Semester Assignment

Semester Assignment Words: 2983

Assignments carry equal marks. 4. Assignments should submit In your ‘portal’ n/before the ‘completion date’ mentioned. 5. Case study project is based on the elective subject selected. Please submit your case study also In the portal on the ‘completion date’ of second semester assignments. Assignments Total Marks :OHIO 1. International Law What are your perceptions on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? Would you like to amend any of the articles or add a new article to the declaration?

Answer: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is half a century old, but critics are still asking whether anything in our multicultural, diverse world can be truly universal. Some ask, isn’t human rights? An essentially Western concept, ignoring the very different cultural, economic and political realities of the South? Can the values of the consumer society be applied to societies that have nothing to consume? Isn’t talking about universal rights rather Like saying that the rich and the poor both have the same right to fly first-class and to sleep under bridges?

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At the risk of sounding frivolous: when you stop a man in traditional dress beating his wife, are you upholding her human rights or violating his? The fact Is that there are serious objections to the concept of universal human rights which Its defenders need to acknowledge honestly, the better to refute them. The first is philosophical. All rights and values are defined and limited by cultural perceptions. There is no universal culture, therefore there are no universal human rights.

Some philosophers have objected that the concept is founded on an individualistic view of people, whose greatest need is to be free from interference by the state. Non-western societies often have a communitarian ethic which sees society as more than the sum of Its Individual members and considers duties to be nurtures the individual: ‘l am because we are, and because we are therefore I am. In most African societies, group rights had precedence over individual rights and conflict resolution would not necessarily be based on the assertion and defense of legal rights.

Then there is the usual North/South argument. The Universal Declaration was adopted at a time when most Third World countries were still under colonial rule. ‘Human rights’ are only a cover for Western intervention in the affairs of the developing world. Developing countries, some also argue, cannot afford human rights since the tasks of nation-building and economic development are still unfinished. Suspending or limiting human rights is thus the sacrifice of the few for the benefit of the many.

The human-rights concept is understood and upheld only by a small Westernizes minority in developing countries; it does not extend to the lowest rungs of the ladder. Universality in these circumstances would be a universality of the privileged. Many also object to specific rights which they say reflect Western cultural bias: the right, for instance, to political pluralism, the right to paid vacations (always good for a laugh in the sweatshops of the developing world) and, most troublesome of all, the rights of women.

How can women’s rights be universal in the face of widespread divergences of cultural practice, when in some societies marriage is seen not as a contract between two individuals but as an alliance between lineages, and when the permissible behavior of womenfolk is central to the society’s perception of its honor? In addition, some religious leaders argue that human rights can only be acceptable if they are founded on transcendent values of their faith, sanctioned by God. The Universal Declaration claims no such heritage – a draft reference to the Creator was consciously left out of the final text.

There is a built-in conflict between the universality of human rights and the particularity of religious perspectives. How can one respond to these objections? Concepts of Justice and law, the legitimacy of government, the dignity of the individual, protection from oppressive or arbitrary rule and participation in the affairs of the community are found in every society on the face of this earth. The challenge of human rights is to identify the common denominators rather than to throw up one’s hands at the impossibility of universalism.

The objections also reflect a false opposition between the primacy of the individual ND society. Culture is too often cited as a defense against human rights by authoritarians who crush culture domestically when it suits them. In any case, which country can truly claim to be following its ‘traditional culture’ in a pure form? None have remained in a pristine state; all have been subject to change and distortion by external influence, both as a result of colonialism and through participation in modern inter-state relations.

You cannot follow the model of a ‘modern’ nation-state traditions should be applied to Judge the human-rights conduct of that modern state. There is nothing sacrosanct about culture anyway. Culture is constantly evolving in any living society, responding to both internal and external stimuli, and there is much n every culture that societies quite naturally outgrow and reject. Are we, as Indians, Obliged to defend, in the name of our culture, the practices of sati or of intractability? The fact that slavery was acceptable across the world for at least two thousand years does not make it acceptable to us now.

The basic problem with cultural relativism is that it subsumes all members of a society under a framework hey may prefer to disavow. If dissenters within each culture are free to opt out and to assert their individual rights – for example, Muslim women in my country, India, have the right not to marry under Muslim Personal Law – then it is a different story. Rhea case that women’s rights emerge from a Western ethos is often vociferously made by men. Let us concede that child marriage, female circumcision and the like are not found reprehensible by many societies; but let us also ask victims of these practices how they feel about them.

