All the factors within the nature- nurture debate interact with each other (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). Genetic factors can influence a person’s physical, intellectual, emotional and social development. A gene is inherited from the mother and father. Sometimes recessive or dominant genes (alleles) can cause genetic conditions to form, such as downs syndrome or cystic fibrosis (Royal College of Nursing, 2012). Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive and defective gene called CUFF (NASH Choices, 2012). This means that if both of the parents carry the gene, there is a 25% chance of the child having cystic fibrosis.
If the child only Inherits one of the genes, compared to two, they will only be carrier and will remain unaffected (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). Cystic fibrosis effected 1 In every 2,500 babies that were born In 2011. There are over 9,000 people living with the condition In the UK. The condition predominantly affects people of northern European descent (NASH Choices, 2012). Cystic fibrosis causes the cells In the body to allow too much salt and water into them. This causes mucus buildups and blockages in the bodies’ tubes and passage ways.
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The mucus buildups mainly affect the lungs and digestive system (NASH Choices, 2012). Cystic fibrosis effects hysterical development because mucus builds up in the tubes of the pancreas and causes decreased digestive capabilities. If the digestive capabilities are decreased, a person may have to take dietary supplements to aid growth. An individual with cystic fibrosis is more likely to become ill due to bacterial infections in the lung, resulting in weight loss, weakness, and malnutrition (NASH Choices, 2012). In infancy malnutrition can effect growth.
If growth is effected then milestones such as walking and running will be delayed. An Individual with cystic fibrosis will have to take more breaks urine physical satellites to cough or have a drink. The Individual would still have to take part in physical activity to loosen the mucus buildup and force it out of the lungs (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2012). In adulthood, cystic fibrosis can cause respiratory conditions, like bronchitis. This can lead to a decreased level of physical strength and a higher level of ill-health. The life expectancy for adults with cystic fibrosis is only 37. , meaning they have a reduced lifespan. Cystic fibrosis can cause the chances of diabetes developing in later life to increase, because of the tubes leading from the pancreas being blocked. Some adults with cystic fibrosis may also need a lung transplant, which could lead to physical-ill health and complications. Some people with cystic fibrosis can find that they are unable to reproduce due to blocked passageways In the sexual organs. (NASH, 2012). An Individual’s intellectual development Isn’t usually effected by cystic fibrosis If It Is being treated properly.
If cystic fibrosis Isn’t treated a person Is at risk of malnutrition. American Pediatric researchers have found that malnutrition can stunt cognitive growth and this can development, especially in childhood. This is because the child is more likely to be kick than a non-suffering child. Some people believe that if the child is sick more often they will spend more time in bed with their parents entertaining them in alternative ways, such as reading or talking (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2012). Cystic fibrosis can increase the chance of illness.
If a sufferer is in training at university or college and they have time off they will quickly fall behind. Cystic fibrosis means that some Jobs are too risky for sufferers- because it can put them at a higher chance of infection. An example is that a sufferer may choose not to train to be a lab assistant- u to the increased exposure to micro-organisms (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2012). Research has shown that those with cystic fibrosis are less likely to engage in risk taking behaviors like smoking or drinking. People believe that this is because risk taking behaviors are more dangerous for those with the condition.
Some cystic fibrosis sufferers have been found to form less close relationships with others and have less time to go out and socialize due to illness (C.V. Carmaker, 2012). An individual can be affected by biological influences before birth. Drugs such as nicotine and alcohol can have a direct impact on a fetal development. One condition known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAST) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FAST) is caused by excess levels of alcohol whilst in the womb. It causes learning difficulties and physical defects (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010).
FAST is the most serious form of the disorder and it causes an number of facial abnormalities including a small skull, thin upper lip, short nose, and a flat midlife. FAST suffers are more likely to develop hearing and ear problems, mouth, teeth and facial problems, a weak immune system, epilepsy, liver damage, kidney and heart defects, cerebral palsy, and height and weight issues. Alcohol doesn’t always cause the facial abnormalities associated with FAST (Drink Aware, 2012). An umbrella term has been developed for a wider range of learning and physical disabilities associated with alcohol during pregnancy called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
FAST is associated with learning and behavioral disabilities such as hyperactivity and egocentrics. FAST and FAST is not yet fully understood and is very hard to diagnose. It is not yet known how much alcohol during pregnancy causes FAST and FAST, so the NASH advises that no alcohol should be consumed within pregnancy (NASH, 2012). It is understood that he chances of FAST and FAST decrease with low levels of alcohol consumption and increase with high levels of alcohol consumption (Drink Aware, 2012).
