Assignment on “Roles and Responsibilities of Project Manager” [The assignment is prepared for the requirement of the course Project Management (MGT-4705) of BBA 7th semester] Prepared for Muhammd Shah Course Instructor Department of Business Administration International Islamic University Chittagong. Prepared By Name: Nafisa Ahmed Matric No: B-061213 Semester: Spring Level: BBA 7th Female (B) Submission Date: 11th August, 2009 Department of Business Administration International Islamic University Chittagong Table of Contents SubjectPage no: 1. Chapter 11. 1. Introduction1 1. 2.
Importance/benefits21. 3. Objectives of the study 3 1. 4. Methodology and Framework of the Study 3 1. 5. limitations3 2. Chapter2 2. 1. Literature review 2. 1. 1. Project4 2. 1. 2. Project Management5 2. 1. 2. 1. Project Management Triangle5-6 2. 1. 3. History of project management6-7 3. Chapter 3 3. 1. Project Manager8-9 3. 1. 1. Types of project managers10-12 3. 1. 2. Project Manager Characteristics12 3. 1. 3. Project Managers Position Requirements/Qualifications13-14 3. 1. 4. Work Conditions14 3. 1. 5. Selection of the project manager14 3. 1. 6. Determining pay category14 3. 1. . Determining occupational series15 4. Chapter 4 4. 1. The Role and responsibilities of the Project Manager16-28 4. 2. Top 10 Qualities of a Project Manager29-32 4. 3 Advices from Project Managers 4. 3. 1. What to do32 4. 3. 2. What not to do33 4. 3. 3. Being the best33 5. Chapter 5 5. 1. conclusion34 Report proposal Introduction The use of projects and Project Management continues to grow in our society and its organizations. We are able to achieve goals through Project organizations that could be achieved only with the greatest difficulty if organized it in traditional way.
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Businesses regularly use project management to accomplish unique outcomes with limited resources under critical time constraints. The past several decades have been marked by rapid growth in the use of project management as a means of by which organizations achieve their objectives. Project management provides an organization with the powerful tools that improve its ability to plan, implement, and control its activities as well as the ways in which it utilizes its human and resources. In this assignment I will discuss about the roles and responsibilities of the project manager and related topics.
Background of the report As a discipline, Project Management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering and defense. In the United States, the two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famously known for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool, and Henri Fayol for his creation of the 5 management functions, which form the basis for the body of knowledge associated with project and program management.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed to serve the interests of the project management industry. Importance/Benefits It is very much important to know about the roles and responsibilities of the project manager because the first importance is to accomplish a goal. Actual experience with project manager is the majority of the organization using them for experiencing better control and better customer relations, and increase in their projects return on investment.
A significant organization also reports shorter development times, lower costs, higher quality and reliability and higher profit margins. Other reported importance is sharper orientation towards results, better interdepartmental co ordination and worker moral. Objectives of the study The objective of this report is to identify the roles and responsibilities of Project mangers on some published articles, books and web sites. This objective was fulfilled by: 1. Defining project, project organization and project manager. 2.
Identifying the roles and responsibilities of the project manager. 3. Pay scale of project manager’s job, 4. The qualities that a project manager must have. Methodology and Framework of the Study This study will be done through an extensive desk research. Firstly the available literatures will be collected from all possible sources. Most of the articles reviewed in this study were published in the most prominent journal covering articles on business issues . Then the main matters that ignited huge research interests among the researchers will be identified.
Limitations The limitations of the report is not very much wide . There may be some difficulties to collect the actual data regarding the roles of the project managers, most of the data’s will be theoretical not practical and conflicts seems to be a necessary side effect. Literature review For doing the report I will go through in different project management related national and international books, related journal and various articles. Except these data’s will be collected from different web sites. Gantt chart for the report
Project Management -Gantt chart TaskStarting timeDuration(days)Ending time Topic selection7/15/200917/16/2009 Data collection-web based7/16/200937/19/2009 Data collection-book based7/19/200937/22/2009 Data collection-field based7/21/200947/25/2009 Data collection-article based7/26/200947/30/2009 Data analysis7/31/200938/3/2009 Implementation8/3/200928/5/2009 Documentation8/6/200958/11/2009 Submition8/11/200918/12/2009 Figure : Gantt chart of the report Report Proforma The whole report will contain five different chapters regarding the topic.
