CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Of all the factors of production, labour is the most important factor of production, which is supplied by the employees. The success or failure of any enterprise is therefore ultimately predicated on the willingness or otherwise of the people who supply the labour Force. A manager plays an important part in coordinating the efforts of individual workers to active organizational objectives.
His work also include planning, organizing, leading, directing and supervising workers so that they can willingly, and happily contribute their best to the accomplishment and attainment of corporate objectives. It is pertinent to acknowledge the fact that people are unique because they have different needs, different ambitions, different attitudes and desires, different levels of knowledge and skills as well as different potentials. A manager should recognize these differences and devise different motivational programmes to meet individual needs.
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If an individual’s need is satisfied he will be motivated to produce more – All motivational programmes try to create conditions that encourage workers to satisfy their needs on one hand and to accomplish the organisation’s objectives on the other hand. Motivation is therefore seen worldwide as an inevitable panacea for increase productivity not only in the industrial or social setting but also in the institutions of higher learning.
Psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist and management experts have propounded relevant theories buttressing the significance of motivation. Abraham Maslow (1954)1 in his hierarchy of needs theory opinion, “that an individual have five basic categories of needs that motivate him to action. These comprise physiological, safety, social ego and self-actualization of needs. These needs are arranged in a hierarchical order starting from the lowest which is the physiological to the highest i. e. self actualization needs”.
A need once satisfied ceases to motivate while those not yet satisfied energies or motivate behaviour. Maslow therefore believes that motivated behaviour is goal directed, sustained, and consequently results from internal drives or needs that gear a person into action. If motivated, behaviour results from felt needs, then invariably, the manager wishes to motivate behaviour must be sensitive to those operatives needs and desires his subordinates feels or else he must take some steps to create a feeling of needs within his workers.
According to Ubeku (1975)2, “it used to be thought that a good and successful manager was the one who stood above his men and showered order on them to obey. A man who decides for his men not only what to do but how it should be done. They must conform otherwise they would either be disciplined or dismissed outright. He was the slave driver and bulldozer. He need not consult his men as they had no ideas to put forward. He knew what was good for them and did it”.
There is no doubt that a measure of strictness is necessary indeed essential, but gone are the days of rigid control and direction. The relationship are becoming more impersonal to get people to work effectively in these changed circumstances a different approach is necessary. Management that is determined and wiling to maintain its good image and status must focus on plans and strategies that will enable it achieve its set objectives. When there is harmony in an organisation it reveals that workers satisfied and are happy with their jobs.
Such workers will certainly show their energies, efforts, wisdom, intelligence etc to assist management in achieving its objectives increase productivity, efficiency and maximize profit. Moreover, knowledge about motivational practices can have implications for understanding employee’s behaviour that are important for the academician, managers in the organization. 1. 2PROBLEM ANALYSIS The problems of employees motivation in organization has been a perennial one. According to Glueck (1980), “There are three critical factors that affects motivation and these are individual needs, the nature of the job and the work environment.
In addition to the above, other major factors could be responsible for workers low level of motivation are poor wages and salaries, lack of incentives unpleasant working conditions, poor supervision, lack of opportunity for advancement, non-participation of employees in setting organizational objectives, poor personal policy, lack of opportunity for advance, non-participation of employees in setting organizational objectives, poor personnel policy, lack of job security and non appreciation and acknowledgement of good efforts of workers”. Commenting on the workers negative attitude to work, McGregor (1960)4 in his theory X assumptions ostulated that the average human beings has an inherent dislike for work and will try to avoid it if possible. One of the causes of employee’s dissatisfaction and low morale may be related to inadequate working environment as this may lead to high employee turnover. Hertzberg, (1957) supported this view when he identified working environment as one of the factors that causes employee dissatisfaction. Lastly, the uncertainty regarding employees job security workers whose job security is not guaranteed, are not encouraged or motivate to put in their best. . 3PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of this study is to highlight and discuss variables (raised by management) that makes for worker’s motivated and job satisfaction towards increasing his productivity, and use those variables so raised as a standard to measure the degree or level of employee motivation and satisfaction in the business industry. The application and non-application of those variables will be determined, and it shall form the bedrock of the recommendations that would be given at the end of this investigation. 1. 4JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The success or failure of any organization lies on its relative strength, which is a function of its productive capacity. If all the other factors of production are present, but that of labour needed to harness them fro effective utilization is lacking, the organization will not able to realize its objectives. Employee’s demoralization or lack of motivation has resulted in serious damage to many organizations in the areas of high rate of absenteeism, constant grievances, frequent industrial upheaval, high labour turnover, disciplinary problems and slow pace of economic development.
Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) has its own share of these problems. Most of the staffs (i. e. lower staffs) are no longer dedicated to their work; hence show little or no commitment. The outcome of these researches will serve as an aid to the management of the organization in formulating appropriate policies, which will boost worker’s morale and motivate them to strive towards the attainment of the organization’s goal and objectives. 1. 5LIMITATION OF STUDY
Based on the nature of the study, the intellectual capability of the respondents and the environmental settling of the study, one could hardly anticipate any major obstacle in the administration and collection of the questionnaire. Unfortunately, the above assumption did not reflect the correct picture as the researcher encountered various problems during the administration of questionnaire. Some staff collected and refused to complete them, while some misplaced theirs.
Some, especially the junior members of staff could not understand some of the management terms used in some of the question because of their level of literacy and consequently, the researcher had to spend time explaining the questionnaires, on the ground that there was no financial gain accruing to them thereof. Others misconstrued the intention behind the whole exercise and feared that whatever information they volunteered could be used against them. It was gratifying to note that the highest collaboration and support were obtained from the senior staff. 1. 6PLAN OF STUDY
The data obtained will be grouped on the basis of the responses to each of the questions contained in the questionnaires. In respect of the personal data of the respondents, this will be grouped into the categories of age, sex, marital status, education qualification etc. The responses to question bordering on the subject matter of motivation will also be grouped and analysed using parentages and the results appropriately interpreted. Personal interviews conducted on a selected number of both management/executive staff (senior executive junior executive) and junior staff will also be analysed.