The learning difficulties and physical characteristics associated with FAST and FAST can directly impact on an individual’s social, intellectual, and emotional development. Individuals on the fetal alcohol spectrum have been found to have low levels of concentration and show some hyperactivity. This can impact a child’s school life and their Job prospects if they do not receive the help they need. Those on the fetal alcohol spectrum can also show high levels of anxiety and egocentrics. This can cause an individual to become shy and not be able to cope in social situations (Drink Aware, 2012).
The stigma and misconception associated with all physical and learning disabilities can impact on an individual’s emotional and social development due to the way they are treated by others. Some people are often bullied or belittled for development, almost destroying their self-worth and confidence (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). Environmental factors like pollution can affect a person’s health and development environmental factors can have a positive effect on development as ell as a huge detrimental effect on an individual’s physical development.
Pollution is a factor that can affect a person’s general health, development, and aggravate existing health conditions (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). Short term exposure to moderate levels of air pollution is unlikely to have much effect on a healthy person’s general health and development, although prolonged exposure to high levels of Nitrogen Dioxide can irritate and increase the prevalence of symptoms for those with existing respiratory disorders. Carbon particulates can build up in the lungs and increase the chances of diseases affecting the cardiovascular system.
Carbon monoxide can also considerably decrease the uptake of oxygen for those with heart disease (Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, 2012). Those who live in areas with high levels of pollution are more likely to develop respiratory conditions than those in rural areas with low levels of air pollution. Pollution can also be from landfill sites, this can attract rodents and pests into the surrounding areas- impacting on people’s mental health and stress levels. (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010).
Methane s a by-product of the decomposition of organic compounds that are stored in landfill. Excess amounts of methane gas can cause nausea, slurred speech and headaches. In severe cases, methane can cause heart and respiratory problems, although volatile gas levels are monitored at landfill sites in the UK- to prevent health complications (Health Protection Agency, 2010). Water pollution in areas like Africa contributes to thousands of early deaths each year, due to bacterial infections like cholera from contaminated water supplies (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010).
Lifestyle factors can also have an impact on an individual’s development. Lifestyle factors include how an individual choose to spend their money and time. The government has started to target some lifestyle factors, like use and misuse of substances through taxation and legislation (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). Besides medication, alcohol and nicotine are the most widely used legal drugs in the western world today. Alcohol affects almost all areas of individual development. Alcohol contributes to 2. 5 million deaths each year globally (WHO, 2013).
Excess amounts of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver, reduced fertility, high blood pressure, increased risk of cancer and heart attacks. Alcohol is a depressant that causes the brain to struggle whilst processing information. The brain struggles to remember detailed information, make clear and reasonable Judgments, and signal movement. Alcohol has can worsen existing mental health issues and even cause some of them (PUPA, 2010). Underage drinking can damage the brain and restrict learning and intellectual development; this carries on into later life (US National Library of Medicine, 2013).
Alcohol has been linked to depression, self-harm, and suicide. Almost 63% of suicides are taken out whilst under the influence on alcohol. Alcohol impairs a person’s reasonable Judgment and the consequences of their actions are usually ignored (Alcohol Action Ireland, 2010). Physical and cognitive development of a fetus can be disrupted by alcohol, as explained earlier in this assignment. Alcohol breaks down the mucus layer that protects the tissue in the stomach from acid erosion. This can cause short-term stomach ulcers. The heart has to work harder to supply tissues with oxygen when alcohol is taken.
This increases the blood pressure and makes the liver work even harder when filtering the blood- leading to cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol causes the body to release a diuretic hormone that signals the kidneys to start releasing water, causing the body to dehydrate and an individual’s mental state to deteriorate further (PUPA, 2010). Alcohol has wider effects on the people surrounding the drinker. It has been found that alcohol abuse is directly linked to child abuse. Child abuse can effect a child emotional and social development.
