Types of species 1. Endemic species Endemics is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. They are only found in certain locations, they require special conservation efforts Animal examples: Lemurs of Madagascar, tortoises of the Galapagos, polar bears, koalas, kangaroos. Plant examples: Redwood forest in US 2. Indicator species An indicator species is any biological species that defines a trait or characteristic of he environment.
For example, a species may delineate an secretion or indicate an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution, species competition or climate change. Examples; Lichens for air pollution (larger lichen population, sulfur dioxide in the air), fresh water shrimps and stonily larvae for air quality. 3. Keystone species A keystone species is a plant or animal that plays a unique and crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions. Without keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether. A keystone species’ disappearance would start a domino effect.
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Other species in the habitat would also disappear and become extinct. The keystone species’ disappearance could affect other species that rely on it for survival. Example, prairie dogs, mountain lions, hummingbirds, sea otter 4. Recognition species The concept that a species is characterized by a unique fertilization system (the specific mate recognition system), which restricts gene-flow with other species. This changes the emphasis in the biological species concept from negative (not interbreeding with other species) to positive (breeding specifically with members of the same species). Mainly based on fertilization system and behavior
Example Within a single habitat in the USA, as many as 30 or 40 different species of crickets may be breeding but the female cricket recognizes the song of males of her own species and will breed only with a male who sings that song. The song, and the female recognition of it, constitutes a mate recognition system: the species has a specific mate recognition system by which it can be identified. 5. Genetic species Group of genetically compatible interbreeding natural populations that is genetically isolated from other such groups. Example donkeys, monkeys, snakes etc. Biology Assignment Types Of Species And Examples By Decoded