important when it comes to learning. Once the child is given that push to learn something that may be of value to them, the motivation to learn will continue as time goes on. “Students have differing perceptions of the value, or perceived information, of learning’ (Chunk, 2012). Some students gravitate to what my spark their interest, such as boys to basketball and girls to home-economics. When an individual is being taught they are just as interesting in learning that subject as believing in themselves.
When students have goals to achieve, the motivation to do more or better goes into overdrive. Goal Theory and Ethical Implications The goal theory of motivation is explained by Such nun (2012) as, “Goal theory postulates that important relations exist among goals, expectations, attributions, conceptions of ability, motivational orientations, social and self comparisons, and achievement behaviors” (Andersen & Welters, Blundered, Elliot, Maier & Shush, Pinprick, Pinprick & Shush, Winner, as cited in Chunk 201 2, p. 374). Goals, values, and expectations are roles of motivation within earning as described social cognitive theorists.
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Goals are set and progress is evaluated, when progress is made toward those goals, an individual’s self- efficacy, self-motivation and self-achievement is validated. Goals provide the individual marker points to assess ones progress to mastering the desired outcome or knowledge retention on a particular subject. “Motivation is goal- directed behavior instigated and sustained by people’s expectations concerning the anticipated outcomes of their actions and their self-efficacy for performing those actions” (Bandeau, as cited in Chunk, 201 2, p. 372).
The ales of a learner are a key part of this motivation. If they find what they are learning self-satisfying and important they are more likely to be motivated to learn and achieve the goals that have been established. When talking about goals in relation to goal theories it is evident that certain ethical standards may be impacted due to the need of achievement to the final desired outcome. Through achieving goals as an example in social cognitive theory one may have to violate the individual autonomy or safety within the subjects’ community.
Nagy (201 1) states, Ether are occasions when psychologists eight have to initiate safeguards to help ensure the autonomy and safety of individuals or communities. ” The ethical principles of modern psychologists are to evaluate what ethical standards may be violated in the pursuit of the subject achieving set goals either through their therapeutic processes or learning processes. Some areas of concern are reflected in individualized role differences, cultural, individual, and vulnerabilities in where access to legal protections and violation of one’s personal rights may be threatened.
The psychologist is to ensure that other human attributes of the members’ mediate society shall not be violated in the pursuit of the subjects goals and should be clearly explained in a therapeutic setting. Achievement Motivation Theory and Ethical Implications The achievement motivation theory is based on the belief that all individuals have needs and go through an unconscious process to attempt to meet these needs (Rayon, 1969). According to Chunk, ‘The study of achievement motivation is central to education and learning’ (p. 58). In the achievement motivation theory, individuals strive to be become and remain competent in heir participation in effort activities. Individuals strive achieve their goals (Winner, 1975). In learning individuals might strive to be rewarded with good grades for their hard work. The achievement of the grade is what motivates the individual to complete the assignment. The achievement motivation theory has been linked to personality through the desire individuals have to satisfy needs (Chunk, 2012).
Contemporary models of achievement motivation theory emphasized the contribution of success expectancy, and an individual’s perceived value of the task to be completed (2012). Chunk (2012) tastes, “Students’ initial motivational beliefs center on goals, self-concepts of abilities, and perceptions of task demands” (p. 362). In the self-worth theory of achievement motivation individuals base their achievement in their perception of self-worth based on results of emotional conflicts between hope for success and the fear of failure (Chunk, 2012).
An individual is driven by their anticipation of success and their anxiety of failing. People are driven by their fear of failure and being perceived by others as incompetent and unworthy. Ethical disadvantages to the achievement motivation theory include the low reliability and correlation with other achievement measurements (Chunk, 2012). An individual’s perception on the way others perceive them can also be a pitfall in the utilization Of the achievement motivational theory.
The cultural background, gender role stereotypes and other ethical issues could alter an individual’s perception of their ability to achieve the goals in which they have set. Social Cognitive Theory and Ethical Implications Social Cognitive Theory, developed by Albert Bandeau emphasizes learning based off of social surroundings. As one grows from childhood to adolescence and later in adulthood, there is a heavy influence from family and friends, as well as career setting that mold people into who there are (Chunk, 2010).
Bandeau stated, “Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. ” (Bandeau, 1 971 This explains that one develops skills form observation of others. Bandeau goes on to say, “Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling from observing others one forms an idea of new behaviors are reformed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. In other words, learning comes from a live model with full demonstration of behavior that is exhibited by others. There are many different ethical dilemmas that can surface in psychological practices with utilization of the social cognitive motivation theory. Kismet (1 991 ) suggested that, “Studies pertaining to ethical decision making and attitude toward social and behavioral research suggest that certain extra scientific characteristics of researchers may be associated with different stances on ethical issues or may influence the kinds of ethical decisions drawn. Based on the psychologist’s attitude toward the research could influence the behavior of the participants; engaging in behavior that is deemed unethical. There is always an ethical concern when dealing with biased opinion of psychologists, which can then turned into manipulation to achieve specific results Attribution Theory of Motivation and Ethical Implications In psychology the study of motivation is used to help understand and explain any type Of observed change behavior that has occurred in a person.
Motivation is usually a valued form of performance since effects that occur from change are typically only temporary (Male, 2004). When a person become slightly motivated to accomplish or perform a task due to a motivation change, this person could latter have very little interest in this task due to another change in motivation. Since motivation changes a channel over and over it becomes difficult to measure and use in psychology (Male, 2004). Primary and basic motives are looked at as hunger, need for drink, sexual, to avoided aggression, pain, and fear.
This primary drive of motivation or individuals comes from the basic needs and survival. Secondary individuals typically will look for power, achievement and other specialized motivations. Attribution theory in motivation has been researched in a variety of ways (Male, 2004). Research methods include of electrical stimulation and chemical stimulation in the human brain. This recorded the electric brain wave activity though the use of an electroencephalograph. Lesion techniques are often used to study the portion of the brain that has been destroyed and the subsequent changes have been changed.
Attempts to analyze people at psychological level try to understand why people behave in certain ways. Motivation is people could contribute to presence of other in their social world. It is difficult for psychologist to fully measure what motivates individuals to accomplish secondary motives in their lives making it a high pitfall for psychology use (Male, 2004). Many individuals gain motivation for personal needs and draw motivation from many different areas of life making it hard to measure and test. Conclusion In conclusion, motivated learning has various aspects tied into it.
Goals are important for those who are interested in achieving a high level of success. While desiring to reach these goals, students begin to understand that there are steps or tasks to partake in for them to acquire achievement. When students begin to believe how others perceive them, it can cause their motivation to take a left turn. Those who deal with social issues often deal with the influence of the people around them. The motivation to do more has to come from our personal experiences. It can be linked to growing up poor, not have the right people around to guide you, and etc.