The situation here on the Philippines still argued if a child at least 12 years old supporting house financial matters while still attending school consider as child labor. This case study showed the impact of child labor to access and participates on primary education. The study have focus on two selective pupils in one primary school to observed and understand the circumstances of two pupils that has been considered as a family bread winner while they were still attending the primary education. Data were gathered by four field researchers, spending two-week periods.
Information was collected through documentary analysis and obtained wrought interview with household heads, their teacher, interview with children in schools and homes and followed by interventions made by the researchers ensuring students’ learning will not be compromised even if they will help their parents at work. 2 Over two hundred years have passed since “The Factory Health and Morals Act,” the first piece of legislation that restricted the number of hours a child works, was first passed in Britain in 1802.
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Since then, many international organizations have been created to help eliminate child labor, most notably the International Labor Organization (ILL), the United Nations Children’s Fund EUNICE), and the inter-agency Understanding Children’s Work (OCW) Project. Yet, according to the 2004 ILL estimate, 218 million children are engaged in child labor in developing countries, of which 126 million were in hazardous conditions.
This is not to say all child work must be eliminated. Some economists argue that some light, non-hazardous work can benefit the child since it provides labor market experience and sometimes much-needed income for poverty-stricken families. The potential benefit for the child depends largely on the type of child labor, whether it is voluntary, the number f hours a week they work, and the extent to which work interferes with schooling.
Despite these potential benefits, there are some forms of child labor that are considered unconditionally harmful to the child: prostitution, forced labor, military, drug trafficking, and other “hazardous” work, defined as “work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children” (ILL-PIECE, p. 16). The ILL estimates that as of 2002, an estimated 178. 9 million children are employed in the worst forms of child labor.
Not only do these forms of child abort violate the fundamental rights of the child, they also inhibit economic development through their adverse effects on the long term development of human capital. 3 The problem of reducing child labor depends on what the actual determinants of child labor are. If poverty is the main determinant, an outright ban on child labor might only result in the children who must work to survive being involved in more dangerous work; if children are not recognized by the law as workers, child workers cannot be protected by the law.
Similarly, a developed country’s decision to boycott goods from developing countries tit child labor might only worsen the well-being of children in those countries by lowering their living standards and forcing them to work longer hours in potentially more hazardous conditions. CHILD LABOR What is work? Some said it is any form of compensated activity, while others specified that compensation could be in cash or kind. There was an issue as to whether unpaid child work was child labor.
In general, many agreed that child work is remunerated work (in cash or kind), done by children 15 years old and younger, while child labor implied work characterized as detrimental to the child. What characterized work detrimental to the child and whether employment of children in the home was child labor, remained issues. One clear indication was that the Philippine government had as yet not signed ILL or International Labor Organization Convention NO. 138 on the minimum employable age. It appeared that in the cultural context of the Philippines, where it was common to see children involved in adult work in practically all industry sectors, including in unpaid family labor, domestic work and homework, several opinions varied regarding child labor. Some said that not all child org was child labor (or that not all child labor was hazardous). Others felt that child labor by definition was exploitative and detrimental to the child worker.
Still others believed that even if child labor was exploitative and detrimental to the child per action programs should, nevertheless, prioritize helping the child in the more hazardous circumstances. ILL Convention No. 138, Art. 7(b) stipulates that light work may be permitted as of the age of 12 or 13 provided it does not “prejudice attendance at school” nor “the capacity to benefit from the instruction received”. This raises the issue of the impact of child labor on schooling for children in these age groups.
Notwithstanding a large and rapidly expanding literature on child labor, there is not much empirical evidence on this issue since much of this literature has concentrated on analyzing the causes of child labor rather than studying its consequences, especially for the child’s learning. The cost of child labor for human capital accumulation has simply been assumed rather than formally investigated. The limited evidence that does exist on this issue makes little or no attempt to control for the nonentity Of child labor hours in the estimation.
Such nonentity can arise because of the reverse causation of child labor by learning disadvantage and lack of necessary intrinsic skills. 5 Characteristics of Child Workers: Age, Gender, Work Most of the child workers studies were between the ages of 10-14 years, which age range the ILL said 1 out of every 9 is a child worker (ILL 1994). More male than female workers came to be included in the studies. However, data on the age and gender was difficult to compare, because of the variability of different age sets used as basis. It was evident that the work sectors children were involved in were age-and sex-specific.
From the limited samples included in the studies, it seemed that no child below 12 was found working in prostitution. Unfortunately, the materials in this review did not include children in pedophilia, many whom (as projected in media) were younger than 12 years old. Both male and female children were found in prostitution, with males entering the trader at an older age than girls. Female children were more associated than their male counterparts with work their mothers were already doing, such as home-related work, while older boys tended to follow their father’s work.
The national survey of children 5-17 ears old conducted by the NSA (1995) showed that there were more male than female child workers, especially among the older ones where boys doubled the number of girls. Male child workers also outnumbered female counterparts in the work sector of farming and fishing. Similarly other studies observed more boys than girls in stone quarrying, vegetable growing, and poultry farm work. On the other hand, the NSA found more girls than boys in wholesale/retail trade; non-food manufacturing industries; and personal services.
A more or less equal number of males and females were observed irking in glove and abaca/shell craft manufacturing, as well as in sardines canning. In the informal sector, girls were found to be more numerous than boys in sales, vending prostitution and domestic service, 6 while boys dominated in transportation and street-oriented service, as well as in newspaper selling. Younger scavengers could be males or females, but as they grew older, girl scavengers began to dominate in number.