The first chapter gives a general overview of the research study is all about in the form of introduction? The second chapter is aimed at examining all the relevant theories propounded by eminent scholars of Business Administration, Psychology, Anthropology, sociology as well as books, periodicals and excerpts from learned journals covering the areas of this study. The third chapter gives a general insight to what the case study is all about. It introduces the organisation, its objectives and functions, its facilities and services. It also analyses the problems and benefits.
The fourth chapter will expatiate in fuller details the methodology adopted, giving the actual number of questionnaires distributed to different departments. The fifth chapter will do a thorough analysis of data collected; it will also test the hypotheses and interpret the results obtained. This will help in determining the extent at which the organization is motivating its employees. The sixth chapter gives the finding, recommendations and conclusions. 1. 7RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS (1)What role has incentives played in motivating workers towards increased productivity? 2)How has the movement of subordination in decision-making motivated them towards increasing productivity? (3)To what extent has advancement and growth within the organization, motivated workers towards increased productivity? (4)To what extent has good working environment guarantee job satisfaction? (5)What effect does security have on workers productivity? 1. 8DEFINITION OF TERMS In this research work the following words are defined for the purpose of clarity: Theory: And idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something about life or the world, especially one that has not yet been proved to be true.
Hierarchy:A system within an organization in which people has authority and control over the people in the rank below them. Wages:Earning of employee either on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Salary: Money received as payment from the organization one works for, usually paid to him every month. Fringe Benefits: An additional service or advantage given pith a job besides wages, these of not normally attract the payment of tax. Motivation:Anything done to inspire the workers and give them the urge to work harder and increase productivity.
Staisafction: A feeling of pleasure because one has something or has achieved something. Job Security: Stability of work and the assurance that salaries would be paid if and when due Industrial disputes: Conflict between employers and employees NPA: Nigerian Ports Authority REFERENCES 1. Agbalo, J. O. NATURE OF MANAGEMENT University of Ibadan Press (1962)Pg. 66. 2. Gleuck, W. F. MANAGEMENT (2nd Edition) The Dryden Press (1980) Pg. 161. 3. Koontz, O’ Donnell and Wahrich MANAGEMENT MC Graw-Hill International Books Co. (1982) Pg. 614 4. Ubeku, A. K.
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENTIN NIGERIA Ethiopia Publishing Corp. , Benin (1975) Pg. 291. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK From time immemorial, organisations were established to accomplish certain objectives. The functions of the manager in the attainment of set goals cannot be underestimated. With the increased complexity of the society and the increasing size of organizations, managers’ decisions can have a far-reaching impact on the society. They can be defined as groups of persons who influence other workers to contribute their best to the attainment of corporate objectives.
Management therefore involves the process of utilizing material and human resources to accomplish designated objectives. It involves the organisation, direction coordination, and the evaluation of the people to achieve the set goals. A manager who wishes to succeed in meeting set objectives must pay particular attention to the human factors in the organisation. According to Frederick H. Harbinson and Charles A Myers1, “In modern society, industrialization is an almost universal goal towards which all nations are marching.
The underdeveloped countries are striving to industrialize as a mean of accelerating economic progress; the advanced countries seeks to broaden and to extend industrialization in order to achieve ever-higher standards of living and greater economic power in the march towards industrialization, capital technology and natural resources are but passive agents. The active forces are the human agents who create and control the organization and institutions which modern industries require.
They are the ones who build and manage the enterprise which combine natural resources technology and human efforts, for productive purposes”. To be able to achieve set goals a manager should create conducive atmosphere that will inspire and motivate the workers. There is therefore the necessity of building motivating factors into organizational roles; the staffing of these roles and the entire process of directing and leading people must be built on knowledge of motivation. 2. 2CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION
The word motivation has different definitions, as there are different authors. It comes from a Latin term “Movere” which means to move. Horngreen2 defines motivation as “the need to achieve some selected goals together with the resulting drive that influences actions towards that goal”. In support of the above definitions, Ifeachukwu3 sees motivation as a driving force that stimulates an individual into action. Kelly4 says that motivation has to do with the forces that maintain and later the direction, quality and intensity of behavior.
While Jones5 opinion is that motivation has to do with “how behaviour get started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organization while all of this is going on. On their part, Lynn and O. Grandy6 sees motivation as “a process of stimulating employees towards the desired goal of an organization. Karn and Glimer7 say that motivation is essentially made up of two aspects – first, basic needs that individuals have and second, conscious effort to gratify and satisfy them. They see motivation as a direct behaviour to satisfy desired needs.
From the above definitions, motivation can be viewed in terms of what energizes; human behaviour, how this behaviour is directed or channeled, and how the behaviour can be maintained or sustained. Since managers are often held responsible for completing the task performed by an organisation, they need to induce people to contribute their efforts to the performance of the task. They should therefore aim at the creation and maintenance of an environment for the performance of the individuals working together in groups towards the accomplishment of common objective.
It is obvious that managers cannot do this job without knowing what motivates the workers. The necessity of building motivating factors into organizational roles, the staffing of these roles and the entire process in directing and leading people must be built on a second knowledge of motivation. It is evident that motivation plays a substantial part in the determination of the level of performance of employees in an organization. A manager should develop some innate abilities, which will assist him in motivating subordinates.
He must be a good listener and demonstrate to the employees that he cares about hem, develop and encourage team effort etc. the manager should however realize that motivational factors cannot be generalized for every worker. In human organization, we find a number of individuals working together towards a common end, i. e. the collective purpose of the total organization. Each of these individual is bring to the work situation a different background of personal and social experiences and the demands of a particular employee makes depend not only upon his physical needs but also upon his social needs as well.
Those social needs and the sentiments associated with them vary with his early personal history and social conditioning as well as with the needs and sentiments of people closely associated with him both inside and outside the work. A manager should realize that individuals differ in personality, perception, background and experience and would consequently be motivated by different motivation factors. According to Mc Farland. 8 “To understand what motivates employees, we must known something of their aims, wants, needs and values. We must also observe their actions in organizations as they try to fulfil their needs”.
