Almost 10 or 20 years ago, we might not have imagined that mobile phones will become an integral part of our lives. I have a personal experience with a friend who recently lost her mobile phone. She basically uses her phone for everything from work such as sending e-mails to keeping touch with friends and families via voice and video calls. This incident has made her depressed and as she described it, it was as if she has lost someone very important in her life and she felt helpless without her mobile phone.
This makes me realize that mobile phone with the 3G technology has made an impact on our daily lives and this write up is meant to look at the specific areas that 3G has played a pivotal part in. however, before that, let us briefly look at the history of the emergence of 3G. 3G is construed as the newest third generation mobile phone networks which enables the users to perform wireless internet surfing and high speed transfer of voice and media data on the move.
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The first mobile technology using this wireless communication concept is called 1G which is introduced in the 1980s and the standard used is Advanced Mobile Phone service (AMPS). Back then, the only service offered is the voice service-using analogue but there is no availability of data transfer service. Subsequently, Europe has introduced 2G technology based on the GSM (general service mobile) standards which were later changed to WAP Wireless Application Protocol) standards. This 2G technology has a maximum data transfer rate of 14. 4kb/per second and digital voice concept is also introduced for the first time.
However, 2G technology has not received positive feedback from mobile phone users in Europe and according to survey done by (Nairn, 2001), only about 6 percent of users utilizes this technology end of year 2000. Meanwhile, at almost the same time, in Japan, a mobile network operator known as DoCoMo has a first trial at the 3G technology by enabling its 2G users to surf the Internet using its i-mode platform and this has successfully created a successful 30 million customer base. Europe is not giving up and retaliated by introducing another technology called 2. 5G which runs on General Packet
Radio Service (GPRS) which is deemed to be faster than its predecessor 2G and even i-mode. This packet-based network technology has a data transfer rate of more than 144kb per second and with the introduction of Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), it has catapulted to a bandwidth of 384 kb per second and (McCartney, 2001) has indicated as of May 2001, there are about 30 2. 5G service providers in Europe. Commencing from mid year 2002, 3G network technology has emerged and this has resulted in the increase of bandwidth and speed of data transfer rate to more than 2Mbps.
Though there is no common universal 3G standard as yet, basically the technology used are such as W-CDMA (wideband code division multiple access), CDMA-2000 and UMTS (universal mobile telecommunications system). Irregardless of what technology or standard is used, 3G has definitely provided the development of more and more Internet-related services such as data and video streaming, e-payments and others. 3G AND BANKING SERVICES Most of us must have been to financial institutions known as banks to perform banking such as withdrawals, deposits of cash and many others.
Imagine that your nearest bank is 2 kilometers from your home and you need to urgently transfer some funds to one of your relatives. Imagine again that you need to face all the hassles of physically driving to the bank, finding a vacant car park in a very busy commercial area, fill in some forms, collecting a number and waiting for your turn to be called and finally proceeding to the counter for the bank officer to process your transaction. All these can be solved if your mobile phone is WAP-enabled equipped with 3G technology.
At the click of the keypad of your mobile phone, you can check the balances of funds in your savings or current accounts, transfer funds to accounts which belong to your loved ones, and even pay your utilities bills via electronic payments. There are also banks which have portals that allow customers to download their personal banking information into their own personal computers, trade in foreign exchange and unit trusts and even apply for housing or car loans. However according to (Datamonitor 2000), there has been a trend of deceleration in the adoption of 3G mobile phones to perform banking though G subscribers are expected to increase to almost 15 million in United Kingdom alone. ( Lee, Morna; McGoldrick Peter; Keeling, Kathleen; Doherty, Joanne 2003) have come up with a few findings on the barriers which may prevent the adoption of 3G banking services. The first barrier is banks tend to focus on the development of new banking services rather than on the innovation factor of the service itself which comprises of five characteristics mainly relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, observability and complexity.
For example, if customers perceive that it is too complicated or tedious to perform their banking functions via the banks’ portals which are not user friendly, then the adoption of 3G banking services might be very low. The other attribute which is relative advantage and compatibility is also very significant. Customers must perceive that the mobile banking service offered by a bank is unique and different from its conventional banking services.
Therefore, it is very important that banks perform brand marketing and create awareness in its customers that its mobile banking services are irreplaceable. One example of an interesting online banking service will be allowing customers to obtain financial consultancy via the banks’ portals. Customers can furnish their financial data and they will be able to know immediately what are the investment options available to them should they have excess funds according to the level of risks they are willing to take.
