Performance management typically includes goal setting, performance appraisal, training and development, and performance-related pay (Monika communications), feedback to employees (Engle et al. , 2008- global performance management). In my essay I will elaborate on how to carry out the activities in performance management effectively Expatriate failure Expatriate failure can be defined as the premature return of the expatriate back to the home country. (TUB). There are various reasons for expatriate failure.
They are Inappropriate selection, Inadequate pre departure and cross-cultural training, and he stress related to the exploration. Cleopatra management practices of New Zealand business These reasons suggest that as long as the performance management activities : The first step In the expatriation process is the select suitable expatriates for the overseas assignment. ( how expatriates are often selected wrongly) Most Ones tend to select expatriates based primarily or solely on technical ability and managerial capabilities.
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Although US Ones placed more emphasis on technical ability while European Ones more emphasis on managerial capability, they both soused on the Job related and overt criteria of the overseas assignment. Such a does not compensate for the lack of soft skills required to succeed overseas. ( selection training and rewarding the expatriate) Therefore, although technical ability is still an important selection criteria ( the lack of it us the sixth contributor to expatriate failure- Tune 1987), there should not be an overemphasis on it as a selection criteria. Factors tat influence expatriate failure) Apart from such specialties, prior international experiences have also been found to be critical for future expatriate success (Takeouts et al. 007). –> exploring tool of spouse Other factors such as cultural sensitivity, adaptability, independence, physical and emotional health, age and experience and the spouse and children of the expatriate should also be considered in the selection of suitable expatriates. (Preparation for Overseas Assignment) to ensure the best candidate is selected for the overseas assignment.
Readiness for overseas assignment( reducing expatriate failure) An expatriate, who is insensitive to the host country business customs and procedures, is unlikely to be effective. For example, an expatriate of a contraction firm who was .NET to India drew hate and distrust amongst his foreign co-workers because he overlooked the local work practices. As a result, the whole project was delayed for six months . (Dodo & Maidenhead, 2000) (untaught,SMS) Expatriates have to be adaptable to new situations and environment to be able to fit in with the host country ‘s environment and culture.
If the expatriate feels isolated from the host country , it would be hard for him to focus on his assignment which would then adversely affect his Job performance. Assessing a candidate’s adaptability should not be based intuition but rather on a set of indicators. For example, working experience with other ethic cultures other than the expatriates own, a consistent trend that in the expatriates’ performance appraisal that he is willing to cooperative and collaborate, and recent immigrant background or heritage.
When the expatriate is on an overseas assignment, he has to handle many issues on his own in an unfamiliar environment. Therefore , it is important that they are independent to be able to carry out their duties efficiently and effectively in the foreign country. Examples of indicators that reflect the independence of an expatriate would be the involvement in special projects or task force and previous field experiences. Being in a foreign environment can induce turmoil on the physical and emotional health of a person. ( citation) .
If a person feels alienated from the country culture and social practices (give more examples), or even the difference in climate, he may feel isolated and emotionally stressful. This may lead to indulgence in self- destructive behaviors such as sexual problems or alcohol abuse. Therefore in selecting suitable candidates, Ones should also put candidates through a medical ND psychiatric assessment. For instance, candidates with a heat condition or any condition that requires prompt medical attention such as a heart condition may not limited or inadequate, (give another example) 0 maybe change to preparedness.
Candidates can also be tested for readiness to undertake an overseas assignment. This can be done through psychological test, stress tests, performance evaluations from multiple raters such as superiors, subordinates and peers as well as professional evaluations from licensed psychologists. (Maidenhead, Dunbar, & Dodo, 1987, p. ( reducing expatriate failure )333) Spousal and children adaptation Besides considering the expatriates’ own suitability for the overseas assignment it is also important to consider the ability of the expatriates’ spouse and children to adapt to the overseas environment. This is also a cause of much expatriate failure) Spouses and children should also undergo pre assignment medical and psychological tests to assess their suitability for living overseas. The spouse and children who relocates to a foreign country with the expatriate also face adjustment issues such as new household lifestyle, new schools an done environment. There ay also be a loss of income and self esteem for the spouse who has to leave her Job behind in the home country( esp. if her career was a high ranking and fulfilling one) ( need to substantiate) Spouse and other family members are often overlooked in the selection of expatriates.