He also emphasized that the motivational could be: (a)The forces and influences operating within the individual such as need for increased salary or benefit. (b)Internal influences in the organization such as the organization’s structural design, company climate, and communication patter, etc. (c)External influences in the organization’s environment, which may be social, cultural, political, economic, etc From the foregoing, it is pertinent to note that a manager who realizes these differences in individual and are therefore prone to be motivated by different factors is on the right path to achieving organizational objectives.
Diagram I illustrates the motivation. Need and want satisfaction chain. 2. 3THEORIES OF MOTIVATION A theory according to Koontz and O’Donnell can be defined as, “A systematic grouping of interrelated principles. Attempts to tie together significant knowledge and give it a framework… In its simplest form, a theory is a classification, a set of pigeon holes, a filling cabinet in which facts can accumulate”. 9 Managers make use of organized knowledge and apply it to gain desired results.
Managers theories when properly developed, proved, and used can enhance managerial efficiency and also increase efficiency in the use of human and material resources. These theories serve as a guide to managerial performance in their daily activities. Managers have a lot to gain by thorough mastery of theories particularly those bordering on motivation. They will assist him in developing ways of handling both human and non-human problems in organization. Various theories of motivation as a means of propelling workers to increase productivity have been propounded. DIAGRAM 1 MOTIVATION THE NEED WANT SATISFACTION CHAIN
Source:Koontz et al (1980) Motivation is seen as involving a chain reaction, starting out with felt needs, resulting in wants or goals sought, which give rise to tensions (i. e. unfulfilled desire, then causing action toward achieving goals, and finally satisfying wants. Explaining the chain further, it should be that expected for physiological needs. 2. 4HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY The above theory is credited to Abraham H. Maslow, a Psychologist. He believes that man is a perpetually wanting animal and rarely reaches a state of complete satisfaction except for a relatively short time.
He sees human needs in a form of hierarchy, arranged in an ascending order from the lowest to highest. The implication of this hierarchical nature of human motivation is important for an understanding of why people behave as they do. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory can be presented in a diagrammatic form thus: SELF ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM NEED SOCIAL NEED SAFETY NEED PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS According to him needs are arranged in the following (1)Physiological Needs; These are the basic needs for sustaining human life itself; food, clothing, shelter, sleep and sexual satisfaction (2)Security nd safety needs: These are the needs to be free from phsycial danger and the fear of loss or a job. It is therefore important that in an organization workers should be rewarded for good performance. Such reward may be material or non-material in nature. This will help to raise the morals of the workers property, etc. (3)Affiliation or acceptance needs: Since people are social beings, they need to belong, to be accepted by others. These are the needs for affiliation, giving and receiving affection and for friendship. 4)Esteem Need: This si the desire to be held in high esteem and to be respected by others, this kind of need produces such satisfaction such as power, prestige, status, and self-confidence. (5)Need for self-actualization: It is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming – to maximize one’s potential and accomplish something. The Lessons from Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Although researchers have raised questions about the accuracy of the hierarchical aspects of these needs, identification of the kinds of needs is useful to managers.
Lawler et al (1972) researching on Maslow’s work collected data on 187 managers in two different organizations within the time span of six months to one year. They found little evidence to support Maslow’s theory that human needs conform to a hierarchy. However, they found that there were two levels of needs, viz Biological and other needs, and that the other needs would emerge only when biological needs were reasonably satisfied. They found also that at a higher level, the strengthen of news varied with individuals, in some individuals social needs predominated and in other self actualization needs were strongest.
Hall et al (1968) in another study, found no strong evidence off hierarchy. Rather they found that as managers advance in an organization, their physiological and their needs for affiliation esteem and self actualization tend to increase. They attributed the upward movement of new prominence to upward career, changes and not form the satisfaction a lower order needs. To conclude on Maslow’s theory, it is important to point out that managers perspective should be to take a situational or contingency approach in apply Maslow’s theory.
What needs they must appeal to will depend on th personality, want and desires of individuals. 2. 5ALDERFER’S ERG NEED THEORY Taking Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs as the starting point, Alderfer suggest that the five levels of needs can be compressed into three. These he called “Existence, Relatedness and Growth” needs resulting in the approach being called “ERG” theory. According to the theory: (1)Existence Needs: This category is concerned with how people related to their surrounding social environment and includes the need for meaningful social and interpersonal relationship. 2)Related Needs: This category is concerned with how people relate tot heir surrounding social environment and includes the need for meaningful social and interpersonal relationship. (3)Growth needs: This category, thought to be the highest need category, include the needs for self-esteem and self-actualization. Clayton Alderfer remarked that individuals move up the hierarchy from “existence needs” to “relatedness needs” to “growth needs” as the lower level needs becomes satisfied. He however propounded two hypotheses: (a)That when a higher order need is not satisfied, human beings have the tendency to revert to a lower order need.
For example, if someone is looking for relatedness and does not achieve it, he has to revert to existence need, this he called “Frustration regression” hypothesis. (b)That if a lower need is satisfied, the tendency is for human beings to aspire to a higher order need and this he called “satisfaction Regression” hypothesis. He opined that it is the satisfaction of frustration that determines people’s needs. Concluding, unlike Maslow’s theory, Alderfer holds that two different types of need e. g. relatedness and growth needs may be activated or energized at the same time. . 6THE FULFILLMENT THEORY Convinced that “work” is a special area of human behaviour and that “whatever psychological mechanism operate to make people satisfied or dissatisfied in general also make them satisfied or dissatisfied in their work”. Robert H. Schaffer develops a simple conceptual approach to job satisfaction known as fulfillment theory. The theory states, “Overall job satisfaction will vary directly with the extent to which those needs of an individual which can be satisfied in a job are actually satisfied.
The stronger the need, the more closely will job satisfaction depend on its fulfillment”. In otherwords, fulfillment theory is based on the assumption that the extent to which an individual feels, satisfied or dissatisfied depends on the strengthen of his or her need and desires and the degree to which he/she can visualize and make use of opportunities in the job situation for satisfactions of those needs. However, Locke indicated that people’s job satisfaction seems to be a function not only of how much they receive but also of how much they feel they should receive.