While age and gender were shown to be related to specific types of work in communities, on the whole, younger age and femaleness was characteristic of work that was more home-bound/home-based and with less enumeration. Educational Status The studies showed that majority of the working children were in school. The NSA said that 69. 8% of the working children surveyed were studying. However, the studies also showed that the degree of being out-of -school was associated with the nature of work. A high degree of out-of-school child workers was found in prostitution and street vending, fishing and drying; and planting and harvesting of sugar cane.
Furthermore, some localities had a higher percentage of out-of-school working children than others, like Oromo. This was related to the high unemployment rate of parents in the municipality. It is to be observed those specific situations of child workers at the community level cannot be projected to, say, the municipal or regional level, and vice-versa. Child labor has been shown to vary across work, age, gender, and place over different periods of time. 7 The study is all about students who could still manage schooling even if they were obliged to work for their family’s daily living.
For this case study, the following two students that were chosen were both from elementary level and currently enrolled in 6 the grade. They got our attention when we sat -in in one of their classes. We can call them Josh and Lee. Josh was 12 years old, so with Lee. Their residences were 3 kilometers away from the school which they need to walk early in the morning to be on time on their first period at school. Josh and Lee are kind and helpful children. Josh usually helps his father in the farm for their living.
Lee on the other hand, was raised alone by his mother and the only son in the family and he has no choice but to help his mother out to sustain their daily needs. That’s why in their very young age, they learned how to earn for their living which sometimes may affect their school grades. During the class, at first, both were paying attention to the teacher, forever as the class goes by we noticed that both were dizzy and yawning as if they were having a big night the night before, until they start sleeping inside the class but it was not that really obvious though.
We were puzzled why these students were like this. After which, when the teacher was done discussing the topic she asked the whole class to get a piece of paper for a test. Those two students got up, immediately prepared a piece of paper and a pen and join the test. We were bothered if they can answer the test even without listening properly to the discussion. We 8 waited until the results were in. Of course, we were expecting for a low grade because Of their performance during the class and yes we were right, both got a low score.
But what made us amazed was, though they had that low grade but it was not a failing grade. We wonder how they did that. After the class we approached their adviser about the status of the two students whom we found out very tired during the class period. The teacher told us that those two students were already one of the breadwinners in the family who helped their parents looking for money for their everyday living and they fully understand that. During Saturdays and Sundays they went on he farm to help their parents or if someone will request them to tend their farm and hire them, they will also do it for money.
Sometimes, after class they will rush to their farm or to their “boss” to work in order to earn money for their food and for school. They were even very happy if there are no classes not because they can play with their playmates, but because they can help their parents look for money so that they have something to eat for the following days and have something to during school days. Upon knowing this, we also asked the teacher what were the interventions they made to help these students out.
She told us there were these remedial classes they usually conduct just for students like Josh and Lee. We also found out that it was not only Josh and Lee has this kind of situation, there were a lot of them, given that they were living in rural area where money is very elusive. The remedial classes were scheduled during lunch break and right after the afternoon class for just about 20 minutes each. The students here were taught on how to manage time for study and of course the teachers assess students’ area of difficulty and to 9 what area they have strength.
In this section, students were also counseled ND always emphasize to them the importance of education. There was this once before, as the teacher told us, parents have their children skip classes or even being absent just to help them do the harvest. But after some counseling to the parents, the students now are helping their parents during weekends and not school days, and if in school days only during after class and not school hours. What makes these students more special was, they were all very determined and willing to study.
You can see in their eyes the eagerness and the willingness to finish schooling even if sometimes their mime was corrupted for work. Aside from the remedial classes, teachers also provide these students special assignments and projects which can also enhance their learning skills and can showcase their talents by admitting them to their extra-curricular activities. We had this chance to witness how they do their remedial classes, here we noticed that’s and Lee were tying hard to catch up all the lessons they missed.
And instead of going to mingle and play with other students, at this time they need to pay more attention during the remedial class. Their time was corrupted once again for them to duty, since there is no other time for them to browse their notes once they got home. We happened had this chance to talk to the parents of this two. And both had same answers to our question on if they know why and how do their children have low scores in class. All they answered us was, “Because we don’t have someone else to help us in the farm, that’s why there were times their studies have been compromised”.
That’s a bit pity to them, but after talking to them, about the importance of their children’s education, they swore to cooperate in providing what is right for their 10 children and helping them coping up all what they had missed. That’s a relief somehow. Now, together with the teachers and their parents, we conducted this joint project. Collaboration between parents, students and teachers to enhance students’ learning and at the same time has their work a place for learning too. The following were the strategies we discussed to them in order to make this project happened. 1 Time management 2.
Work Place as a class room 3. Home as a School 4. School as a Stage As to Howard Gardener’s Multiple Intelligence, we, together with the teachers assessed these two students on what area they were good at and the area they were not. Asking parents’ permission is the first thing we did to make sure that this project will happen. The following were the interventions we made to ensure student’s learning will not be compromised even if they will help their parents at work. Time Management: Provide the students, teacher and the parents a uniform “TIME TABLE” for the students’ daily activities.
Through these, students may know when and where will be the right time to study and the right time to help their parents at work. And always make 11 sure that time table will guide them and eradicate unnecessary activities which may hinder their learning. Parents’ commitment to this project is vital. Work place as a classroom. Parents should always remember to continue student’s learning even at work. Proper social interaction can be taught here by parents. Since they were dealing with farming, parents’ should make it a habit to always educate their children regarding ecosystem.
That would be added learning for them. Work place does not mean only for money. There were a lot of subjects can be taught here. This may serve as their practical learning too. Home as a School. Like in school, there is a teacher and there are students. Parents’ have vital role here. Education is a continuous process. So it means that even at home education can also be taught such as, Home economics, basic chores and many more. School as a Stage. In this part, teachers’ play their role as the second parents. They should enhance, discover and develop each students potentials, talents and skills.