The first chapter will include Introduction, Importance/benefits, Objectives of the study, Methodology and Framework of the Study and the limitations. In the next chapter there will be literature review about project, project management, project management triangle, project management history. In the third chapter the discussion will be on Project Manager, Types of project managers,Project Manager Characteristic, Project Managers Position, Requirements/Qualifications, Work Conditions, Selection of the project manager, Determining pay category, determining occupational series. n the fourth chapter the discussion will be onThe Role and responsibilities of the Project Manager, Top 10 Qualities of a Project Manager, Advices from Project Managers, What to do, What not to do ,Being the best. And in the last chapter there will be the conclusion of the report. Conclusion Most businesses are changing to project-oriented business and some business have realized how important their Project managers are. Every Project Manager has many responsibilities which they must oversee, but the satisfaction of completing the project is enough to keep them busy.
The salary is competitive, once the person obtains a degree in Business or a certification in Project Management. Many employers are looking for educated and hardworking managers for their projects. Once, a company has found their match: they will do anything to keep them employed. Introduction The use of projects and Project Management continues to grow in our society and its organizations. We are able to achieve goals through Project organizations that could be achieved only with the greatest difficulty if organized it in traditional way.
Businesses regularly use project management to accomplish unique outcomes with limited resources under critical time constraints. In the service sector of the economy, the use of Project Management to achieve an organization’s goals even more common. Advertising campaigns, voter registration drives, political campaigns, a family annual summer vacation, and even management seminars on the subject of Project Management are organized as projects. A relatively new growth area in the use of project management is the use of projects as a way of accomplishing organizational change.
Indeed, there is a rapid increase in the number of firms that use projects as the preferred way of accomplishing almost everything they undertake. Not even the most optimistic prognosticators foresaw the explosive growth that has occurred in the field. The past several decades have been marked by rapid growth in the use of project management as a means of by which organizations achieve their objectives. Project management provides an organization with the powerful tools that improve its ability to plan, implement, and control its activities as well as the ways in which it utilizes its human and resources.
Before more progress can be made a project manager must be appointed. This person will take responsibility for planning, implementing, and completing the project, beginning with the job of getting things started. The project managers first set of tasks ids typically to prepare a preliminary budget and schedule, to help select people to serve on the project team, to get to know the client, to make sure that the proper facilities are available, to ensure that any supplies required early in the project life are available when needed, and to take care of the routine details necessary to get the project moving.
Importance/Benefits The basic purpose of the report is know about the benefits of the roles and responsibilities of the project manager. The first importance is to accomplish a goal. The reason for organizing the task as a project manager is to focus the responsibility and authority for attainment of the individual or small groups. Actual experience with project manager is the majority of the organization using them for experiencing better control and better customer relations, and increase in their projects return on investment.
A significant organization also reports shorter development times, lower costs, higher quality and reliability and higher profit margins. Other reported importance is sharper orientation towards results, better interdepartmental co ordination and worker moral Project management, is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to describe, organize, oversee and control the various project processes.
But perhaps project management can best be described in terms of the things that you need to do to successfully manage a project: Integration Management – Develop and manage a project plan Scope Management – Plan, define and manage project scope Time & Cost Management – Create a project schedule, plan resources and budget costs Quality Management – Develop a quality plan and carry out quality assurance and quality control activities Human Resource Management – Perform organizational planning, manage staff acquisitions and romote team development Communications Management – Develop a communications plan Risk Management – Identify risks, prepare risk mitigation plans and execute contingency actions Procurement Management – Focus is soliciting, selecting, and managing vendors to complete project work or supply project materials The degree to which a Project Manager can carry out each of these activities is based on the nature, size and complexity of the project and on the level of project management experience.
Objectives of the study The objective of this report is to identify the roles and responsibilities of Project angers on some published articles, books and web sites. This objective was fulfilled by: 1. Defining project, project organization and project manager. 2. Identifying the roles and responsibilities of the project manager. 3. Pay scale of project manager’s job, 4. The qualities that a project manager must have. Methodology and Framework of the Study This study was done through an extensive desk research.
Firstly the available literatures were collected from all possible sources. Most of the articles reviewed in this study were published in the most prominent journal covering articles on business issues . Then the main matters that ignited huge research interests among the researchers were identified. Limitations Everything in this world have negative impact too if it is not used in a proper way. The limitations of project managers roles and responsibilities stem from exactly the same source as its importance.
The negative side of the project managers role are most organization report that roles of project manager sometimes results into great complexity. Many also report that project organization likely hood that organizational policy will be violated not a surprising outcome, considering the degree of autonomy required for project manager. A fewer firms reported higher cost, more management difficulties and low personnel utilization. Conflicts seems to be a necessary side effect. as we noted project manager often lacks authority hat is consistent with the assigned level of responsibility. If the good will is not forth coming, the project manager may ask senior officials I the parent organization for their assistance, but to use such power often reflects poorly on the skills of the project manager and while it may get cooperation in the instance in hand, it may backfire in the long run. Literature review Project A project is a finite endeavor (having specific start and completion dates) undertaken to create a unique product or service which brings about beneficial change or added value.