This view invalidates the fulfillment theory approach to job satisfactions, which does not seem to recognize individuals’ differences in the way they feel about what rewards they should receive. This is based on the difference in their perceptions, background, personality, experience etc and can therefore be satisfied or motivated by different factors. Managers should take these differences into consideration in devising motivational factors. 2. 7THEORY X AND Y Another theory of motivation is theory X and Y which was propounded by Douglas M. McGregor. The theory seems to give a contrasting view about man in work setting.
Theory X states that (a)The average human being has inherent dislike for work and will abide it if he can. (b)Because of his human characteristics of dislike of work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of organizational objectives. (c)The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all. On the other hand, theory Y assumes that (a)The expenditure of physical and mental efforts in work is as natural as play or rest.
The average being does not inherently dislike work. Depending upon controlled conditions, work may be a source of satisfaction (and will be voluntarily performed) or a source of punishment (and will be avoided if possible). (b)External Control and the threat of punishment are not the only means of bringing about effort towards organizational objectives man will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objective to which he is committed. (c)Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. The most significant so such rewards e. . the satisfaction of ego and self-actualization needs can be direct products of efforts directed towards organizational objectives. (d)The average human being learns under proper conditions, not only to accept but also to seek responsibility. Avoidance of responsibility, lack of ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of experience, not inherent human characteristics. (e)The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely, not narrowly distributed in the population. f)Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentials of the average human beings are no partially utilized. 16 Theory X assumptions see workers in a very bad light. This can be only used in an autocratic and authoritarian setting. It belongs to the traditional view points that believe in the concept of close supervision and that unless people are coerced, controlled, directed and possibly threatened with punishment, they will not put in much effort towards the attainment of organizational objectives.
Theory Y assumptions however have different views about man. They assume that man has a psychological need to work and wants achievement and responsibility if workers are lazy, indifferent, unwilling to take responsibility intransigent etc. The causes lie in the management’s methods of organization and control. 2. 8THE CARROT AND THE STICK The “Carrot and Stick” approach, which is seldom referred to nowadays as a form of motivation sued to exert reward or punishment as the cause may be. According to Koontz, et al. it is “the use of rewards and penalties in order to induce desired behaviour that comes from the old story that the best way to make a donkey move is to put a carrot out in front of him or jab him with a stick from behind. 17 The carrot represents some form of reward such as pay or bonuses. The problem with the “carrot” approach however is that too often everyone gets the carrot regardless of performance, through such practices as salary increases and promotion by seniority, automatic “merit” increase etc.
The “Stick” induces fear such as fear of loss of job, loss of income, reduction of bonus, demotion, or some other penalty. The stick approach is however not a good approach because it often give rise to defensive or retaliatory behaviour such as poor quality workmanship, indifference or outright dishonesty. 2. 9EQUITY THEORY Equity theory was originally developed by Patchen and later by Adom. The theory stipulates that the major causes (motive) leading to job performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity or inequity the employee perceives in the work place.
According to Black’s law Dictionary: “Equity denotes the spirit and the habit of fairness justness and right dealing which would regulate the inter-course of men with men, the rule of doing to all others as we desire them to do to us; or as it is expressed by Justinian, to live honestly to harm nobody, to render to everyone his due”. Essentially as a motivation theory, equity theory asserts that the main way in which a person evaluates his job is by comparing his own work experiences with those of another person.
According to the theory, a person’s feeling of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is a product of one or two calculations: (a)A computation of the ratio of the person’s job inputs (such as educational qualifications, experience and skill, age and effort) to the outcome he gets from the job (e. g. pay, status and fringe benefits). (b)An attempt to relate these to those of “comparison others”. The person’s job satisfaction/dissatisfaction is said to depend on the favorableness or the unfavourableness of the result of this comparison.
The focus of equity theory is on the fact that the outcomes of any process of exchange can be perceived as just or unjust. It holds the view that a worker can be happy and satisfied with his pay and other benefits only if he perceives that what he is getting is fair or just in a comparison with what someone else with similar background and in a similar position is receiving. It must however be understood that sometimes a worker would evaluate the outcomes he gets from his job as equitable or inequitable based on some “composite internal standards” which may not be necessarily bed to a group or a “comparison other”.
This phenomenon, Weick called “equity in the social isolate”. According to him: “If internal standards are sued in placed of social standards, then a person should experience equity when his inputs are in alignment with his outcome regardless of whether both are low or high. When inputs and outcomes are unequal, as in the case where a person works hard, yet is paid very little, tension would be expected, even if the person’s comparison with other had high inputs and low outcomes. The fact that omeone shares his plight would not be sufficient for him to experience equity. 19 a person perceives an inequity when he is either under-rewarded or over-rewarded. The perceived inequity is however greater when the person is under-rewarded than when he is over-rewarded. Inequity is source of tension and the greater the perceived inequity, the greater the motivation to reduce the tension. “The employee in this situation who is dissatisfied will try to reduce his inequity id he is underpaid through: (1)Quitting (2)Embarking on dysfunctional behaviour 3)Complaining to the top management; and (4)He can find a better comparison other than himself On the other hand, if it is overpayment that resulted in inequity he may try to reduce this inequity through: (1)The reassessment of his comparison standard (2)Reduction of the perceived value of his output; and (3)He may raise the perception of his output. 20 Equity can be used in determining pay rates and the distribution of other rewards such as praise and promotion in work setting. 2. 10HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
Known also as the motivation – Hygiene theory, the two-factor theory is the result of an investigation into the causes of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of Engineers and Accountants by Hertzberg, Mausner, and Synydrman. The central theme of this theory is that those factors, which relate to one’s job satisfaction, are different from those, which are associated with job dissatisfaction. In the survey conducted by Hertzberg and his colleagues, five factors stand out as the determinants of job satisfaction; viz, achievement, advancement, recognition, responsibility and the work itself.
These they labeled “motivators” or satisfiers”. On the other hand, such other factors as organizational policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations and work conditions said to be related to job dissatisfaction, according to them are apparently not as important as determinants of job satisfaction. These are known as “dissatisfies” or “hygiene factors”. Its is claimed that the “Motivators” which are intrinsic, function mainly on the positive side of the overall job satisfaction scale whereas the “hygiene factors” which are aspect of the work environment rather than work itself operate on the negative side.
