Intro School leaders are instrumental to the motivation of their students and to the success of their schools. In exploring the five approaches to motivation, Behavioral, Humanistic, Cognitive, Social Cognitive, and Socio-cultural the book Instructional Leadership: A Research Based Guide to Learning in Schools seeks to highlight the placement and affects of each these approaches on student learning. Authors Anita and Wayne How explore how people learn and the role of motivation as both a general and specific state on student engagement and achievement.
All five approaches takes into consideration the individual’s attitudes, behaviors and predispositions and how that contributes to and affects the individual’s ability to learn effectively. Trace There are three pillars for teaching effectively. If there is a failure to any part of the pillars students’ quality level of learning is lowered. The first pillar is the constructivist theory students need to first understand the material and then the learner must process the information and then the learner must be given time to practice and apply their new skills.
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To be able to fully understand a learner needs to cake the knowledge a permanent part of their skills learned. Behavior is initiated and regulated by an individual’s plans, goals, schemas, expectations, and attributions (How and How 2009). Engaging students in their learning motivates students and makes them feel confident in their knowledge. As children we learn early the positive and negative tones of our parent’s. As a child when we did something positive our parent’s instantly praise us and voice may be excited. However when corrected by parent’s they may have used a stern slightly ruff voice to correct you.
This type of behavior is engraved in our memory and we strive although life to seek those positive rewards whether it be with our parent’s, friends, teachers, or bosses. In Head start and kindergarten is an excellent example of the behavior theory approach. Students are rewarded each day by either their color hasn’t changed throughout the week or they have kept a happy face all week meaning they have stayed on task all day with little or Tee reminders. students are to take toner Teeters none can clay Ana nave their parent’s sign the folder informing their parent’s of their daily progress and lassoer behavior.
At the week students would get to choose from the choice board for extra computer time, pick an item from the treasure chest or a positive phone call home. Lee Another approach to motivation is the humanistic approach. In this approach, it triggers action by playing off a person’s desire for self-actualization. This is the idea that a person wants to reach their maximum potential and evolve to their best possible selves. Such an objective allows for a natural prompt to trigger an organic type of motivation, where the stress of compromise and agreement is minimal.
Abraham Moscow (as well as Edward Deck’) found that a humanistic approach to motivation focuses on a motivation that is intrinsic in its sourcing and utilizes an introspective lens (Wolff). This lens shows that motivation is essentially about satisfying needs and fulfillment items. These items are represented in the Moscow Hierarchy as the “three higher-level needs?intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, and self-actualization” and simply known as the “being needs. ” The value here is that if the needs are met “a person’s motivation does not cease; instead, t increases to seek further fulfillment” (How and How).
Humanistic motivation also has a great effect on attendance in regards to kinesthesia activities in education. In a true cause and effect relationship, a student is able to see that the more practice that they put in, the more efficient they become at their activity. Many coaches and athletic instructors require a set reserve of practice hours before an athlete can play in a game. This is to ensure that there is adequate exposure to the rigor of the athletic event and that the value of hard work is tangibly measured. This type of motivation can be utilized by an adjustment to the tone and culture within the classroom.
A teacher who shows a vested interest in the student and builds in systems of autonomy for the student to grow is essential. This situation will allow the student to take ownership over his/her education and feel like a partner in the process of learning. The use of project based learning and long term activities that are constructivist in nature will allow a student to experience an authentic buy in to his/ her education. For example, in a mock court debate, where a student work group is laying the role of a defense legal team the students have the ability to pick their own defense and develop a game plan for cross examination.
If the team consists of students who are trying to grow as public speakers, this event allows for multiple entry points of success and fulfillment. If a dedicated focus can be made to implementing at least one project based learning assignment each unit, humanistic motivation could be have a natural fit in any learning community. Thiamine The social cognitive approach in the education setting explains why students perform he way they do is linked to how they view themselves and their environment.
To understand how to motivate students, we must first understand students’ thought process and what exactly motivates students. Students are motivated by experiences that are positive. The first reason is past experiences, whether positive or negative. Students perform better in areas where experiences are positive and will continue to respond or Deanna positively, especially IT ten results are positive or rewarding. Similarly, students whose experiences are negative will tend to shy away or avoid that particular area.
In turn, the experience will cause them to experience negative results; ultimately they will begin to lack motivation (Bandeau, 1986). Teachers must plan, creatively, to nurture positive experiences within the classroom. The comprehensive, collaborative plan should be one that is individualistic and cooperative, focusing solely on the efforts of the individual student, but, allows students to work together to accomplish a goal (Wildfowl’s , 1978). Successfully accomplishing the desired goal coupled with the positive experiences will prompt students to begin to think and believe in a positive manner.
Studies suggest that, as students begin to think positively, they will perform based on their thinking and will start to desire rewards that are given based on positive performance. Teachers can cultivate a positive environment and motivate students by showing students that they have a vested interest in their education and that they matter. Teachers can also make learning challenging, yet, attainable for all ability levels and make learning interesting by making it relevant, up to date, and fun (Wildfowl’s , 1978). Conclusion Engaging students in their learning motivates students and makes them feel nonevent in their knowledge.
The instructor’s ability to tap into that intrinsic motivation of the students as well as their ability to foster extrinsic motivation factors, aids the student in being successful in the learning process. How quotes Fulfilled, Purr, and Enrollees, stating that “Instructional leaders have three major goals. The first is to get students productively involved with the work of the class: in other words, to create a state of motivation to learn. Second, teachers want students to move beyond simple participation to cognitive engagement, to think deeply about what they study.