The other significant barrier to the adoption of 3G banking services is the various risks that they have to take and with this, they have actually come up with a risk dimension model which consists of physical risk, psychological risk, performance risk, financial risk, time risk and social risk and it is also worth mentioned that all these risks are interrelated. For instance, 3G banking services should be unique and using the service should enhance one-‘s self image or prestige.
However, if it is not unique enough, this might increase the social risk or psychological risk of users. Customers might also face financial risk and loss of money and important personal data if the security of the bank’s portal is not strong. This will also lead to another risk which is intrusion risk. Those who have managed to intrude into the bank’s portal will be able to obtain the bank’s customers’ data and utilize them to send unnecessary information. Besides, there is lso a possibility that the 3G banking services will have a low performance, and should this happen, customers will have to spend more time to access the bank’s portal and this will lead to loss of time risk. The last barrier which will prevent the usage of 3G banking is users’ negative experiences with previous mobile banking services. As we all know, prior to 3G technology, the previous technologies are pretty much unstable and has low security, and this has created a negative perception and assumption among the customers that mobile banking services is not going to work even with 3G technology.
Nevertheless, I would say that the future of 3G in enhancing mobile banking services looks bright and as long as banks take the initiatives to focus on consistently making the attributes of their mobile banking services unique, it will reduce the perceived risks and instill a strong awareness and confidence in their customers to use 3G mobile banking services. 3G AND SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK When we are talking about supply chain network, we are referring to various parties in the whole upstream and downstream of the entire supply chain such as customers, suppliers, distributors and manufacturers.
In this era of fast paced and ever changing industrial environment, the flow and interchange of data and information between business partners and suppliers has become more and more important so that consumers’ demands and preferences can be responded in the quickest span of time. Therefore, we can observe that product life cycles are becoming shorter and more and more companies are keen to focus on their strengths and core competencies as they are able to control and monitor the costs and processes efficiently while outsourcing the remaining of the processes to their business partners and suppliers.
Another trend is that with the development of the Information and Internet age, consumers are becoming more knowledgeable about the quality and price of the product offered and the quality of service rendered. Therefore, there is a need for a fast, reliable, accurate and timely transfer and sharing of information which apparently forms the integral backbone of a comprehensive value chain network. In order to have a good supply chain network, the current problems should be resolved.
First of all, the existing data interchange is immobile, meaning that users have to physically sit in front of desktop computers either to perform data entry of the information or they will have to operate some software applications in order to capture and retrieve data from daily operations. The optimal solution to this problem is the introduction of a concept known as m-commerce, which utilizes the interface standards such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and also 3G technologies.
Therefore, the gadgets used for m-commerce must have user-friendly and easy-to-use features, small keyboards which can enable typing of texts, have a small and light size so that it is easy and convenient to carry at all times, have batteries which can enable users to use for a longer period of time, is compatible with various applications in various platforms and finally the data captured in the gadget must be able to be transferred to larger database server for future usage.
There are a few areas in this supply chain network which can utilize on this wireless technology as per (Lau, Henry; Lee, Carman; Ho; Ip; Chan, Felix; Ip, Ralph 2006). In the retail industry, it is important to maintain an accurate record of data on the synchronization of supply from suppliers and demand from customers and this requires a technology known as scan-based technology which does not require manual input. Another example is the point-of-sale technology which is practiced in certain large retail shores in the United States such as Wal-Mart.
Customers will be provided with a gadget to scan all the goods in the mart to ascertain information such as discount rate and quantity and whenever a sale is successfully completed, this data will be captured in the gadget and when the customer has finished shopping, what they need to do is to plug the gadget into their shopping trolley to allow synchronization of data and receipt will be issued for the customers to pay for their goods.
This has radically reduced the amount of time that customer needs to queue up to pay for their goods and provides efficiency in terms of customer service. Nowadays, customers are more and more into convenience shopping. This means that they will want to do shopping at the comfort of their homes without going into the hassle of physically going to the departmental stores, finding car parks and having to queue up for a long time to pay and purchase their goods.
A lot of brick-and-mortar companies have modified the strategy of their business by going into the click-and mortar business. These retail shores have a physical store but simultaneously, they also have a virtual shore via their web portals and using 3G technologies, customers can browse through the display of their goods on their mobile phone and even put forth their order request and once this is done, this data will be transmitted to the company’s database and inventory management system.
