Comparison Paper University of Phoenix Mary Crawford ? Comparison Paper The purpose of this paper is describing the history of public health, including pertinent dates and significant events and the different aspects of public and community-based health. Public Health is on a national, state, and county scale dealing in research, data analysis, and recommendation for health promotion. The Center for disease control, the national institutes of health, and census are examples of public health.
Community health uses the research done by public health and implements it based on the population’s needs, political direction, or private funding (J. Koot, n. d…. ). Examples of community-based health care are the local health department at the present time giving H1N1 flu vaccination free of charge to all citizens in Pinellas country. Pharmacies and home health agency collaborate to give the vaccinations and a fair price. These community-based healthcare systems are giving the vaccinations based on research by the CDC and NIH. History of the U. S.
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Department of Health The national U. S. Department of Health and Human Services began with hospitals and care for seamen and marines in 1798, the Quarantine Act of 1887 moved power to quarantine people with infectious disease away from the stale level to the national level. The marine hospital system for sailors was renamed the Public Health Service on 1906. Children’s Service created in 1912 and changed to an advocate of children’s interests, child labor laws, for example. Bureau of Indian health service of 1921 created health services for Native Americans on reservations.
In 1930 National Hygienic Laboratory, later became the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, became the food, and drug administration (FDA,) 1946 Communicable Disease Center and afterward converted into the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (n. d. ) “The Cabinet-level Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) was created under President Eisenhower, officially coming into existence April 11, 1953. “” HEW became the Department of Health and Human Services, officially arriving on May 4, 1980″ quoted from U. S. Department of Health and Human Services HHS. ov (HHS. gov n. d. ). Research information about county, state, and national public health resources Today U. S. Department of Health and Human Services work to protect the health of the nation and provide essential services to the needy. The agencies of the DHH carry out an extensive array of services, including research, public health, food, and drug safety, grants, and other funding, health insurance, and others ( HHS. gov , n. d. ). See Appendix B for a list of the agencies. The agencies conduct research, educate, and inspect to protect and promote health in the nation’s people’.
The agencies make recommendations based on healthy people 2010 (Foundation, 2002). Each of the states and territories has a single recognized official state public health agency that is managed] by a state health commissioner (state of FL, 2009). Florida has a surgeon general in this capacity, “Ana M. Viamonte Ros, M. D. , M. P. H. is Florida’s first State Surgeon General and the first Cuban American woman to serve as leader of the Department (state of FL, 2009). Governor Crist has mandated the Surgeon General to act as the state’s chief advocate for wellness and disease prevention. Dr.
Viamonte Ros’ oversees the Department of Health–Florida’s largest sole clinical enterprise and among the most all-inclusive and multifaceted public health care delivery systems in the Nation (state of FL, 2009). ” Approximately 20,000 employees work in all 67 counties at over 300 clinical delivery sites” (state of FL, 2009 pp1)She is dedicated to improving health care by use of more user-friendly systems, promoting healthy habits with Florida’s youth, prepare the state for natural and man-made disasters, reducing health disparities, and leading Floridians to better health by example (state of FL, 2009pp1) Public Health Nursing
The Florida department of health is a government run office with services for children, and families, the elderly, the infirmed, research, education, and health nursing. The goal of the public nurse is to ensure and promote health and nursing education and recognition. The agency provides continuing education and communication, staffs, manages special needs shelters. .Public Health Nursing, is responsible for the training and organization of a volunteer disaster workforce called Florida Medical Reserve Corp (Department of health Florida, 2008)s.
Sites are community-based whose purpose is to locally -organize and, make use of health professional is skills, talents, and expertise through a volunteer program to promote community health and take action in emergency conditions. The education required to serve as a public health nurse is master degree (CDC, n. d. ) Community Nursing Community Nursing works with the individual in hospitals, nursing homes home healthcare, and hospice. The nurse uses the research and recommendations and her employer allows providing evidenced – nursing practice.
