Wynisha Ogunleye African- American History 320 Writing Assignment #3 04/13/2010 Chapter 21 Question 2: What key issues and events led the federal government to intervene in the civil rights movement? What were the major pieces of legislation enacted, and how did they dismantle legalized segregation? “The Jim Crow regime was a major characteristic of American society in 1950s and had been so for over seven decades. Following slavery, it had become the new form of white domination, which insured that blacks would remain oppressed well into the twentieth century. (Morris) Civil rights and segregation were the two main issues during the 1950’s and 1960’s. While the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas was in progress the National Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) established the Legal Defense and Educational Fund (NAACP-LDEF) in 1940. It was ran under the leadership of Thurgood Marshall to provide legal assistance to poor African Americans all while, bringing greater justice to everyone. The LDEF fought for civil rights, equally, segregation in education and politics. (Hine Et.
Al, 2010:574) Constance Baker Motley was a NAACP-LDEF lawyer who fought for the justice of African Americans, race exclusion, and black professionals. Her actions made remarkable contributions to cases including: State of Missouri rel. Gaines v. Canada, Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, and Sweatt v. Painter. All of these court cases were key elements for civil rights and segregation laws to become enhanced. In 1955, after the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court ruled against “separate but equal” principle of Plessy v.
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Ferguson for public education. The new policy was ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, and required the desegregation of schools across America. The white people hated this new policy of desegregation and fought back through violence, hate crimes, and lynching. Chapter 21 Question 3: What were the ideologies, objectives and tactics of the major civil rights organizations and their leaders? Many African Americans during the civil rights era were tired of the horrific living conditions and treatments from their Caucasian counterparts.
Although the United States government declared all citizens equal, African Americans were still put through hell because of the color of their skin. Empirical support for challenges to classical collective-behavior theories come from revolutionist studies of the civil rights movement. (Killian) The civil rights era was a time for change, respect, and most importantly, dignity. (Killian) In 1946, Chairmen of Alabama State College English Department, Mary Frances Fair Burks founded the Women’s Political Council (WPC) after being turn down as a member of a majority white League of Women.
The objective of the (WPC) organization was to encourage professional women to fight the institutionalized racism of Montgomery, Alabama by having the willingness to stand up to powerful white people. In addition, this intellectual organization provided leadership and job opportunities for women of color. The WPC was the first group to officially call for a boycott of the bus system during the Montgomery Bus Boycott which helped to revitalize the strength of the African American community. After leading the NAACP and the Alabama chapter of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, E. D.
Nixon founded the Montgomery Voters League in 1943. The ideology of the organization was to guide African Americans through Alabama’s gruesome voter’s registration process. Their helpful tactic was designed to help blacks succeed through the various tests that had been set up by white people to make it more complex for them to register as voters. In 1955, Martin Luther King Jr, who was twenty-six years old, led the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA). This improvement association was the key element for the Montgomery Bus Boycott because it structured and organized national attention on segregation. Gordon) In 1956, African Americans were delighted to have the right to sit wherever they wanted on the bus. Martin Luther King Jr was also associated with the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC). The objective was to provide stabilization for local movements, raise money for the community, and it was the backbone for struggle. The National Advancement Association of Colored People (NAACP) is another civil rights organization that is similar to the SCLC, yet has different tactics.
When the SCLC emerged, the NAACP doubted their efficiency, views and tactics. Because both organizations are to endure the rights of African Americans, they often work together despite their differences. Both organizations helped to launch the Albany Movement, which was led by William G Anderson in November of 1961. This movement strategized essential roles and tactics for the civil rights movement. Lastly, in 1960, Ella Baker founded a nonviolence ideology called the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) upon greatness.
The purpose was for young African Americans to support civil rights leaders, coordinate sit-ins, freedom rides, and budgets, the Mississippi Democratic Party. The SNCC was one of the most prestigious civil rights groups because all the opportunity and strength it gave African Americans. (Gordon) Chapter 24 Question 1: What social, economic, and material gains did African Americans make after the civil rights era? Why did some black Americans do better than others during this period? After the civil rights era, African Americans began to happier and healthier lives.