The spouse or family member who is accompanying the expatriate on the overseas assignment has to be able to adapt to the foreign environment too. If they go through cultural shock and react negatively to the stress of relocation, the expatriates; morale and performance will also be adversely affected. (Graining training and career patting. Use the India national thing) Although the accompanying spouse is a very important factor in determining the success or failure of oversea assignment, he or she is often overlooked in the expatriates’ selection process. 121) When the spouse and children of the expatriate follows him or her on the overseas assignment, they are faced with the challenge of adapting into a new culture and environment. Accompanying spouses may have also had to leave behind a career and social support networks of friends and relatives to start anew in the new country. He or she may then feel stressed out and unhappy over the loss of income and self esteem. Role of spouse in expatriate failure) If the accompanying spouse goes through cultural shock and react negatively to the stress of relocation, the expatriates’ morale and performance will also be adversely affected. Graining Cooper, 1981; Gaylord, 1979; Harvey, 1982, 1985;Tune, 1982)0 expatriate selection – training and career patting. Therefore a relevant selection criterion to consider is the suitability of the expatriates’ spouse and children to live overseas. This can be assessed through psychological and personality tests. Preparation for Overseas Assignment) For instance, spouses who are less neurotic tend to be able to cope with he stress that comes from relocating (Brick and Allen 2003).
This in turn helps to take a load of the expatriates’ mind so he can focus on performing his task well. ( exploring the role of spouse in expatriate failure) Training and Development( include t and D for spouse) No matter how well selected candidates are, MEN should still provide them with training to adjust to the new culture. This is because some behaviors that are acceptable in the home country may be offensive in the host country. Candidates may be unsure of which behaviors are appropriate or not in the host’s culture.
The raining will enable them to deal with problems that they are likely to face in their overseas assignment more effectively. (Maidenhead, Dunbar, & Dodo, 1987, p. 332). — > reducing expatriate failure. Hence reducing the likelihood of expatriate failure. ( enhancing success and reducing failure) Despite the importance of training, a study found that only 32% of the respondents offered formal training programs to prepare their expatriates for their overseas assignment with up to 68% of the respondents not offering any kind of training at all. Evidence how cross cultural training has helped to increase expatriate success ) re departure training would be useful to help the expatriate to adapt and adjust into the foreign country ( TUB) 177 Effective pre departure training should comprise of the following elements: Language training,(TUB) cross cultural training(TUB), provision of essential information (preparing exe for overseas assignments )and security briefings and practical assistance(TUB). Preparing exe for overseas assignments) Language training (TUB) The ability to speak and understand the local language in the host country is crucial in improving the expatriates’ effectiveness and as well as his family members’ ability to adjust to the foreign environment. This is because knowledge of the foreign language increases the expatriates’ negotiating ability and enables the expatriate and his family members to be included in the local social networks and support structures out of work and the expatriate community.
The importance of language training was shown in a survey conducted by Tune when respondents indicated that the ability to speak the foreign language was Just as important as cultural awareness in helping them to adapt and perform in the foreign environment. According to the survey this was the case even if the host country culture is very different from the mom country culture. Even though language training is very important, many Ones do not provide in as part of their pre departure training. This is partly because it takes a long time to even learn the basics of a foreign language. ( However how to overcome .. Essential information Although no consensus have been reached, evidence have shown that knowledge of the host country culture helps expatriates better understand the local culture which in turn may increase the expatriates’ relationship with the local people. Therefore, expatriates should be provided with a booklet should be prepared to increase the expatriates’ knowledge of the host country. The booklet should include general information about the host country politics, religion, history , , geography and economics of the country and also information about adapting to everyday life such as schools , housing and postal services.
The booklet should also inform the expatriate on the business formalities of the host country. To familiarize the expatriate with content of the booklet so he may internalize the information better hence increasing performance level, some of the materials should Other materials could be reserved as a guide after the relocation of the expatriate. The booklet should also be made available to the expatriates’ family, as they would also need to adapt to life in a foreign country. Cultural Sensitivity Training Cultural sensitivity training is necessary to ease the process of intercultural adjustment for the expatriate. Talk about cultural shock etc…. ) Gaining a better understanding of the host country culture can help the expatriate to be tolerant of new ideas and different ways of approaching and solving issues in a different culture (this needs to be elaborated) Effective cultural sensitivity training sessions should start with the building of trust amongst participants. This can be achieved by sharing information and through the discussion of feeling amongst the participants. The next step would be to get the expatriate to be more aware of his or her own culturally embedded habits.