Some victims of child abuse find it hard to trust people and become very withdrawn- leading to depression in severe cases (BBC, 2006). Smoking is another lifestyle factor that can effect an individual’s development. This is because one puff on a cigarette fills the mouth and lungs with over 4,000 chemicals. This includes 80 recognized carcinogens, cyanide, carbon monoxide, arsenic, ammonia, and nicotine. All 4,000 chemicals in cigarettes interfere with basic cell function and cause changes in the DNA structure or damage vital structures. This is why smoking accounts for 25 different diseases (BBC, 2011).
A recent graphic government stop smoking campaign explains that for every 1 5 cigarettes smoked one genetic mutation grows, many of the mutations are killed by the body but others survive and turn into cancer (BBC, 2012). The WHO says that globally, 5 million deaths every year are due to smoking or passive smoke (BBC, 2011). Smoking is more damaging to younger people. Those who start smoking before the age of 15 are three times more likely to die of a smoking related illness than somebody who starts in their ass’s. Nicotine is the ingredient in cigarettes that causes addiction.
It is a highly addictive substance that activates receptors in the brain that cause cravings for nicotine for the rest of a person’s life- it takes Just 6 cigarettes for this to happen (BBC, 2011). Smoking can affect fetal development during pregnancy. It can lower an infant’s birth weight, causing slower than average physical development. Smoking during the earlier stages of pregnancy has been suggested as a probable cause for many miscarriages. Infant exposure to second hand smoke has been linked with sudden infant death syndrome (KIDS) and infant respiratory illnesses, such as pneumonia and bronchitis (BBC, 2011).
The respiratory system and cardiovascular system are greatly affected by smoking. Lung cancer kills 2,000 people in the I-J every year as a result of smoking. Lung cancer is difficult to treat and survival rates are or compared to those of other cancers. Smoking can also increase the risk of oral, throat, liver, kidney, bladder, stomach, and cervical cancers. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung condition that is very common in smokers. It makes it hard for smokers to breath and causes exercise to become unbearable and impossible.
The risk of coronary heart disease is increased by smoking. It causes atherosclerosis and the blood supply is restricted or blocked. This damages arteries to the brain and can cause strokes. If blood flow to the extremities and limbs is blocked, amputation may have to occur. Amputation can lead to disability and prevent a person from engaging in their everyday social life. Disability can cause people to become depressed or feel isolated (BBC, 2011). Income and expenditure are socio-economic factors that can influence an individual’s development.
A person’s income links to every aspect of their life, from what they can afford to eat, to their emotional development. Income refers to money raised from employment wages, business profits, welfare benefits, property and monetary investment, inheritance, and property sale (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). Poverty in the I-J is those shoulder who have an income below 60% of the median I-J income. Low income refers to people who have very little or no money to spend after they have paid all of their bills, food, and travel expenses.
Key groups like lone parent families/ single earners, the unemployed, the elderly, the sick and disabled, and unskilled occupancy couples have all been identified as more at risk of poverty than other groups in the I-J. In 2007 it was confirmed that 2. 7 million children live in a low income household (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). Buxton and Dixon (2004) (as cited by Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010) said that poverty has three main disadvantages. They suggested that hose in poverty are more likely to live in areas where the levels of crime are high; therefore they are more likely to become victims of crime.
Buxton and Dixon also suggested that poorer communities are more likely to be in areas with high levels of are and noise pollution; contributing to stress and respiratory disorders. The final disadvantage that poverty poses is a low life expectancy. Some reports indicate that low income causes stress due to anxiety about bills and food. Reports have found a ink between mental illness and suicide attempts and low income- this has been put down to higher than average levels of anxiety and substance abuse among low income households (Secondarily, 2011).
Low self-confidence has been linked to household income. Children in low income households are more likely to have poor self-confidence. This affects their self-worth and esteem and can lead to them believing that they will never earn lots of money (Stretch and Whitehorse, 2010). This can cause intellectual barriers and hinder social development because they feel that hey are not good enough Those with a low income are more likely to live in poor housing because they cannot afford their own home or they cannot afford to replace things.
Children are the worst affected by poor housing. Poor housing increases the chances of ill-health in infants and children by 25%. Children who live in overcrowded housing are 10 times more likely to contract meningitis and one in three people who grow up in overcrowded and damp housing develop respiratory problems in adulthood. Children in poor housing are less likely to have access to leisure facilities, which increase the chances of childhood obesity (Shelter, 2006).