Besides, if there are any new products or promotions, the 3G-enabled phone will send a Wireless Markup Language WML) text message to potential customers and since WML allows data entry, list of products can be sent to them and orders can be made directly from the list by replying to the text message. This is another strategy by retail stores to build loyalty and customer satisfaction among their existing customers and to attract new ones.
Wireless technologies are also fully utilized in inventory control for both retailers and distributors, whereby gadgets such as PDA and WAP and 3-G enabled mobile phones based on scan-based technology have been used to inspect stocks level as well as locate the location of goods in a particular warehouse. This is very useful when the products are most of times in bulks and heavy which might make it tedious for warehouse workers to remove from the shelves in order for inventory inspection and also to minimize calculation errors when manual inspection is performed.
With the use of this technology, workers merely need to scan the bar code on the goods using their gadgets and data on the quantity, weight and types of the goods will be stored in the gadget which will then be transferred to the computers later for data consolidation and analysis. Besides, another universal standard known as extensible markup language (XML) has further enhanced the development of a comprehensive supply chain network.
It is a standard which has resolved the problem of supply chain partners using different platforms and file types which has previously truncated data sharing and unnecessary delays in production and delivery of goods. With XML-equipped gadgets such as PDA and 3G phones, data are scanned and entered into the gadgets which will be maintained in a file data format. These data will then be sent to a database which can be in different formats such as Microsoft Access.
Irregardless of whatever formats of the files are, the data will be again transferred to a XML server which will change it into a standardized XML format documents which are readable by the inventory and procurement system. These data will be uploaded into the company’s web server to allow their business or value chain partners to retrieve and exchange information easily and timely.
Therefore, it is suffice to say that the entire supply chain network infrastructure which includes value chain partners such as retailers and distributors will be further strengthened with the utilization of 3G technologies and standardized protocol standards to face the challenge of ever increasing demand from information-savvy customers in the future. 3G AND SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALS This is certainly one of the hot topics on the non-technical aspects of 3G.
There are various schools of thoughts on this matter with one end saying that mobile phones and 3G technology has taken away and replaced the aspect of “human touch” in communication while the other end is rebutting by arguing that the technology just simply enhancing and developing the selfhood of individuals thus improving the communication between human beings. If you still remember that in my introduction, I have mentioned about an experience I had encountered with a friend who appears to be devastated with the loss of her mobile phone.
This new phenomenon is known as “mobile addiction” whereby these people are unable to acknowledge themselves as persons without their mobile phones. This is happening to our younger generations which do not have sufficient self- confidence and over dependent on mobile phones. In fact, people nowadays store almost everything in their mobile phones, from the profiles and contacts of their friends to the photos which they took with their loved ones. With these excessive information stored in the mobile phones, one can easily understand how important 3G mobile phones are to these people.
In fact, there is a study in Japan which has raised the concern of the emergence of a “thumb generation” with reference to the use of fingers to type text messages, play video games and many other tasks via their 3G mobile phones. This has made the young people of Japan reluctant to learn the kanji characters which are the basics for their every day conversations. Besides, some time back, it has appeared in a Malaysian daily that students tend to use shortcuts and simplified words from their text messaging and applies them in their essay writing assignments.
Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak has also commented recently that young generations nowadays are not into the habit of reading books. This is partly due their indulgence in the piece of technology called mobile phones which could provide them with 24-hour entertainment such as games and chat sessions. The large memory database and the easy accessibility to the Internet via 3G-enabled mobile phones also allows young generations to retrieve almost any information on any fields of study without having to try hard to learn up all the facts about a particular subject.
This has contributed to a poorer state of self-development and growth. All is not lost yet as there are also some advantages of 3G phones. Take for instance, in the past, if you want to recognize a route to a destination, you normally remember the local landmarks rather than the name of the roads. Post year 2000, when a concept known as “memophotos” is introduced through camera phones which allow users to store maps and various pieces of information in their mobile phones, it has provided users with an easier navigation to their destinations. G phones with high resolution cameras also enable users to take photos of public transportation and timetables and store them in their phones without the hassle of having to bring the leaflets containing this information every time they wish to board a public transport. The other feature worth mentioning is the video feature in a 3G phone. Imagine that a mother in Malaysia who wishes to chat with her son who is pursuing his studies in Australia will only be able to see him in person once a year.