How many teenage girls who have had their entail mutilated would have agreed if they had had the human right to refuse? For me, the standard is simple: where coercion exists, rights are violated and these adulations must be condemned, whatever the traditional Justification. Coercion, not culture, is the test. On religion, it is my belief that people allow God to be blamed for their own sins, and that human rights as we understand them are fully compatible with the secular understanding of all faiths.

Every religion seeks to embody certain verities that are applicable to all humanity-Justice, truth, mercy, compassion – though the details of heir interpretation vary. As for the suspension of human rights in the interests of paternalistic development: authoritarianism promotes repression not development. Martyr Seen has pointed out that it is the availability of political and civil rights which give people the opportunity to draw attention to their needs and to demand action from the government.

In fact, Ken’s work has established that no substantial famine has ever occurred in any independent and democratic country with a relatively free press. Though there may be cases where authoritarian societies have had success in achieving economic growth, Botswana, an exemplar of democracy in Africa, has grown faster than most authoritarian states. A number of developing countries – notably India, China, Chile, Cuba, Lebanon and Panama – played an active and highly influential part in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The principles of human rights have been widely adopted, imitated and ratified by developing countries, so it is hardly fair to suggest they have been imposed on them. “hen one hears of the unsuitability or ethnocentrism of human rights, what are the developing country can easily do without? Not the right to life, I hope. Freedom from torture? The right not to be enslaved, not to be physically assaulted, not to be arbitrarily arrested, imprisoned or executed? No-one actually advocates in so many Norms the abridgment of any of these rights.

Tolerance and mercy have always and in all cultures been ideals of government rule and human behavior. Objections to the applicability of international human-rights standards have all-too-frequently been locked by authoritarian rulers and power elites to rationalize their violations of human rights – violations which serve primarily, if not solely, to sustain them in rower. Just as the Devil can quote scripture for his purpose, Third World communitarian’s can be the slogan of a terminated tyrant trained, as in the case of POI Pot, at the Sorenson. The authentic voices of the Third World know how to cry out in pain.

Let us heed them. At the same time, the idea that human rights could be ensured merely by the state not interfering with individual freedom cannot survive confrontation with a billion hungry, deprived, illiterate and Jobless human beings around the globe. Human rights, in one memorable phrase, start with breakfast. For the sake of the deprived, he notion of human rights has to embrace not Just protection from the state but also protection of the state, to permit human beings to fulfill the basic aspirations which are frustrated by poverty and scarce resources.

We have to accept that social deprivation and economic exploitation are Just as evil as political oppression or racial persecution. This calls for a more profound approach to both human rights and to development. We cannot exclude the poorest of the poor from the universality of the Of course universality does not presuppose uniformity. In asserting the universality f human rights, I do not suggest that our views of human rights transcend all possible philosophical, cultural or religious differences or represent a magical aggregation of the world’s ethical and philosophical thought systems.

Rather, it is enough that they do not fundamentally contradict the ideals and aspirations of any society, and that they reflect our common humanity. Human rights, in other words, derive from the mere fact of being human; they are not the gift of a particular government or legal code. For the standards being proclaimed internationally to become reality we have to work awards their ‘indignation’ – their assertion within each country’s traditions and history.

If different approaches are welcomed within the human-rights consensus, this can guarantee universality, enrich the intellectual and philosophical debate and so complement, rather than undermine, the concept of worldwide human rights. Human rights can keep the world safe for diversity. 2. Strategic Management competitive environment (map the environment primarily as a pattern of competitive pressures from rivals, suppliers, buyers, entrants and substitutes). Steps need to be followed to strategies printing business:- . Planning for a brighter future starts with analyzing inner strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

Internal evaluation coupled with an environmental scan of the competitive landscape. B. Differentiate your firm – It’s all about creating a unique value proposition. Start Ninth your SOOT analysis. Everything is fair game (e. G. Technology, experience, certifications, commendations, price, value, etc. ). Invest in technology – Examples would include Web software that would allow customers to place and track orders, ERP suites, HER software applications, and other industry-specific technology. . Identify new markets – Typically the more avenues of distribution you have, the better off you are.