Various African American leader and role models stated to come about including Oprah, Jessie Jackson, Colin Powell and more. Also there was an increase in African American political leaders, entertainers, correspondents, professional athletes, musicians, and dancers. Black Entertainment Television (BET), Robert Johnson, was the first African American man to own a professional basketball team; Barry Gordy led Motown Record to the road of success while Russell Simmons became a business icon. (Hine Et. Al, 2010:671) The list of African American leaders continues to grow day by day.
Economically, job opportunities, and house hold gross increased dramatically for working African Americans. Affirmative action laws gave the African American race a chance to climb the success ladder instead of being stuck to the grown and oppressed by their Caucasian counter part. Also, African began opening their own businesses and acquiring assets. This dramatic increase was still nowhere near the wealth of the white. Knowing that this would give African American more courage to fight harder for what they deserved.
Although the African American race was thriving, there were still a small percentage of people lagging behind. Most African Americans were living in urban areas ere involved in gang violence; drug and alcohol related habits, drug distribution and unprotected sex. This was a major effect in the African American community because children were growing up in single parent homes, people were abandoning their responsibilities for drugs, HIV and AIDs rates were increasing, and most importantly, these people did not want help.
They accepted their way of living and did not want any way out. There were poor living conditions, and poor educational skills. Due to the increase in violence, the incarceration rate of African Americans also soared. Some African Americans wanted to obtain a better life and a better way of living, while the others depended on drugs and alcohol to make it day by day. Chapter 24 Question 3: Who were some of the most important African American writers in the late twentieth century? What is the hip-hop, and what is meant by the term the “Hip-Hop Planet”?
What is the relationship between rap music and hip-hop? African American writers in the late twentieth century began to rocket. In 1984, August Wilson wrote “Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom” which spoke about racism, “Fences” in 1987 and The Piano Lesson in 1990. (Hine Et. Al, 2010:676) Charles Fuller wrote the famous play “A Soldiers Tale in 1982, which won a Pulitzer Prize. Toni Morrison, Barbara Chae-Riboud, Toni Cade Bambara and Alice Walker were all African American writers who made a tremendous impact through their publications.
In addition, in 1992 three African American women including Toni Morrison, Alice Walker and Terry McMillan made the New York Times best sellers list. (Hines Et. Al, 2010:676-677) Toni Morrison was also the first African American woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. (Hine Et. Al, 2010: 677) Hip hop music is a style of popular music which came into existence in roughly the mid ’70s but became a large part of modern day pop culture in the late ’80s.
It consists of two main components: rapping (MCing) and DJing (audio mixing and scratching). Along with break dancing and graffiti (tagging), which was initiated by inner-city youth, mostly African Americans in New York City, in the early 1970s. (Sullivan) “Hip-Hop Planet” is the extent to which hip-hop has migrated beyond the United States and is now such a global and cultural force. (Hine Et. Al, 2010:680) Rap is the most popular genre of music for the African American community and it the most influential genre for the younger generation.
Rap music emerged into the American cultural mainstream in the mid-1970s when Russell Simmons saw the potential it had for business revenue. In 1984, he formed Def Jam Records and signed RunDMC and Public Enemy that both sold millions of records and generated millions of dollars in revenue. His also launched his own clothing line Phat Pharm, along with his wife Kimora Lee Simons, who launched Baby Phat Jeans. Sean “P. Diddy” Combs also launched his own company (Bad Boy Records) that also acquired millions of dollars from albums sold.
During the 1980s and 1990s hip hop artist including: RunDMC, NWA, Public Enemy, LL Cool J, Queen Latifah, Naughty By Nature, Guy, Black Street, and hip hop sensation dominated the music carts. Hip hop is a distinguished type of genre because it sets itself apart from the others through baggy clothes, slang language, trendy fashion statements and it is listened to by all nationalities of people. (Sullivan) Work Cited * Gordon, Jacob. “Black Males in the Civil Rights Movement. ” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 569 (2000): 42-55. Hine, Darlene Clark, William C. Hine, and Stanley Harrold. The African-American Odyssey. Vol. 2 4th Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Chapters 21 and 24. * Killian, Lewis. “6. Organization, Rationality and Spontaneity in the Civil Rights Movement. ” American Sociological Review 49 (1984): 770-83. * Morris, Aldon. “7. A Retrospective on the Civil Rights Movement: Political and Intellectual Landmarks. ” Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 517-39. * Sullivan, Rachel. “Rap and Race: It’s Got a Nice Beat, but What about the Message? ” Journal of Black Studies 33 (2003): 605-22.