Dear Friend, I sympathize with you newly discovered prognosis of type 2 diabetes. It is a process of deciding now, how to utilize your method of change in diet, exercise and properly medicating yourself. I took the initiative of preparing some information on type 2 diabetes for you that may help you in your process of change. Explain the role of insulin and glucagons in regulating blood sugar.
The human body requires that the blood glucose level is maintained in a very narrow range. Homeostasis is regulated by two hormones, insulin and glucagon which are both secreted by the endocrine pancreas. The production of insulin and glucagon by these pancreatic cells ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes or another related problem. Insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to high blood sugar, although a low level of insulin is always secreted by the pancreas.
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After a meal, the amount of insulin secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose ises. Likewise, as blood glucose falls, insulin secretion by the pancreatic islet beta cells decreases. In response to insulin, cells (muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells) take glucose in from the blood, which ultimately lowers the high blood glucose levels back to Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas when blood glucose is low. Blood glucose is low between meals and during exercise.
When blood glucose is high, no glucagon is secreted from the alpha cells. Glucagon has the greatest effect the liver although it affects many different cells in the body. Glucagon’s function is cause the liver to release stored glucose from its cells into the blood. Glucagon also the production of glucose by the liver out of building blocks obtained from other nutrients found in the body, for example, protein. Blood glucose is normally maintained between 70 mg/dl and 110 mg/dl. Blood glucose levels below 70mg/dl, denote the situation of “hypoglycemia”.
Although blood glucose levels of 110mg/dl can be normal, this is only the case if a meal has been taken within 2 to 3 hours. A blood glucose level of 180mg/dl or more, is termed hyperglycemia. ” Diagnosis is made if blood glucose levels are above 200mg/dl after drinking a sugar-water drink (glucose tolerance test). Explain what goes wrong when someone has diabetes and how it can be treated. When you have diabetes, your body can’t properly use the energy from the food you eat. This problem is closely tied to how your body makes and uses insulin.
Insulin is a substance made in your pancreas (an organ in your body) that helps to keep your blood sugar (glucose) within normal range unless you have diabetes. A main important to control your cholesterol and blood pressure levels. Managing your type 2 diabetes includes: Using your medicines exactly as your doctor prescribes. Making smart food choices, and being physically active. Managing your type 2 diabetes is an important goal. As a result of what your friend is experiencing, what is happening with her level of cortisol? Explain where cortisol comes from and how it exerts its control.
Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone or glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex, hat is part of theadrenal gland (in the zona fasciculata and the zona reticular’s of the adrenal cortex). It is usually referred to as the “stress hormone” as it is involved in response to stress and anxiety, controlled by CRH. It increases blood pressure and blood DEALING WITH DIABETES sugar, and reduces immune responses. Cortisol is a steroid and one of the primary stress hormones. Production is stimulated within the endocrine system’s hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
Secretion comes from the adrenal glands, hich sit Just above the kidneys. Cortisol is a lifesaving hormone. When you are under stress it comes to your rescue, mobilizing carbohydrates and fat for instant energy. It also keeps our blood sugar steady while we’re sleeping and helps us wake up in the morning. If your energy level is very low in the morning but seems to increase right around the time everyone else is getting ready for bed, your cortisol cycle is probably out of whack. It’s a good indication that you will reap huge benefits by taking steps to rebalance your adrenal glands.