If, for example, you cater to the commercial market, consider the government space or even the aerospace and the aircraft sectors. 2. Enhance your Website – Your Website should be optimized so that it becomes a powerful Internet marketing platform for generating sales leads contributing to both short and long-term growth of sales. F. Invest in Training – Great companies realize the value of their employees and staff development. Don’t wait for the upturn to focus on training. Trained employees are ore confident, productive and resilient. Forge strategic alliances – Understand your core competencies, know what customers are looking for, and forge strategic partnerships to shore up your product and service portfolios. H. Trim costs surgically – Across the board cost cutting is risky at best. Analyze expenses with your key staff, one line item at a time. This way you can make strategic cuts, one cut at a time. And most importantly should be the last resort. I. Optimize your advertising effort – Go beyond traditional print advertising in trade Urinals and other publications. Be creative and don’t discount using Web-based genealogy (e. G. Ay-per-click advertising). And be sure to track the ROI for each activity to make your money count! Needs and expectations. Indeed, your sales representatives should become business partners to your customers. Following are main items of printing business:- manners skillets Bookmark resources resources and catalogues Business Cards Calendars Carbonates Forms Catalogs CD & DVD covers CD Inlays Color Copies Custom Logo Design Envelopes Fliers & Trefoil Invitation and greeting cards Letterhead and envelops Magnets NCR Forms Notepads Post cards Posters Presentation Folders Product Labels Promotional products

Rack Cards Rip Cards Rolodex Cards Sell Sheets Stationery Stickers Thesis Printing Trading Cards printing business in competitive market are:- Printers Acute manifestoes Put. Ltd. Delved Digital Services Put. Ltd. Graphic International HCI Infinite Ltd. Jay Digital Graphics K. G. N. Xerox Karakas Art Printers Skim’s Digital Mr.. Ads Designers & Printers mm SAA Rubber Stamp Maker & Plastic Works R. K. Graphics SF Digital Imaging Put. Ltd. SAA Sandmen Enterprises Shanghais Offset Printers Put. Ltd Sandy Printing Works Shari Gaunt Offset Printers Sere Designs Advertising Services Sir Stationary Agencies.

Squash Print Media For positioning of printing business, we should go by the trends of market which are mentioned below:- Transition to Digital Technology Digital presses have become the norm in commercial printing; industry growth is coming almost entirely from digital printing. The commercial printing industry is shifting to faster production of smaller order quantities with more color, the major benefit of digital printing over offset and other printing methods. While digital inkiest printers began at the small end of printers, technology is increasingly able to make digital printers with greater capacity.

Operations & Technology A typical commercial printer has different presses and binding equipment available to work on various types of Jobs. The main printing process used is offset lithography, using either individual sheets (sheet fed presses) or continuous rolls of paper (web presses). Sheet fed presses print up to 16 pages of letter-sized product (a 16 page “signature”) at a time, at speeds up to 15,000 impressions per hour. Web presses print 32 pages at a time at speeds over 40,000 impressions per hour, and are usually used for production runs of more than 50,000 copies.

Presses usually print in en, two, four, or six colors; some presses can print eight. Individual manufacturing cost, often amounting to 25 percent of revenues. Printing papers are often coated, and are bought in sheets or rolls from distributors. Some customers provide their own paper, but most is bought for customers, with a modest price markup. Paper prices can vary significantly from year to year. Digital technology is changing the competitive landscape of the commercial printing market. Prices for digital color pages are falling below offset printing prices and companies who fall behind in the shift to digital printing are at risk.

Sales & Marketing The largest single market for printing services is advertising, for newspaper inserts, magazines, and direct mail materials. Although some work may be done regularly for large customers under long-term contracts (magazines, product catalogs, and phone books), most is on a project basis, often after a bidding process. Nor may be episodic and many printers keep extra presses to meet anticipated peak demands. Marketing is usually done by a traditional sales force calling on potential customers. Commercial printing is a local business. Small printers can compete effectively

Ninth large ones because the small size and high variability of most printing Jobs means that few economies are achieved by having larger presses. The high degree of personal attention that most print Jobs require, such as client approvals of proofs and “press checks” during actual printing, means that customers prefer to use a local printer. Price is often a secondary consideration to quality and timeliness. Some types of printing, such as magazines and catalogs with large print runs, are more effectively handled by large printers. Innovation Coming up with innovative marketing strategies to market your business, does not eave to be difficult.

There are a number of paths that one can follow, which can be highly successful, to help you create marketing approach that fits one’s needs and budget. Rather than slide into the busy fourth quarter with the same old marketing bag of tricks, you can get a Jump on your competitors by embracing new tactics for increasing leads and sales. Always be alert to new opportunities, ideas, to market your business. An example is you can give direct access to your regular customers through internet by remote printing software giving them a unique id account so that they can directly end the files to the work station. Finance inventory financing.

Receivables are generally collected within 60 days, and are sometimes financed. Equipment is often financed, or is leased. Presses have become more expensive, though more versatile, because of computerized controls and enhancements. Some printers have difficulty maintaining adequate workplace air quality standards, and emit pollutants into the air, mainly because of solvents in ink and the solvents used to clean ink from printing plates. Some printers also generate toxic Meanest because of inks and solvents. Workplace safety may also be a problem, although the illness and injury rate has decreased rapidly in the past decade.

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