However via video chats, mother and son are able to see each other in person, thus bringing back the “human touch” in communication between people as the technology allows the observation of gestures and facial expressions during communication rather than just voice, which are all main aspects in the context of communication. In fact, there are a few jargons used to describe the personality of people in terms of their level of acceptability towards this video feature of 3G mobile phones. The first type of people is called “understudy” which is willing to talk on the video phone but does not feel comfortable with it.
They feel intimidated with the thought of other people being able to observe what they are doing while in the conversation. The second type of people is known as “leading man/woman” whereby they will try to create an ideal image of themselves via the high resolution and multi-features of their camera-equipped phones which enables them to modify their photo images and then try to portray themselves as one. Next, there is this type of people known as “no-show” which declines the usage of video calls.
For instance, businessmen in Hong Kong and Taiwan have the practice of frequenting nightclubs and entertainment outlets to entertain their business contacts and they definitely would not want to receive any video calls from their wives and girlfriends while at these places. The next type is called ” the natural”, whereby to this type of people, they would like to retain the human aspect of communication by leveraging on the technology which enables them to express themselves more naturally via voice, gestures and facial expressions simultaneously, thus enabling them to cherish these moments with their loved ones.
The final type of people is called “the mask” which has a growing population in Japan whereby users will still use video calls, but their video images will be represented by their favorite animated characters known as “Chara-den”. 3G : FAST AND FURIOUS 3G technology has made us aware of something: SPEED. Many of us might have had the experience of spending the whole day downloading movies, video clips, songs and other contents from websites during the slow speed networks in the dial-up modem era.
The emergence of broadband Internet has made life easier and the time taken to download and upload contents from the web are much lesser nowadays. The entire sitcom drama can be downloaded in a short span of time with the click of a button. High-speed internet is also one of the main factors that users in Korea and Japan have upgraded from the previous technologies to 3G. In a fast paced society such as Japan, time is equal to money. Commuters are taking advantage of this technology by reading manga comics on the phone, sheet by sheet.
Besides comics, e-books and e-novels which have the feature of page-turning to give readers feeling as if they are reading the real books rather than scrolling down an endless list of texts are commonplace in Japan nowadays. Younger generation will also play online computer games such as Final Fantasy when they commute. As for the Koreans, students are also using their commuting time to watch the broadcasts of their lectures on their 3G phone while businessmen will tend to check their emails and ensuring that they reply to their business partners as fast as they can.
The various applications in the phone also enable users to manage time for their programmes and appointments, mark the special occasions and events such birthdays and anniversaries of loved ones and remind users when that special day arrived. In fact, we have always complained of missing our favorite televisions shows due to our hectic working life. This is a thing of the past as 3G has another application which enables users to programme the home hard disc recorder via mobile phones.
Besides, 3G also enables those who are not physically present in an event to share the experience in real time. Sports is the best example to visualize this. If you encounter this scenario whereby you are not at home and you are at a remote area with no access to television. You are a staunch supporter of Liverpool and your team is playing a crucial match against Manchester United. 3G-enabled mobile phone will be the savior of your day as it allows you to watch the game live via television and video streaming.
India which has the second biggest population in the world is an ardent fan of cricket games. Therefore, it is not surprising that when the country launched their 3G technology in July 2005, they have actually marketed the availability of cricket games clips as the driving factor for users to adopt this 3G technology. Therefore when speed has become an integral part of our lives and storage capabilities has expanded, more and more people will actually save movies and images in their mobile phones and watch them while they are commuting or traveling.
In fact in Australia, people tend to store beautiful images which they had captured when they go traveling in their mobile phones and send them to their friends and loved ones just to remind them of a wonderful weekend outing or to cheer them up. 3G AND DEVELOPMENTS IN MEDIA COMMUNICATION In the olden days, professionalism is keyword which is used to describe the services rendered by people in professions such as journalism, news reporting and medical services. Nowadays, mobile professionalism known as “mofessionalism” has taken the world by storm.
This really shifts the attention from the concept of “who you are” to “where” when one wants to venture into the world of documentation. For instance, for world tragedies and events such as the London suicide bombing in July 2005 and even the struck of the devastating tsunami in Asia in December 2004, it is the normal people who had recorded the images and footages of these events and then sent them over to the news network for national broadcasting. This makes us wonder whether the emergence of 3G technology has marked the end of the era of professional journalism.
In health and medical services, there is also breakthrough as there are patients who want to have a diagnosis by doctors of their diseases can just merely capture the images and send them to the doctors. In Australia, doctors also used their phones to take pictures of injuries of their patients and send x-ray to consultants. There is also a real life illustration of a chef who was bitten by a highly venomous Brazilian spider and his quick thinking of photographing the spider using his 3G phone and send it to his doctor has enabled the prompt identification of the anti-venom and thus his life is saved.