This finite characteristic of projects stands in contrast to processes, or operations, which are permanent or semi-permanent functional work to repetitively produce the same product or service. In practice, the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management. Project is defined in the Project Management Institute’s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®, an American National Standard ANSI/PMI 99-001-2000) as: “A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. It is important to distinguish a project from a program. In contrast to a project, which has a defined beginning and end, a program is an ongoing operation. A project serves to develop, modify, or enhance a product, service, or system and is constrained by the relationships among scope, resources, and time. Programs, on the other hand, encompass the missions, functions, operations, activities, laws, rules, and regulations that an agency is authorized and funded by statute to administer and enforce. Programs normally provide products and/or services to the public.
Agencies distribute available funding to carry out these continuing programs and any ongoing staff support they require. Project Management Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the project constraints. Typical constraints are scope, time and budget. The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives.
Project Management Triangle Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as “scope,” “time,” and “cost”. [These are also referred to as the "Project Management Triangle,” where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others. A further refinement of the constraints separates product "quality” or "performance” from scope, and turns quality into a fourth constraint. Figure: Project Management Triangle The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project.
The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project’s end result. These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope. The discipline of Project Management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints.
History of project management As a discipline, Project Management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering and defense. In the United States, the two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famously known for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool, and Henri Fayol for his creation of the 5 management functions, which form the basis for the body of knowledge associated with project and program management.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. Project management was formally recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline. Again, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were developed. The "Critical Path Method” (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects.
And the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique” or PERT, developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton as part of the United States Navy’s (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises. At the same time, technology for project cost estimating, cost management, and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others.
In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE International; the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering) was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, and cost/schedule control (project control). AACE has continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first ever integrated process for portfolio, program and project management (Total Cost Management Framework).
In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed to serve the interests of the project management industry. The premise of PMI is that the tools and techniques of project management are common even among the widespread application of projects from the software industry to the construction industry. In 1981, the PMI Board of Directors authorized the development of what has become A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), containing the standards and guidelines of practice that are widely used throughout the profession.
The International Project Management Association (IPMA), founded in Europe in 1967, has undergone a similar development and instituted the IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB). The focus of the ICB also begins with knowledge as a foundation, and adds considerations about relevant experience, interpersonal skills, and competence. Both organizations are now participating in the development of an ISO project management standard. Project Manager A project manager is a facilitator. The ideal project manager does whatever it takes to ensure that the members of the project team can do their work.
This means working with management to ensure they provide the resources and support required as well as dealing with team issues that are negatively impacting a team’s productivity. The project manager must possess a combination of skills including the ability to ask penetrating questions, identify unstated assumptions, and resolve personnel conflicts along with more systematic management skills. The actions of a project manager should be almost unnoticeable and when a project is moving along smoothly people are sometimes tempted to question the need for a project manager.
However, when you take the skilled project manager out of the mix, the project is much more likely to miss deadlines and exceed budgets. The project manager is the one who is responsible for making decisions in such a way that risk is controlled and uncertainty minimized. Every decision made by the project manager should ideally be directly benefit the project. On small projects, the project manager will likely deal directly with all members of the team. On larger projects, there is often a lead developer, lead graphic designer, lead analyst, etc. hat report directly to the project manager. A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry, architecture, computer networking, telecommunications or software development. Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project managers. A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives.
Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is cost, time, and scope. A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.
Project management Project Management is quite often the province and responsibility of an individual project manager. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that produce the end result, but rather strives to maintain the progress and mutual interaction and tasks of various parties in such a way that reduces the risk of overall failure, maximizes benefits, and restricts costs. Products and services Any type of product or service — pharmaceuticals, building construction, vehicles, electronics, computer software, financial services, etc. may have its implementation overseen by a project manager and its operations by a product manager. Project teams When recruiting and building an effective team, the manager must consider not only the technical skills of each person, but also the critical roles and chemistry between workers. A project team has mainly three separate components: Project Manager, Core Team and Contracted Team. Risk Most of the project management issues that influence a project arise from risk, which in turn arises from uncertainty.
The successful project manager focuses on this as his/her main concern and attempts to reduce risk significantly, often by adhering to a policy of open communication, ensuring that project participants can voice their opinions and concerns. Types of project managers Construction Project Manager Construction project managers in the past were individuals, who worked in construction or supporting industries and were promoted to foreman. It was not until the late 20th century that construction and Construction management became distinct fields.
Until recently, the industry lacked any level of standardization, with individual States determining the eligibility requirements within their jurisdiction. However, several Trade associations based in the United States have made strides in creating a commonly-accepted set of qualifications and tests to determine a project manager’s competency. •The Project Management Institute has made some headway into being a standardizing body with its creation of the Project Management Professional (PMP) designation. •The Constructor Certification Commission of the American Institute of Constructors holds semiannual nationwide tests.