People are motivated to work only when job satisfiers (motivators) such as achievement, recognition of work, challenging work, responsibility at work, advancement, and growth in the job are present. All these factors are related directly to the job itself instead of the surrounding physical, social environment. Their existence will yield feelings of satisfaction and will boost morale and attitude towards a task. It can be said that motivators lead to the satisfaction of workers thereby increasing their level of performance.
Any personnel manager who wants to keep alive his origination and its members cannot neglect Hertzberg’s factors. 2. 11MC CLELLAND’S NEED’S THEORY Another notable proponent of the theory of motivation is David C, Mc Clelland who identified three basic motivation needs viz, need for power, need for affiliation and need for achievement. NEED FOR AFFILIATION This refers to people whose dominant nature is to interact. They are more concerned about the quality of personal relationship thereby making relationship to take priority over task accomplishment.
NEED FOR POWER These are the people whose dominant motive is for power. They emphasize the exercise of power and authority, often prefer situations to which they can get control of the means of influencing others: they are forceful, outspoken, demanding and they enjoy public speaking. NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT These are the people with intense desire for success and an equally intense fear for failure. Such people have the tendency to want to assume personal responsibility to get job done and for dining solutions to problems.
They want to play an active role in determining the outcome rather than relying upon chance or luck; they want to create their own opportunities individuals with high achievement drive consistently choose to work the complex business problems and are willing to assume responsibility for their actions rather than pass the buck. They have confidence in their abilities. In addition, high achievers tend to take moderate risk rather than high or low risk, if they take low risk, there is little satisfaction in the accompanying success.
On the other hand if they take high risk, there is likely to be little satisfaction because the chance of success is so remote and failure to achieve may prove to be a source of frustration and anxiety. Consequently, the best chance for maximizing a sense of personal achievement and the likelihood of success occurs with moderate risks – continuing further Mc Clelland identified four steps in cultivating achievement motives. “First, the individual should strive to attain feedback. By doing so one secures reinforcement for success, thereby strengthening the desire to achieve more.
Secondly, the individual should seek models of achievement by picking out people who have performed well and seeking to emulate them. Thirdly, the individual should seek to modify his or her self-image by imagining himself or herself as someone who needs success and challenge. Finally, the individual must control daydreaming by thinking and talking to himself or herself in positive terms. 21 In addition to other qualities needed for good leadership, it is necessary for every manager to have a high need for affiliation because of its importance in coordinating the efforts of individuals working as a group. . 12LEADER AS A MOTIVATOR Leadership can be defined as a process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly to work with zest and confidence towards the achievement of group goals. To lead therefore is to guide, conduct, direct and proceed. Leaders act to help a group achieve objectives with maximum application of their capabilities. They do not stand behind a group to push and to prod; they place themselves before the group as the facilitate progress and inspire the group to accomplish organisational goals.
In essence, leadership is followership. It is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader. People therefore tend to follow those who they perceive as providing a means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs. Consequently, leadership and motivation are closely interconnected. An effective leader is one who analyses the deficiencies of the follower’s ability, motivation, role perception and work environment, which inhibit performance and then takes action to eliminate those deficiencies.
The appropriate perspective for examining a leader’s effectiveness is in terms of his impact upon the follower’s performance. The strategic functions of the leader therefore consist of: (a)Recognizing and arousing subordinate’s needs for outcomes over which the leader has some control; (b)Increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for States for work-goal attainment; (c)Making the paths of those payoffs easier to travel by coaching and direction; (d)Helping subordinates clarify expectations; (e)Reducing frustrating barriers; and f)Increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction contingent on effective performance. An effective leader must take into account the environmental factors that impinge on set goals. If the facilitates these environmental conditions, follower’s would be motivated to improve in their performance thereby leading to an increase in productivity and attainment of organisational objectives. 2. 13JOB SATISFACTION Ahmed (1997) defined job satisfaction as a positive mental state of the employee or a worker who has an attitudinal predisposition towards his work.
He added, to see job as an assignment for livelihood, soon takes a yawning or absenteeism in his placement. He also stated that state of job satisfaction is a positive condition of the human psyche, which makes the worker optimistic, creative and still more innovative. 22 Koontz et al (1980) in distinguishing between motivation and satisfaction describes satisfaction as referring to the contentment experienced when want is satisfied, while motivation is a drive towards an outcome, satisfaction involves outcome already experienced.
Variations among individuals in job satisfaction can be useful conceived of as a sum of:- (a)Variations due to job characteristics (b)Variation due to individual differences, and (c)Variations due to the interaction of job characteristic and individual attributes While, it is likely that these variances can be attributed to all three of these sources, the relative magnitude of these three components of variance are of great interest both in terms of practical effects such as those possible due to job design changes. Job satisfaction has been escribed as comprising, job commitment, job involvement and job innovation while the measures for the enhancement of job satisfaction experimented in United States of America include job enrichment, job monotony, job repetitiveness and job reutilization has been described as inimical to job satisfaction. A willing worker it is said, seeks for something new and innovative, this in turn requires change, something additive as well as subtractive to job, which can be induced into the job situation by some sort of rotation, enlargement and enrichment. . 14PRODUCTIVITY Productivity means output per man. Increased productivity therefore can be defined as” increased output per man. While productivity may be measured in terms of input/outputs ration, increased productivity can be measured by determining the difference between output given a particular input quality and output after the stimulation/manipulation of similar input quality.
Nwokoye et al (1987) has said that the reason why an employment may have low performance on the job may lack the necessary skills or knowledge. 23 2. 15EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION AND MOTIVATION ON PRODUCTIVITY The foregoing exposition on motivation, job satisfaction, and productivity provide the backdrop on the topic “The effect of motivational factors and job satisfaction affecting productivity of the Nigerian workers in an organisation”.
It has been acknowledge that: (i)Job satisfaction describes the extent to which an individual’s needs and aspirations are met by the day to day pursuance of his job (ii)Motivation as we pointed out earlier is to do or provide those things, which are hoped, will satisfy or induce the person especially a subordinate to act in a described manner. (iii)Increase productivity (relative to personnel) is to make or cause to become greater in the degree of the power of being productive. 2. 16CONCLUSION So far, attempts have been made to discuss a number of need – satisfaction and motivation theories.