There is also a gadget known as mobile eye-phone that is developed to help the blind. For instance, a blind person has entered a building for the first time and unable to locate the reception area. The person can use his mobile video telephone to call an assistant to request for the description of the surroundings. This will enable the person to be navigated to floor guide whereby the assistant will then read to the person that the reception is on a particular floor of the building. There is another piece of good news for hard core smokers. It is said that people with 3G phones will have six minutes added to their lives without hem realizing it. Do you think this is unbelievable? In Soviet Union, where people are into theatres and operas, people will normally go out at breaks to smoke cigarettes. However nowadays, people will actually go out to check on their mobile phones instead of smoking and this makes the earlier statement seems logical. 3G technology also has some impact on the spiritual part of our lives. Many movies have based on the theme of mobile phones. For instance in Asian horror movies such as One Missed Call and Ju-On, the spirits from the netherworld try to make contacts with human beings via mobile phones.
This shows how phones have become not only part of physical but also spiritual part of our lives. Another example is in Israel, whereby phone users have the rights to request their phone service providers to switch off the connection to their phones during the observation of a religious time known as Sabbath. Many might have remembered during the funeral of Pope John Paul in Rome back in 2005, thousands of mourners paid their last respect to the Pope and at the same time, captured the moment with their mobile phones.
This has sort of actually replaced the old tradition of taking away a piece of cloth known as relic on the saint’s body during the funeral with this “digital relic”. 3G AND THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY 3G technology has changed the way of life of the community in one way or another. The first instance is the development of the idea of “sharing”. For instance, there are many mobile phone advertisements nowadays which depicts a group of youngsters looking at the media content of the mobile phone and share their thoughts and happiness.
This explicitly means that phones have changed from becoming a gadget of interest solely for their owners to a gadget with a storage and display system in which items of interest to a wide range of people are accumulated. Interactions between peers are becoming common with 3G. For instance, previously, a lot of people purchase goods such as clothes out of impulse and this may be regretted at a later stage. This situation has changed a lot these days. In Korea, suitable and prospective clothes are photographed sing the mobile phones and then sent to friends who would then give opinions whether it is a best buy or not. There are some who actually uses video calling to touch base with their friends from the changing room and ask their opinions about the outfit, while rotating the phone camera which functions like a mirror so that their friends would be able to assess the outfit from all angles. Yet there are some who actually uses video call to ask for their friends’ opinion whether the outfits which they are supposed to wear for a date are suitable or not.
In Japan, there is trend of playing “janken” (known as rock-paper-scissors game) via video call to ascertain who would be buying food for a gathering, who would be driving to a movie or dinner and many others. Therefore, without us realizing, the decision making and delegation among peers has been made possible using 3G mobile phones whereas in the past, peers can sit for hours together without even being able to make a single decision or one can go on shopping and purchasing goods but regretted most of the purchase later. G has also been the newest and fastest way of making friends throughout the globe. For instance in Japan, leveraging on the peer networking websites such as Friendster in the United States, they have a system known as Mixi, a digital system for establishing or maintaining friendships and relationships, be it near or far among its more than 500, 000 members. Each of these members usually has his or her circle of friends averaging about 10 to 20. The scenario is similar in the dating scene. In Japan, yet again, there is this dating agency known as Deai which is using text or message-based dating system.
First of all, those who are interested to join Deai will have first fill in their particulars such as age, occupation, favorite pastimes and the criteria and attributes that they are looking for in their future partners. The agency will then compare and match it with the profiles of the opposite sex and since it is also a location-based services, if there is a match and the prospect is in the vicinity of the member, the member will receive a message analyzing their suitability by percentage.
The member can then text the prospect if he or she is interested and in this way, both parties could avoid embarrassment if things do not work out their way and this also indirectly encourages people who are shy to be more outgoing and proactive. In fact, if you have not noticed, Japan which is known for its close-ended culture has begin to open up to the world and though there is an obvious difference between the Western culture such as United States and Eastern culture, namely Japan, it seems that 3G technology has bridged the gap between them.