Eight American Construction Management programs require that students take these exams before they may receive their Bachelor of Science in Construction Management degree, and 15 other Universities actively encourage their students to consider the exams. •The Associated Colleges of Construction Education, and the Associated Schools of Construction have made considerable progress in developing national standards for construction education programs. – The profession has recently grown to accommodate several dozen Construction Management Bachelor of Science programs. Architectural Project Manager
Architectural project manager are project managers in the field of architecture. They have many of the same skills as their counterpart in the construction industry. An architect will often work closely with the construction project manager in the office of the General contractor (GC), and at the same time, coordinate the work of the design team and numerous consultants who contribute to a construction project, and manage communication with the client. The issues of budget, scheduling, and quality-control are the responsibility of the Project Manager in an architect’s office.
Software Project Manager A Software Project Manager has many of the same skills as their counterparts in other industries. Beyond the skills normally associated with traditional project management in industries such as construction and manufacturing, a software project manager will typically have an extensive background in software development. Many software project managers hold a degree in Computer Science, Information Technology or another related field and will typically have worked in the industry as a software engineer.
In traditional project management a heavyweight, predictive methodology such as the waterfall model is often employed, but software project managers must also be skilled in more lightweight, adaptive methodologies such as DSDM, SCRUM and XP. These project management methodologies are based on the uncertainty of developing a new software system and advocate smaller, incremental development cycles. These incremental or iterative cycles are time boxed (constrained to a known period of time, typically from one to four weeks) and produce a working subset of the entire system to be developed at the end of each iteration.
The increasing adoption of lightweight approaches is due largely to the fact that software requirements are very susceptible to change, and it is extremely difficult to illuminate all the potential requirements in a single project phase before the software development commences. The software project manager is also expected to be familiar with the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). This may require in depth knowledge of requirements solicitation, application development, logical and physical database design and networking. This knowledge is typically the result of the aforementioned education and experience.
There is not a widely accepted certification for software project managers, but many will hold the PMP designation offered by the Project Management Institute or an advanced degree in project management, such as a MSPM or other graduate degree in technology management. Project Manager Characteristics Project manager positions exist in many different disciplines. For example, an engineer or architect normally manages projects associated with designing specialized equipment or structures. Subject matter experts in fields such as IT or finance deal with developing and testing information networks and financial systems.
However, regardless of the subject matter area involved, the project manager function is characterized by a common set of duties/tasks. A project manager generally applies all of these duties/tasks to meet project requirements, as follows: • Determines appropriate products or services with clients or customers to define project scope, requirements, and deliverables; • Develops, modifies, or provides input to project plans; • Implements project plans to meet objectives; • Coordinates and integrates project activities; • Manages, leads, or administers project resources; Monitors project activities and resources to mitigate risk; • Implements or maintains quality assurance processes; • Makes improvements, solves problems, or takes corrective action when problems arise; • Gives presentations or briefings on all aspects of the project; • Participates in phase, milestone, and final project reviews; • Identifies project documentation requirements or procedures; and • Develops and implements product release plan. Project Managers Position Requirements/Qualifications • University degree or college diploma in the field where he have to work. Direct work experience in a project management capacity, including all aspects of process development and execution. • Certifications • Strong familiarity with project management software. • Familiar with programming languages. • Database and operating systems experience . • Competent and proficient understanding of platforms. • Solid working knowledge of current Internet technologies. • Demonstrated experience in personnel management. • Technically competent with various software programs. • Experience at working both independently and in a team-oriented, collaborative Environment is essential. Can conform to shifting priorities, demands and timelines through analytical and Problem-solving capabilities. • Reacts to project adjustments and alterations promptly and efficiently. • Flexible during times of change. • Ability to read communication styles of team members and contractors who come from a broad spectrum of disciplines. • Persuasive, encouraging, and motivating. • Ability to elicit cooperation from a wide variety of sources, including upper Management, clients, and other departments. • Ability to defuse tension among project team, should it arise. Ability to bring project to successful completion through political sensitivity. • Strong written and oral communication skills. • Strong interpersonal skills. • Adept at conducting research into project-related issues and products. • Must be able to learn, understand, and apply new technologies. • Customer service skills an asset. • Ability to effectively prioritize and execute tasks in a high-pressure environment is Crucial. Work Conditions • Overtime may be required in meet project deadlines. • Sitting for extended periods of time. • Dexterity of hands and fingers to operate a computer keyboard, mouse, and ther devices and objects. • Physically able to participate in training sessions, presentations, and meetings. • Some travel may be required for the purpose of meeting with clients, stakeholders, or off-site personnel/management. Selection of the project manager The project manager can be chosen and installed as soon as project is selected for funding or at any earlier point that seems desirable to senior management. If the manager is appointed prior to project selection or if the project manager originated the project, several of the usual start-up tasks are simplified.