The earlier assumption about employee motivation was that man primarily an “economic man” essentially motivated by economic or material rewards. The early classical management theorists such as Taylor considered economic gains and security as the most crucial factors for increasing worker’s job satisfaction. This view was however rejected by writers in the human relations school like Elton Major and his colleagues who argued that man’s need for belonging and his other social needs provided the basic motivation for individuals to work in any organization.
Frankly speaking, money is a very important factor in the life of employees of all categories, especially in the developing countries of the world as Nigeria. With money, one can buy essential goods and services. Apart from its economic value as a means of exchange for the allocation of economic resources, it also serves as a social value speaking about the importance of money as a motivator Keith Davis said: “All of us have seen its importance as a status symbol of those who have it and can thus save it, spend it consciously or give it generously.
Money does have status value,, when it is being received and when it is being spent. It represents to employees what their supervisor thinks of them in more than mere economic terms. It is also an indication of one employee’s relative status compared with other employees. It has as many value so as it has possessors. “24 From the above, one can see the degree of importance attached to money as a motivator especially in this country. Maslow’s need-hierarchy theory as well as Hertzberg’s motivation – hygiene theory or Alderfer ERG theory emphasis motivation as a function of human needs satisfaction.
Equity theory on the other hand draws attention to the role of social comparison in influencing satisfaction. In spite of the difference in their theories, there seems to be a consensus among the theorists that satisfactory job attitude are the function of congruence between the needs of an individual and the job situation. It is assumed that when the characteristics of a job are compatible with the needs of a worker, he will experience job satisfaction and also be motivated and vice versa. The success or failure of any organization depend son the availability of both human and material resources.
If labour is properly harnesses and motivated, it would leads to the attainment of organization objectives. In order to motivate workers, job security, good working condition opportunity for growth and advancement, recognition, good supervision, promotion, comparable salary and wages, attractive fringe benefit, encouragement of interpersonal relationship, etc should not be ignored. There should be an effective manager or leader who should be able to plan, organize, control and integrate all the various factors of production to achieve a harmonious relationship. REFERENCES 1)Adam, J. S. (1965) “Inequity in Social Exchange” in L. Berkowitz (ed) ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY New York Academic Press. Pg. 267-300. (2)Black Henry C. BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY St. Paul Ministries, West 1957 Pg. 634 (3)Davis Keith HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AT WORK New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 1972. Pg. 458. (4)GLUECK W. F. MANAGEMENT. The Dryden Press (2nd Edition). Pg. 174. (5)Hall, D. T. and Nougaim “An Examinaiton of Malsow’s Need Hierarchy in Orgnaizaiotnal Setting”. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE. Vol. 3 No. 1 February 1968 Pg. 2-35. (6)Harbinson, Frederick H. a dn Charles A. Myers MANAGEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL WORLD: AN INTERNATIONAL ANALYSIS New York: McGraw-Hill Books Co. Inc. 1959. Pg. 3. (7)Hodgetts Richard M. and Steven and Altman ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Canada: W. B. Saunders Company 1979. Pg. 99. (8)Horngreen C. T. INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT ACOCUNTING (4th Edition) New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd. 1980. Pg. 244. (9)Ibid Pg. 636 (10)Ibid Pg. 30 (11)Ifechukwu, J. A. O “Work Attitude in Nigeria” MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA, Nigeria Institute of Management Oct. 1977. Pg. 35 (12)Jones, M. R.
NEBRASKA, SYMPOSIUM ON MOTIVATION Lincoln, Nebraska University of Nebraska Press 1935 Pg. 14. (13)Karn & Glimer READINGS IN INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS PSYCHOLOGY New York: Mc Graw-Hill Books Inc. 1962 Pg. 17. (14)Kelly, Joe ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (Revised ed. ) Homewood Inc. Pg. 279 (15)Koontz, H. Cyril O’Donnell and H. Wahrich MANAGEMENT Mc Graw-Hill International Books Company 1983 Pg. 13. (16)Koontz, et al op. cit. Pg. 635 (17)Lawler, E. E. Suttle, J. L. (1972) “A Casual Correlaiotn Tets of the Need Hierarhcy Cocnept”. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND HUMAN PERFORMNACE. Vol. 7 No. 2 Pp. 265-287. 18)Lynn & O’Grady ELEMENT OF BUSINESS London Houghton Mifflin Company 1978 Pg. 106. (19)Maslow, A. H. A THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION Pengium Books. 1970 Pg. 30 (20)Mc Farland, Dalton E. MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES London: Collier-Macmillan Ltd. 1970 Pg. 377. (21)Mc Gregor Douglas THE HUMAN SIDE OF ENTERPRISE New York: McGraw-Hill International Books Co. 1960. Pp. 33-48. (22)Nwokoye N. E. , Ahiauzu L. INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Macmillan Pub. Ltd. , London 1987. Pg. 64 (23)Schaffer, R. H. “Job satisfaction as Related to Need satisfaction in work”. PSYCHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHY (1953) Vol. 67 No. 4 Pg. 3 (24)Steers Richard M. and Lyman, W. Porter MOTIVATION AND WORK BEHAVIOUR Mc Graw-Hill Book Co. 1983 Pg. 29. (25)Weick Karl E. (The Concept of Equity in the Perception of Pay”) ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY (1966) Vol. 11 Pp. 414-439. CHAPTER THREE PROFILE OF NIGERIAN PORTS AUTHORITY 3. 0INTRODUCTION Nigerian Ports Authority has been chosen as the area of study of this research and there is no how his research can be comprehensive without a brief account or discussion as to the establishment, corporate objective, corporate functions activities, divisions or departments, problem e. t. of N. P. A.
In other words, this chapter is dedicated towards a brief account of the Nigerian Ports Authority (N. P. A. ). STATUTORY LAW The Nigerian Ports Authority was born on the 1st of April 1955 through the Port Act of 1954 out of what was then generally referred to as Nigerian marine. Prior tot his time and even before the evolution of modern Nigeria, the wide coast land stretching from Lagos to Port Harcourt had been a beehive of activities involving Africans and Europeans. Since when the 1st maritime contact was established between the West African sub-region and Europe in the 15th Century, a symbolic trade relation developed.
