For example, some of the athletes taking part In these events went as far as drug doping to gain an unfair advantage over their competitors. The use of drugs in sporting events started back when the original Olympic games started (from 776 BC – 393 BC). The word “doping” comes from the Dutch word “top” which was a viscous opium Juice and the drug of choice for the ancient Greeks. (Bowers 1998). The aim of this assignment is to highlight the main events in the history of drug doping, and the effects it has had on the modern day Sporting events.
Due to people dying from doping such as Danish cyclist Nut Jensen and British cyclist Tommy Simpson, the sports governing bodies such as the International Olympic Committee ND the International Association of Athletes Federation decided to clamp down on drug use and Introduced new rules and drug tests. A lot of high technology drug testing Is now used In most professional sports In the modern day, to ensure that doping Is at a minimum.
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According to FAA report (1996-2009) the FAA became the first International Sporting Federation to try reducing the amount of doping through putting the following rule in its handbook in 1928; “Doping is the use of any stimulant not normally employed to increase the poser of action in athletic competition above the average. Any person knowingly acting or assisting as explained above shall be excluded from any place where these rules are in force or, if he is a competitor, be suspended for a time or otherwise from further participation in amateur athletics under the Jurisdiction of this Federation. FAA (1996-2009) The ancient Olympian competed for cash prizes, olive wreaths and status in their home town. The Olympian would eat lots of meat and experiment with herbal medications to try and gain a better advantage over their competitors. They also drank wine potions, used hallucinogens and ate animal hearts or testicles to try and Improve their reference. Nonsense 1998) In the late 19th century, cocaine and related alkaloids were used from the coca leaf. It was believed that the coca and cocaine were used to reduce fatigue and hunger. (Murray 1983).
The first person who died due to doping was Andrew Linton who was a Welsh cyclist which overdosed on Trimester in 1896. As drug doping became more popular in the 19th century, drugs such as strychnine, cocaine, nitroglycerine, digitalis and heroine were used by more different sports such as cyclists, runners, swimmers, ice skaters and boxers to enhance the sports persons performance. According to (Profiteered (2008) during the Olympics in 1904, Thomas Hicks who was an American runner won the marathon, however he collapsed shortly after flashing.
This was due to the fact that before and during the race, his trainers twice dosed him with mixtures of strychnine and brandy which was a performance enhancing stimulant. It was believed that one more dose could have resulted with death. According to (Mannered 2006) during the WI Germany, Japan, Canada and ten us servers all uses amphetamine pills to make teen more aggressive Ana reduce any fatigues. The Germans used Testosterone, which helped the soldiers eel more aggressive and physically stronger.
Due to further research about the Testosterone drug, Hitless mental state was explained as before he died, he suffered many side-effects such as; being overly aggressive, violent behavior, depression, suicidal ideologies, mania and paranoia. The first affective strength producing drugs were Dominant Steroids which were used by a US doctor and weightlifter John Bosses Ziegler in the asses. Ziegler promoted Dominant Steroids to the American athletes, which bulked up to unusually big sizes, and couldn’t be detected in competition until the asses.
Harris 2009) Within Olympic competitions, the first athlete to die from doping was the Danish cyclist Nut Jensen who died in 1960 during the summer Olympics in Rome. He died during the km trial race which was where he collapsed and fractured his skull. At first people thought this happened due to the high temperatures, however, the autopsy revealed there was the amphetamine drug Ironical in his system. (Miller 2010) The first person to die in completion of the Tour- De-France was British cyclist Tommy Simpson. Simpson died in the 13th stage of the cycling race due to consuming excessive amounts of amphetamines.
Simpson was one of the best cyclists, with different achievements to his name such as; Bronze medalist in 1956 Sydney Olympics, Silver medalist in the 1958 Commonwealth Games and sports personality of the year in 1965. He collapsed off his bike, however with help from fans he climbed back on the bike and tried to go on and only managed to cycle another half a kilometer before collapsing again, but this time he died. (Rosen 2008) Due to the death of Tommy Simpson and other athletes having bad reactions to amphetamine drugs, the International Olympic Committee realized omitting needed to be done to stop doping in sports.
Three principals were introduced in 1967 which were; the defense of ethics, the protection of health of athletes and ensuring an equal chance for everyone. (Howard, Mutagen, Title 1988) The first drug testing at the Olympic Games was at the winter games in Greenbelt in 1968. (Dime 2006) This is where Hans-Gunner Illegally was named the first athlete to be tested positive for drug use. Due to being tested positive his whole team had been disqualified and stripped of the bronze medal which they had won in the pentathlon.
Profiteered 2008) The first full scale drug testing were at the 1972 Montreal Olympics, where 2079 athletes were tested for narcotic analgesics and three classes of stimulants. The new testing process, seen 7 athletes disqualified from the competition. (Amtrak 2003) This shows that the International Olympic Committee had started to make positive changes through reducing doping within sports. In 1975 anabolic steroids were added to the International Olympic Committees list of banned substances. Tests for the anabolic steroids along with the other banned substances started at the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games. 6 drug tests were carried out on athletes and 11 of the athletes were disqualified for testing positive for banned substances, with 8 of the athletes found tested positive for the use of anabolic steroids. (Amtrak 2003) Due to the drug tests in the Olympics becoming more serious, athletes realized that it wasn’t worth getting disqualified from the competition, therefore in the Moscow Olympic Games in 1980, there was no report of any athletes testing positive for any banned substances. (Wilson, Deere 2001) As Aragua testing Decode part AT more sports events, surprise Aragua tests start o take cause.
The first surprise drug test was in 1983 in the Pan American games. These surprise drug tests lead to 12 members of the US track and field events to withdraw themselves from the competition and a further 1 5 athletes being found positive for banned substances with 11 of these being weightlifters. Due to the amount of participants found positive for the banned substances and people withdrawing from the competition, the United States Olympic Committee announced that there would be random drug testing at any meets where the athletes qualify for places on the International teams.
Wilson, Deere 2001) This improved drug doping in the United States as the random drug test came as a big shock to the athletes, and the athletes realized it could affect their careers if they were caught doping as it could rule them out of being on the international team. As the drug tests become a regular part of the Olympics and other international competitions, athletes tried to find ways around the system through providing doctors notes claiming they were prescribed the drugs.
This first happened at the LA Olympics in 1984 when the team doctors from the USA and Switzerland both provided documentation explaining that heir pentathlon teams needed beta-blockers for medical reasons. Beta-blockers are only prescribed for people with heart problems such as high blood pressure and angina. (Gorging, Parry 2005). Due to athletes abusing the system through the team doctors, athletes had to suffer the loss of medical benefits for example, Rexes Williams who was a snooker player with genuine health problems used beta blockers during his career and he was disqualified from competition.
In the 1988 Seoul Olympics, a further 10 athletes were tested positive for illegal substances. One of these was the mum gold medalist Ben Johnston who was found positive for using the steroid Stallion. Johnston paid the price of having his gold medal taken from him along with a 2 year ban from competition, however he then returned to competition and was found positive of doping again in 1993 which is where he was then banned from competition for life.