Community nurses may participate in nursing research, however; the analysis and interpretation are done by the agencies listed above or by university studies. Each employer has a set of standards and minimum requirements for safe care. At Bayada nurses, the company requires office skill lab and testing before assigned to a client, 24 hours supervised orientation before working independently with an extended homecare case (Bayada, n. d. ). Community nursing is also helping family, friends, and neighbors in a volunteer capacity to promote health and teach about medicines and treatments prescribed by the doctor. Conclusion
Public health is part of this nation’s strengths. What started as services for few privileged sailors, has evolved, and responded to epidemics and natural disasters. Through public education, health promotion and disease prevention our people have the opportunity to take control of their own personal health. Research and analysis helps to guide the recommendations and teaching, as new information is discovered the teaching for health promotion changes. Public health is put into action by legislation and political acts. Community healthcare may be for profit, nonprofit or government- run, healthcare delivery systems for individuals.
Policy and recommendations are done through public health and delivered through community health (J. Koot, n. d. ) Appendix A lists some of the attribute of public compared to community nursing. ? Public Health Nursing Community Oriented local, state, nation, world community • Nation • State • Community • Populations at risk • Aggregates • Healthy • Culturally Diverse • Autonomous • Able to def ne problem • Client primary decision make • Educator • Consultant • Advocate • Planner • Collaborator • Data collector/evaluator • Health status monitor • Social engineer Community developer/ partner • Facilitator • Community care agent • Assessor • Policy developer/maker • Assurance • Enforcer of laws/ compliance • Disaster responder Population oriented • Program manager, aggregates • Health initiator • Program evaluator • Counselor• Change agent-population health • Educator • Population advocate Community Health Nursing individual, family, group • Caregiver • Social engineer • Educator • Counselor • Advocate • Case manager Group Oriented • Leader, personal health management • Change agent, screening • Community advocate • Case finder Community care agent • Assessment • Policy developer • Assurance • Enforcer of laws/ compliance Appendix Copied contents from (Marcia Stanhope, 2008, pp. 1195 [The abbreviation for "page” in an in-text citation is "p. "] -1196) ? Appendix B The Agencies: (ACF) Administration for Children & Families (OS)Office of the Secretary (AoA) Administration on Aging (AHRQ) Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (ATSDR) Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease (CDC) Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CMS) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (FDA) Food & Drug Administration HRSA) Health Resources & Services Administration (HIS) Indian Health Service (NIH) National Institutes of Health (OIG)) Office of Inspector General (SAMHSA) Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration List Copied from (HHS, n. d. ) ? References HHS. gov. (n. d. ). Historical Highlights, The roots of the Department of Health and Human Services go back to the earliest days of the nation. Retrieved January 16, 2010, from U. S. Department of Health and Human Services: http://www. hhs. gov/about/hhshist. html Bayada. (n. d. ). Homecare handbook. FL: Bayada Nurses. CDC. (N. D…. . Field Assignments. Retrieved January 16, 2010, from cdc: http://www. cdc. gov/phps/FieldAssignments/ Department of health Florida. (2008). Florida Department of Public Health. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Florida’shealth. com: http://www. floridahealth. com Foundation, P. H. (2002). Healthy people tool kit 2010. Washington, D. C. HHS. gov. (N. D….. ). About HHS. Retrieved January 16, 2010, from HHS. gov: http://www. hhs. gov/about/ J. Koot. (N. D….. ). Community-based Health Research and Community-based Health Information Systems for Policy and Practice in Developing Countries.
Retrieved January 15, 2010, from Public Health Consultants-Amsterdam: http://www. phc-amsterdam. nl/artikelen/comm_based_research. htm Marcia Stanhope, J. L. (2008). Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered; Health Care in the Community. Copyright © 2008 by Mosby, Inc. state of FL. (2009). State Surgeon General of the Florida Department of Health. Retrieved January 14, 2010, from Florida’s Health. com: http://www. doh. state. fl. us/statesurgeongeneral. htm 14, 2010, from Florida’s Health. com: http://www. doh. state. fl. us/statesurgeongeneral. htm