Participants should be encouraged to critically review the impact of culture on everyday life and interactions with others. Through this process, participants are able to view the behaviors of their foreign counterparts more objectively and hence may be more willing to alter their own behaviors to complement the local people while they are on their overseas assignment. The sensitivity training should also consist of stimulated situations that an expatriate might face overseas. For instance, interacting with a host country national during the first business meeting.
The instructors should first set an example for the expatriates by acting them out the scenarios before getting the expatriates to Join. This should include the way the local people speak, their body language and their mannerisms. It should then be compared against the expatriates’ home culture so that the expatriates can observe the differences in behavior. ( Give some country examples ) Last but not least, cultural sensitivity training should also include expatriates enacting workplace situations that they will face such as reprimanding and offering assistance to foreign co-workers.
The trainers should then react as local employees. Their behaviors should then be discussed with constructive feedback and suggestions should then be given to the expatriate This would give the expatriate an idea of what working with host country nationals would be like and prepare him to respond appropriately in that culture. ( give some examples) A well-designed cross-cultural training can aid the expatriate in appreciating or at east understanding and accepting the foreign culture so that he would be able to behave appropriately relative to the foreign culture.
It also helps the expatriate adapt to the foreign environment hence increasing his effectiveness (TUB) Maidenhead et al, suggested that a comprehensive, through training program is one that utilizes all three training approaches. The three approaches are the information giving , affective and immersion approach. The information giving approach is the most basic approach where candidates are only taught what is required to survive in the foreign country. The main aim of this bevel of training is to give the candidates relevant information.
For example candidates are given simple language training, area and cultural briefings. Films to watch and books to read. The affective approach goes one step further than the cognitive approach whereby the level of intensity of the training increases. For example, candidates are given culture assimilation training, more advanced language training, are asked to participate In role plays and case studies. The most intensive approach would be the immersion approach.
In this approach candidates are given comprehensive language training, sensitivity training and field experiences Just to name a few. However, one very practical limitation this model is the amount of time and money needed to provide such an extensive training for expatriate. Therefore an arbitrary factor would be the length of time in which the expatriate is out stationed and the degree of integration within the host culture that is necessary for the successful completion of the overseas assignment( refer to appendix 1- expatriate selection – training and career patting).
From appendix 1 , it is shown that as the need for degree of integration with the host culture increases , the rigor of training also increases from the low intensity information giving approach to the high intensity immersion oriented approach. Also, as the degree of integration increases, the length of training also increases. (Manhandled Dodo, 1986)expatriate selection- training and career patting . Practical assistance & security briefings KIEV first. Practical assistance includes Given the impact of spouse and children issues on expatriate success or failure, there should be customized training arranged for them.
For example, spouses should be given language and cultural training to equip them with the skills of interacting tit the local people, arranging pre-assignment visits to the foreign country and including them support groups so that they can involve themselves with meaningful work and also establish new social support networks. (Pungent et al. 1992; Pungent 1997). –> exploring role of spouse in expatriate failure Performance appraisal is one of the key components in performance management.
Through performance appraisals, the MEN is able to maintain some degree of control over the expatriates; behavior hence reducing expatiate failure rates and improving performance in the overseas assignment. (3) Performance appraisal is also linked to compensation and rewards and influences the expatriates’ career development, future promotion prospects and compensation adjustments The One’s expectations of high performance may unwittingly contribute to expatriate failure because xx..
Expatriates should taken off active management duties during the first six months of relocation to the new country to allow him and his family to adjust to the new environment and culture. (11) 0 Performance Appraisal Easy to say hard to do. When conducting performance appraisal, it is important to translate goals into performance criteria. Technical and managerial skills, cultural adaptability, flexibility, language aptitude, cultural sensitivity to local norms and customs sales and profits are some examples of the issues that need to be accessed.
These issues can be categorized into hard and soft goals. Return on investment (ROI). Soft goals are subjective and qualitative. They tend to be trait based or relationship based such as leadership styles, interpersonal skills and relationships with local communities. ( talk about advantages and disadvantages) Besides hard and soft goals, contextual goals should also be included in the performance criteria. Contextual goals considers factors arising from the unique situation that the expatriate is facing. For example XX.
It is important to consider these goals because the the complexity of working in the overseas assignment means there may be much more factors that the expatriate is not in control of that the appraiser may not be aware of. ( Dowling et al, Greens et al 19,20) Appraisal Rater ( KIEV)NO Expatriate Performance management from Ones of different national origins To ensure that the performance evaluation of expatriates is as fair, objective and credible as possible, it is best carried out by multiple raters. The raters could be supervisors, peers subordinates, self-appraisal and customers.