Another way of life which has certainly changed is the rapid abandonment of snail mails and postcards. Imagine that a student who is studying in England suddenly thinks of his girlfriend in Malaysia and decides to buy a postcard and write some personalized messages on it and drops it to a nearby mailbox. The postcard will then be sent to the post office which will then flew it to its destination and the whole delivery system usually takes about a few weeks’ time. By the time the postcard arrives in the hands of the recipient, it could have been read by a lot of people and has defeated its purpose of being a personal form of correspondence.
However, 3G has made the distance between sender and recipient seems closer. Once again, imagine the same student who is studying in England suddenly walks by a floral shop and sees this beautiful bouquet of lilies which is much loved by his girlfriend. He immediately uses his 3G mobile phone to photograph the flowers and then send the picture message to his girlfriend in Malaysia with a personalized message:” These lilies are beautiful, but definitely not as beautiful as you. ” One can imagine that the girlfriend will be overwhelmed with joy seeing this “virtual postcard” from him.
In actual fact, communicating vis-a-vis images such as this can be much more effective than words. We have seen how 3G has bridged the gap between two cultures and the distance between people who are far away from each other. Have you ever wondered that it is also able to bridge the generation gap in our society? It is not the matter of age when it comes to adoption of 3G technology. A lot of baby boomers, those in the age range of over 50 years old, have no problem using 3G phone features such as browsing the Internet or even video calling.
There is this Israeli grandmother who did just that. She not only uses her 3G phone for voice-calling, but also to store the pictures of her grandchildren taken with her. During coffee sessions with her friends, her friends will take out their photo albums while she will just need to take out her 3G mobile phone and show the pictures to them. Not only that, her grandchildren seem to be so impressed that they seem enjoy spending time with their technology-savvy grandmother.
Japan is another country which has a trend of grandparents buying two 3G phones, one for themselves and the other for their beloved grandchildren. 3G AND THE FUTURE As we have seen, 3G has “invaded” and changed a lot of areas in our lives, from banking to spirituality and eventually to the way of living in our society. As of the time that this paper is written, there are numerous countries which are already riding on the waves of this 3G technology such as Japan, Korea and the United States whilst there are still a lot of countries which are still working on the operability of 3G technology.
One of the main reasons of this slow-down approach in adopting this technology is the high cost incurred in the initial building of the entire 3G network infrastructure and the licenses which are often awarded to the major players in the telecommunication industry, thus creating a possible monopoly. Yet there are some countries such as Malaysia who sees a stiff competition between service providers and even mobile phone manufacturers.
While manufacturers such as Ericcson, Motorola and Nokia are busy coming up with some trendy features such as personalized ring tones or ultra slim phones considering mobile phones have become a new fashion accessory for the young generation, network service providers such as Celcom, Digi and Maxis are fighting nail-to-tooth to offer the lowest subscription fees, the lowest price per short messages service(SMS) and the lowest price for national calls no matter where you are in order to capture a larger market share
Irregardless of what happens, all these are converging towards a major utilization of 3G technology and its services in the distant future with vast improvement in terms of speed, services rendered and applications. In fact, there are already various requests from mobile phone users to enable their phones to measure the level of cholesterol in their body, to translate speeches and text messages into various languages and to enable their phones to pay bills as what credit card does today.
No one can foretell where 3G will take us in the future but you can be sure that all of us will be “on the mobile” in the world and space of 3G, which means being here, there and anywhere! MAIN JOURNAL REFERENCES •Robins, Fred. (2003), “The marketing of 3G”, Marketing Intelligence and Planning Volume 21 Article no 6,page 370-378 year 2003 •Lim, Heejin; Widdows, Richard; Park, Jungkun. 2006),” M-loyalty:winning strategies for mobile carriers”, Journal of Consumer Marketing Volume 23, Article no 4, page 208-218 year 2006 •Dodourova, Mariana. (2003), “Industry dynamics and strategic positioning in the wireless telecommunications industry: the case of Vodafone Group plc”, Management Decision Volume 41 Article no 9 page 859-870 year 2003 •Kodama, M. 2004), “Innovating business strategies through strategic communities”, Strategic Direction Volume 21 Article no 10 page 9-11 year 2005 •Condos, Chris; James, Anne; Every, Peter and Simpson, Terry(2002), “Ten usability principles for the development of effective WAP and m-commerce services”, Aslib Proceedings Volume 54 Article no 6 page 345-355 year 2002 •Hart, Jim; Hannan, Mike(2004), “The future of mobile technology and mobile wireless computing”, Campus-Wide Information Systems Volume 21 Article no 5, page 201-204 year 2004 •Lau, C.
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