The Bright of Benin, was opened up by John d-Aveiro a Portuguese in 1845. Captain Wyndham of Great Britain jointed the fray in 1553. But of all these, it was McGregor Liard a Britain, that got the credit of laying the foundation of modern shipping in Nigeria. After he had captained the first iron steamer to the Niger Delta Coast of Nigeria in 1832 he went a step further to establish the African Shipping Company in 1849. However, the year 1906 was symbolic in the evolution of Nigerian Ports Authority (N. P. A. ) as it was in that year hat Nigerian marine was created and charged with the responsibility of ports in Nigeria. The Nigerian marine dominated the scene for about 48 years before it metamorphosed into the Nigerian Ports Authority. The idea for the establishment of a central organization for ports administrations was mooted in the 1930s. But outbreak of the 2nd world war (1939-1945) prevented the crystallization of that idea. However in 1953, the project emerged when the government issued a statement of policy on the establishment of the new ports regulatory body.
On March 24, 1954, the Nigerian House of Representative passed the Port Act 1954 but the commencement date of operation was pushed to April 1st 1955 when Nigerian Ports Authority finally came into being. ZONAL DEVELOPMENT AND ALLOCATION PORT Following the establishment of Nigerian Ports Authority and the eagerness to commence full operation coupled with the zeal to making efficient and effective use of the abundant provision of coastal area, the Authority was divided into three zones viz: (1)Western Zone: Made of Apapa Port Complex, Tincan Island Port, Roro Port, and Inland Container Depot Ijora with Apapa as its headquarters. 2)Central Zone: Comprising Warri Port, Sapele Port, Koko Port, Burut Port, Aladja Steel Jetty, Escarvos, Forcados and Pennington Oil Terminal, Warri is the headquarters. (3)Eastern Zone: Has Port Harcourt Port, Federal Ocean Terminal, Federal Lighter Terminal, Okrika Refine Petroleum Oil Jetty, Crude Petroleum Terminal of Bonny, Brass, Qua-Iboe and Antan, and Calabar Port. Port Harcourt is its headquarters. FEATURES OF THE PORT ACT Some of the salient features of this Act were: (i)Terms, power and functions of the Authority ii)Power to the head of state to appoint ports. (iii)Establishes the Authority as a body corporate with perpetual succession name and to acquire and hold and dispose funds. (iv)Powers and functions of the respective officers of the Authority and Minister of Transport in relation to the body (v)Transfer of assets and the power of acquisition of their assets. (vi)Staff employment and discipline (vii)Details of financial provisions (viii)Provisions on land (ix)Authority to employ harbours masters and define their powers. (x)Regulate wharves and premises xi)Covers rates, dues, levies and who is liable for payment CORPORATE FUNCTIONS The statutory duties and major functions of the organization are:- (i)It is charged with the responsibility of providing and operating such cargo handling and quay facilities as may appear to the organisation to best serve the public inertest in all Nigerian Ports Authority (ii)Charges with the responsibility of maintaining, improving and regulating the harbours and approaches there to in all ports of Nigeria presently open to Ocean going vessels and in such other ports as may be designed from time to time. iii)Charged with responsibility of dredging to desired depots and providing as well as maintaining pilotage services, lightly, lighthouse, buoys and other navigational aids in Nigerian Ports. (iv)Charged with the responsibility of carrying on the business of carrier by land or sea Stevedore, Wharfinger, warehouse/man or lighterman or any other business recommended or desirable for the purpose of the organization. (v)Responsibility of acquiring, constructing, manufacturing or repairing anything required for the purpose of the organization. Corporate objectives
Having attained this high status, and bearing in mind the numerous responsibilities bestowed on it, the organisations et for its appropriate objective’s are as follows: (i)Making provision and operation of port facilities in Nigeria its dominant business. (ii)Expanding into new and related areas of activities or areas that are logical development of the skills. (iii)To manage the workforce as a resource and not merely as a cost. (iv)To be more customer oriented and therefore to open up and streamline its management structure as part of a larger effort to listen and respond to customers need. v)To offer neighbouring land locked countries unimpeded access to the sea. (vi)To corporate with neighbouring ports in the provision of common services (vii)To optimize the generation of sufficient offshore revenue. (viii)To maintain a credit worthy posture and attractive to national and international investors. (ix)To reform and modernize dock work in order to bring industrial harmony to the dock industry (x)To explore the possibility of attracting reputable international organization as technical parties. CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
As mentioned earlier, this research study focuses attention on the motivational factors as they affect all the members of staff of Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA). In analyzing the data, however, simple percentage was applied. Table 1:Distribution of Questionnaires CadreTotal NoNo. ReturnedNo. Properly DoneNo. Not properly Done Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff9 10 517 9 487 8 35- 1 13 Total70645014 Percentage100917822 Table 1 shows that 64 or 91% of the total questionnaire was returned, out of which 50 or 78% was properly answered and the rest 14 or 22% not properly field.
Therefore our analysis was based on the 50 or 78% properly filled questionnaires. Table 2:Age Distribution of Respondents Cadre9 or -20-2930-4445-80Total Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- – — 6 184 2 93 – 87 8 35 Total-24151150 Percentage-484022100 The above table shows that none of the respondents is under age of 20 years, while 24 or 48% and 15 or 30% falls within the sages of 20-29 years and 30-44 years respectively. The remaining 11 or 22% are above 45 years. This confirms that over 80% of the population falls within the main workforce while none is under 20 years.
This may be due to the fact that the data was based on the number of respondents even though there were students on National Youth Service Corps programme in the company premises. Table 3:Marital Status of Respondents CadreSingleMarriedDivorced/ separatedWidow/ WidowerTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- 3 197 4 16- 1 — – -7 8 35 Total22271-50 Percentage44542-100 Table 3 indicates that 22 or 44% are single, 27 or 54% are married and 1 or 2% divorced/separated none of the respondent is a widow/widower. Majority of them are married therefore susceptible to matrimonial responsibilities.