On occasion, a project manager is chosen late in the project life cycle, usually to replace another project manager who is leaving the project for other work, bur the transition is difficult and, according to firms spokespeople, the result are sometimes unsatisfactory. Determining the Pay Category Project manager positions usually are General Schedule (GS) positions. However, some positions may be Senior Executive Service (SES) positions or Senior Level (SL) or Scientific/Professional (ST) positions.
Guidance for identifying such positions above the GS-15 grade level can be found on pages 13-15. This guidance is not intended for Federal Wage System (FWS) positions. Determining Occupational Series The occupational series of a project manager position usually is apparent by reviewing the duties and responsibilities assigned to the position. In most instances, the primary work of the position, the highest level of work performed, and the paramount occupational knowledge for the project manager work dictate the appropriate series.
Users of the position classification standards normally have little trouble making the series decision by comparing the characteristics of the position in question to series definitions and occupational information in the standards. However, if the work of a project manager position falls into more than one series, the correct series is sometimes difficult to determine. If it is unclear whether a particular series predominates, consider the following to determine the correct series: • Paramount occupational knowledge required.
Although a project manager position may include several different kinds of work, most positions have a paramount occupational knowledge requirement in addition to the project management knowledge, skills, and abilities/competencies. The paramount occupational knowledge is the most important subject matter knowledge or subject-related experience required to do the work. • Reason for existence. The primary purpose of the project manager position, or management’s intent in establishing the project manager position, is a positive indicator in determining the appropriate series. Organizational mission and/or function. Project manager positions generally align with the mission and function of the organization to which they are assigned. The organization’s function often is mirrored in the organizational title and may influence the choice of appropriate series. • Recruitment source. Supervisors and managers can help by identifying the occupational series that provides the best qualified applicants to do the project manager work. This aspect correlates with the paramount knowledge required by the project manager position.
The Role and responsibilities of the Project Manager A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful initiation, planning, execution and closure of a project. This title is used in the construction industry, architecture, information technology and many different occupations that are based on production of a product or service. The project manager must possess a combination of skills including an ability to ask penetrating questions, detect unstated assumptions and resolve interpersonal conflicts as well as more systematic management skills.
Key amongst his/her duties is the recognition that risk directly impacts the likelihood of success and that this risk must be both formally and informally measured throughout the lifetime of the project. Risk arises primarily from uncertainty and the successful project manager is the one who focuses upon this as the main concern. Most of the issues that impact a project arise in one way or another from risk. A good project manager can reduce risk significantly, often by adhering to a policy of open communication, ensuring that every significant participant has an opportunity to express opinions and concerns.
It follows from the above that a project manager is one who is responsible for making decisions both large and small, in such a way that risk is controlled and uncertainty minimized. Every decision taken by the project manager should be taken in such a way that it directly benefits the project. Project managers use project management software, such as Microsoft Project, to organize their tasks and workforce. These software packages allow project managers to produce reports and charts in a few minutes, compared to the several hours it can take if they do not use a software package.
Generally, the project manager is responsible for the overall accomplishment of the project, and accountable for ensuring objectives of the project’s assignment. One foremost responsibility of the project manager is; the very project itself. The person who takes this ultimate responsibility and guarantees for the desired result to be achieved on time, and within budget is the Project Manager. And his job is to coordinate a project from initiation to completion; using maximum utilization of project management tools, techniques, experience, creativity, and management skills, to reach the predetermined objectives.
In a project as a Role his "Leadership quality” and as a Skill his "Management excellence” is accredited. The role a project manager performs is in many ways similar to those performed by other operation managers; however there are some important differences; as Project managers have a wide range of backgrounds and experience levels and are often "generalists” differentiating themselves from an operational type role to one whom specialized in the respective areas of management. In addition, project managers play specific roles to facilitate the project team rather than supervising them.
As a role, project managers must satisfy these sets of needs: Task Needs + Team Needs + Individual Needs Figure: Set of three needs The project manager role; he should meet his "Task Needs” as follows; Attaining team objectives Planning work Allocating resources Defining tasks Assigning responsibility Controlling and monitoring quality Scrutinizing progress Checking performance The project manager role; he should meet his "Team Needs” as follows; Appointing secondary leaders Building and upholding team sprit Setting standards and maintaining regulation Training the team
Setting up systems to facilitate communication with the team Developing work methods to craft team function cohesiveness The project manager role; he should meet his "Individual Needs” as follows; Developing the individual Balancing team needs and task needs Balancing team needs and individual needs Performance appreciation and rewards Helping with other team members personal problems The Project Manager role plans, manages and allocates resources, shapes priorities, coordinates interactions with customers and users, and keeps the project team focused.