Table 4:Sex Distribution Of Respondents CADREMALEFEMALETOTAL Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff6 5 91 3 68 35 Total401050 Percentage8020100 The table shows that 40 or 80% re males while 10 or 20% are females. It implies that there are more male employees to female ones in the company. Table 5:Educational Attainment of Respondents CadrePry. SixWASC/GCEHSCB. SCHigher DegreeTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- – 1- – 23- 1 25 6 -2 1 -7 8 35 Total1023311350 Percentage20466226100 The table portrays the educational qualification of staff. 0 or 20% have just Primary School Certificate, 22 or 46% are Post Primary School certificate holders while 3 or 6%, 11 or 22% and 3 or 6% have ordinary diploma/advance level certificates, graduate and postgraduate certificate. A closer look at the entire table reveals that executive staffs are graduate while junior staffs are not well educated. Table 6:Length of Service of Respondents CadreUnder 5 years6-12yrs13-19yrsOver 20yrsTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff1 3 104 3 111 1 121 1 27 8 35 Total141814450 Percentage28362818100
A look at this table indicates that 14 or 28% of the company staff have worked for less than 5 years. 18 or 36% for 6-12years. 14 or 28% for 13-19years and 4 or 8% have worked for over 20 years. This category demonstrates that most of the respondents have stayed long enough in the service to fully understand all the prevailing motivational factors as they affect them. Table 7:Length of Service of Respondents CadreVery GoodGoodFairPoorTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff1 – -4 5 62 3 10- – 197 8 35 Total115151950 Percentage2303028100
In response to the question of how the workers viewed their job in terms of satisfying their aspirations, 1 or 2% gave a very good response, 15 or 30% gave a good response, 15 or 30% gave a fair response and 19 or 38% gave a poor response. A total of 34 or 68% are not satisfied with their working environment and a total of 16 or 32% are satisfied with their working conditions. Table 8:Data collected on significant impact of condition of service on motivation CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff6 8 301 – 57 8 35 Total44650 Percentage8812100
The table shows that 44 or 88% accepted while 6 or 12% rejected the condition of service. It implies that the respondents will be motivated by an improved condition of service even though a great majority of staff approves the condition of service offered them, which is already in existence. Table 9: Data collection on motivation of increase in salary and fringe benefit CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- – -7] 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 As indicated in this table, al the respondents agreed thtas an increase in their salary and fringe benefits would motivate them.
It is not surprising that the entire respondents supported the motivating influence of increase in salary and fringe benefits. In the world over, people lay a high premium on the monetary benefits accruing to them from work. This does not only determine their social standing in the society but also accounts for their material well-being and standard of living. Table 10:Data collected on motivation of boss/subordinate Relationship CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff4 4 253 4 107 8 35 Total331750 Percentage6634100 Table 10, which probes into relationship between bosses and other workers, is very revealing.
The responses of the staff are that 33 or 66% of the total number responded positively while 17 or 34% indicated a negative response. A good boss or leader should be able to build into work environment a harmonious relationship that promotes rapport, understanding and proper orientation. It should therefore provide the necessary guidance, clarity of direction and rewards necessary for effective performance. These elicit good relationship between bosses and subordinates Table 11:Data collected on relationship with colleagues CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff5 5 232 3 127 8 35 Total331750
Percentage6634100 In response to the data collected above 33 or 66% see such a relationship as a motivating factor while an insignificant number of 17 or 34% did not identify with such a motivating factor. There is obvious need for workers cordial relationship or friendly atmosphere to prevail in wok situation. Table 12:Data collected from respondent on participation in setting objectives in department CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 4- – 317 8 35 Total193150 Percentage3862100 From the above table 19 or 38% are of the view that they participate in setting objectives in their various departments.
A closer look at the table shows that all the executive staff takes part in decision making, while a significant number of 31 or 62% of the junior staff do not. Table 13:Data Collected on Job Satisfaction CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff5 4 122 4 237 8 35 Total212950 Percentage4258100 In respect of satisfaction derived by workers on their job, 21 or 42% of the staff agrees that it offers them the satisfaction they need while 29 or 58% indicates that it does not offer them the satisfaction they need.
Table 14: Data Collected On Provision Of Accommodation As A Motivation Factor CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- – -7 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 It shows that 50 or 100% of the shapely size indicated that provision of accommodation will motivate them. It implies that provision of accommodation is a great motivation due to the perfect response it generated. Table 15: Data On Provision Of Transportation CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 25- – 107 8 35 Total401050 Percentage802080
The question of company providing the staff with transportation shows that 40 or 80% responded positively while 10 or 20% gave a negative response. From the table, it implies that most of the junior staff are provided with transportation. The 10 or 20% who gave a negative response are those that do not use the company staff bus wither due to the nearness of their homes and or that the staff bus do not ply their areas. Table 16:Data Collected From Respondents On Medical Facilities CadreVery goodGoodFairPoorTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- – -7 15- 4 20- – -7 8 35 Total-2624-50 Percentage-5248-100 Table 16, shows that the provision of medical facilities is fairly good by the rating of the respondents. A total of 26 or 52% indicated that it was good. 24 or 48% showed it was fair. None of the respondent agreed that it was very good or poor. The dictum that health is wealth hold always and this should account for why proper attention should be diverted to the provision of a good health delivery system for the entire staff of the company. Table 17: Data Collected On General Welfare Services CadreYesNoTotal
Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- – -7 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 The entire responses to whether the provision of general welfare services would increase their level of productivity were uniform. All the three segments gave a positive response of 50 or 100%. There is no doubt that adequate provision of welfare facilities will act as a motivator on the employees. Table 18: Data Collected From Respondents On Car Loan Scheme CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff5 7 -2 1 -7 8 – Total12315 Percentage802080
Majority of the respondents admitted that efficient administration of car loan scheme would act as a motivating factor. 12 or 80% gave an affirmative response while 3 or 20% did not see the loan as having a motivating influence. The table shows that the sample class for this question is the junior and senior executives. In view of transportation problem in Lagos, the efficient administration of the loan wil no doubt relieves a great burden on workers. This is however compounded by the astronomical increase in the prices of cars. Table 19: Data Collected From Respondents On Promotion CadreYesNoTotal
Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- – -7 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 All the respondents admitted that they would be