The Project Manager also establishes a set of practices that ensure the integrity and quality of project artifacts. The following skills are recommended to fulfill the Project Manager role: •experience in the software development lifecycle, the domain of the application and platform •scope estimation, planning, time management, scheduling, project costing, and budget management •resource planning, resource management, and procurement •risk analysis, dependencies, and decision analysis skills •presentation, communication, and negotiation skills experience in Project Management •leadership and team building capabilities •conflict resolution, problem solving skills, and the ability to make sound decisions under stress •deliverables based management, a focus on the delivery of customer value, in the form of executing software that meets (or exceeds) the customer’s needs. All project managers apply common knowledge, skills, and abilities/competencies, organized into three areas: • General knowledge, skills, and abilities/competencies; • Project management knowledge, skills, and abilities/competencies; and Technical knowledge, skills, and abilities/competencies. Some specific knowledges, skills, and abilities/competencies for each functional area are as follows: General Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities/Competencies • Customer Service – Works with clients and customers (that is, any individuals who use or receive the services or products that your work unit produces, including the general public, individuals who work in the agency, other agencies, or organizations outside the Government) to assess their needs, provide information or assistance, resolve their problems, or satisfy heir expectations; knows about available products and services; is committed to providing quality products and services. • Decision Making – Makes sound, well-informed, and objective decisions; perceives the impact and implications of decisions; commits to action, even in uncertain situations, to accomplish organizational goals; causes change. • Flexibility – Is open to change and new information; adapts behavior or work methods in response to new information, changing conditions, or unexpected obstacles; effectively deals with ambiguity. Interpersonal Skills – Shows understanding, friendliness, courtesy, tact, empathy, concern, and politeness to others; develops and maintains effective relationships with others; may include effectively dealing with individuals who are difficult, hostile, or distressed; relates well to people from varied backgrounds and different situations; is sensitive to cultural diversity, race, gender, disabilities, and other individual differences. • Leadership – Influences, motivates, and challenges others; adapts leadership styles to a variety of situations. Legal, Government and Jurisprudence – Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, legal practices and documents, Government regulations, Executive orders, agency rules, Government organization and functions, and the democratic political process. • Oral Communication – Expresses information (for example, ideas or facts) to individuals or groups effectively, taking into account the audience and nature of the information (for example, technical, sensitive, controversial); makes clear and convincing oral presentations; listens to others, attends to nonverbal cues, and responds appropriately. Organizational Awareness – Knows the organization’s mission and functions, and how its social, political, and technological systems work and operates effectively within them; this includes the programs, policies, procedures, rules, and regulations of the organization. • Problem Solving – Identifies problems; determines accuracy and relevance of information; uses sound judgment to generate and evaluate alternatives, and to make recommendations. Reasoning – Identifies rules, principles, or relationships that explain facts, data, or other information; analyzes information and makes correct inferences or draws accurate conclusions. • Team Building – Inspires, motivates, and guides others toward goal accomplishments. Consistently develops and sustains cooperative working relationships. Encourages and facilitates cooperation within the organization and with customer groups; fosters commitment, team spirit, pride, trust. Develops leadership in others through coaching, mentoring, rewarding and guiding employees. Writing – Recognizes or uses correct English grammar, punctuation, and spelling; communicates information (for example, facts, ideas, or messages) in a succinct and organized manner; produces written information, which may include technical material, that is appropriate for the intended audience. Project Management Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities/Competencies • Business Process Reengineering – Knowledge of methods, metrics, tools, and techniques of Business Process Reengineering. Capital Planning and Investment Assessment – Knowledge of the principles and methods of capital investment analysis or business case analysis, including return on investment analysis. • Contracting/Procurement – Knowledge of various types of contracts, techniques for contracting or procurement, and contract negotiation and administration. • Cost-Benefit Analysis – Knowledge of the principles and methods of cost-benefit analysis, including the time value of money, present value concepts, and quantifying tangible and intangible benefits. Financial Management – Prepares, justifies, and/or administers the budget for program areas; plans, administers, and monitors expenditures to ensure cost-effective support of programs and policies; assesses financial condition of an organization. • Planning and Evaluating – Organizes work, sets priorities, and determines resource requirements; determines short- or long-term goals and strategies to achieve them; coordinates with other organizations or parts of the organization to accomplish goals; monitors progress and evaluates outcomes. Project Management – Knowledge of the principles, methods, or tools for developing, scheduling, coordinating, and managing projects and resources, including monitoring and inspecting costs, work, and contractor performance. • Quality Assurance – Knowledge of the principles, methods, and tools of quality assurance and quality control used to ensure a product fulfills functional requirements and standards. Requirements Analysis – Knowledge of the principles and methods to identify, analyze, specify, design, and manage functional and infrastructure requirements; includes translating functional requirements into technical requirements used for logical design or presenting alternative technologies or approaches. • Risk Management – Knowledge of methods and tools used for risk assessment and mitigation of risk. Technical Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities/Competencies: Technical Competence – Uses knowledge that is acquired through formal training or extensive on-the-job experience to perform one’s job; works with, understands, and evaluates technical information related to the job; advises others on technical issues. Figure: Roles and responsibilities of a project manager The purpose of this article is to discuss the main responsibilities of a project manager. These three main responsibilities are planning, organizing, and controlling. Performing these responsibilities requires many skills.
Some of these necessary skills will be outlined. Planning Each Project Manager is responsible for creating a plan, which will be confined to an over-all budget. The person will hand pick their team to assist, in completing or developing different parts of the project. They must keep track of all hours and progress completed, by each team member during the project. Also, they will indentify all resources that the project may need to used, in order to complete the project. All team members must report to the Project Manager with any questions or changes they may need.
Figure: Planning process The planning function includes defining the project objective and developing a plan to accomplish the objective. The project manager should work with the project sponsor in order to define the specific objective of the project. Working with the sponsor is beneficial in many ways. For example, the sponsor is the person responsible for the resultant project and thus has a stake in the success of the project. Therefore, the sponsor should be very helpful in defining the project objective.
In addition, "sponsors often can help secure interdepartmental cooperation and influence contractors and suppliers” (Davies, p. 83). This can be helpful throughout the life of the project The project manager must also develop a plan to accomplish the objective. The project manager should include project team members in this phase. Including members of the project team in the plan development phase "ensures a more comprehensive plan than he or she could develop alone (and) gains the commitment of the team to achieve the plan” (Gido & Clements, p. 292) Organizing
The organizing function involves identifying and securing necessary resources, determining tasks that must be completed, assigning the tasks, delegating authority, and motivating team members to work together on the project. Resources include both personnel and financing. "Most projects do not receive unlimited resource allotments, (so) the project manager must allocate the available resources” (Davies, p. 84). The project manager must then determine what tasks must be completed. Once this has been done, the tasks should be assigned to project team members or subcontractors.
The project manager may also delegate authority to certain team members to oversee task completion via supervision of those assigned the tasks. Finally, the project manager must motivate members of the project team to work together in order to complete the goal. Conflicts may arise and often will occur when individuals working together come from departments with different goals. "The project manager needs to watch for anyone who loses sight of project goals in favor of individual goals” (Davies, p. 84). A project manager who is aware of the potential conflicts and is observant will be better able to manage those conflicts when they arise.
Controlling The controlling function involves tracking progress and comparing it with planned progress. Progress reports should be used to measure performance, as well as identify areas for improvement. "If actual progress falls behind planned progress or unexpected events occur, the project manager… (implements) … appropriate corrective action and how to replan those parts of the project” (Gido & Clements, p. 293). The project manager must be able to solve problems and get the project back on track. Figure: monitoring and controlling process
Most team members will have issues that need handled, during the project’s progress and creation. Some projects will require more resources than first anticipated. The entire project may even need to be split up, in order to finish it a decent time frame. The manager may need to pitch in and help their employees, so they can review all documents. The team can be creative, but the manager should always approve of the graphics and visuals that will be used. The project should look for ways to thanks the team for all their hard work, once the project is completed. Each
Project Manager has many aspects of the job that they must do every day. The job can be rewarding in many ways. They mostly enjoy seeing their creativity come to life, as the project is completed. Some additional responsibilities which is needed for the success of project. Below is responsibilities list for a project manager. * Manage the project taking into account integration across all areas. * Engage with stakeholders. * Develop Project Plan. * Direct project resources. * Monitor and manage the project schedule. * Monitor and manage the project budget. * Monitor and manage the project risk. Deal with operational issues. * Organise steering committee meetings, including ensuring that minutes will be taken. * Report to the steering committee, raising strategic issues. * Prepare Project Status Reports and Project Change Requests for the steering committee. * Ensure project meets requirements and objectives . * Manage project team members. * Negotiate and resolve issues as they arise across areas of the project and where they impact on other activities, systems and projects. * Look after the interests of the project team. * Organise and chair project reference group meetings, as appropriate. Communicate project status to project sponsor, all team members, and other relevant stakeholders and involved parties . * Maintain project documentation. Additional important remarks, in order to be successful, the project manager must be given support and authority by senior management. Top 10 Qualities of a Project Manager Over the past few years, the people at ESI International, world leaders in Project Management Training, have looked in to what makes an effective project leader. With the unique opportunity to ask some of the most talented project leaders in the world on their Project Leadership courses ESI have anaged to collect a running tally on their responses. Below are the top 10 in rank order according to frequency listed. Inspires a Shared Vision An effective project leader is often described as having a vision of where to go and the ability to articulate it. Visionaries thrive on change and being able to draw new boundaries. It was once said that a leader is someone who "lifts us up, gives us a reason for being and gives the vision and spirit to change. ” Visionary leaders enable people to feel they have a real stake in the project. They empower people to experience the vision on their own.
According to Bennis "They offer people opportunities to create their own vision, to explore what the vision will mean to their jobs and lives, and to envision their future as part of the vision for the organisation. ” (Bennis, 1997) Good Communicator The ability to communicate with people at all levels is almost always named as the second most important skill by project managers and team members. Project leadership calls for clear communication about goals, responsibility, performance, expectations and feedback. There is a great deal of value placed on openness and directness.
The project leader is also the team’s link to the larger organisation. The leader must have the ability to effectively negotiate and use persuasion when necessary to ensure the success of the team and project. Through effective communication, project leaders support individual and team achievements by creating explicit guidelines for accomplishing results and for the career advancement of team members. Integrity One of the most important things a project leader must remember is that his or her actions, and not words, set the modus operandi for the team.
Good leadership demands commitment to, and demonstration of, ethical practices. Creating standards for ethical behaviour for oneself and living by these standards, as well as rewarding those who exemplify these practices, are responsibilities of project leaders. Leadership motivated by self-interest does not serve the well being of the team. Leadership based on integrity represents nothing less than a set of values others share, behaviour consistent with values and dedication to honesty with self and team members. In other words the leader "walks the talk” and in the process earns trust. Enthusiasm
Plain and simple, we don’t like leaders who are negative – they bring us down. We want leaders with enthusiasm, with a bounce in their step, with a can-do attitude. We want to believe that we are part of an invigorating journey – we want to feel alive. We tend to follow people with a can-do attitude, not those who give us 200 reasons why something can’t be done. Enthusiastic leaders are committed to their goals and express this commitment through optimism. Leadership emerges as someone expresses such confident commitment to a project that others want to share his or her optimistic expectations.
Enthusiasm is contagious and effective leaders know it. Empathy What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? Although the words are similar, they are, in fact, mutually exclusive. According to Norman Paul, in sympathy the subject is principally absorbed in his or her own feelings as they are projected into the object and has little concern for the reality and validity of the object’s special experience. Empathy, on the other hand, presupposes the existence of the object as a separate individual, entitled to his or her own feelings, ideas and emotional history (Paul, 1970).
As one student so eloquently put it, "It’s nice when a project leader acknowledges that we all have a life outside of work. ” Competence Simply put, to enlist in another’s cause, we must believe that that person knows what he or she is doing. Leadership competence does not however necessarily refer to the project leader’s technical abilities in the core technology of the business. As project management continues to be recognised as a field in and of itself, project leaders will be chosen based on their ability to successfully lead others rather than on technical expertise, as in the past.
Having a winning track record is the surest way to be considered competent. Expertise in leadership skills is another dimension in competence. The ability to challenge, inspire, enable, model and encourage must be demonstrated if leaders are to be seen as capable and competent. Ability to Delegate Tasks Trust is an essential element in the relationship of a project leader and his or her team. You demonstrate your trust in others through your actions – how much you check and control their work, how much you delegate and how much you allow people to participate.
Individuals who are unable to trust other people often fail as leaders and forever remain little more that micro-managers, or end up doing all of the work themselves. As one project management student put it, "A good leader is a little lazy. ” An interesting perspective! Cool Under Pressure In a perfect world, projects would be delivered on time, under budget and with no major problems or obstacles to overcome. But we don’t live in a perfect world – projects have problems. A leader with a hardy attitude will take these problems in stride.
When leaders encounter a stressful event, they consider it interesting, they feel they can influence the outcome and they see it as an opportunity. "Out of the uncertainty and chaos of change, leaders rise up and articulate a new image of the future that pulls the project together. ” (Bennis 1997) And remember – never let them see you sweat. Team-Building Skills A team builder can best be defined as a strong person who provides the substance that holds the team together in common purpose toward the right objective.
In order for a team to progress from a group of strangers to a single cohesive unit, the leader must understand the process and dynamics required for this transformation. He or she must also know the appropriate leadership style to use during each stage of team development. The leader must also have an understanding of the different team players styles and how to capitalise on each at the proper time, for the problem at hand. Problem Solving Skills Although an effective leader is said to share problem-solving responsibilities with the team, we expect our project leaders to have excellent problem-solving skills themselves.
They have a "fresh, creative response to here-and-now opportunities,” and not much concern with how others have performed them. (Kouzes 1987) Advices from Project Managers What to Do "Project managers ensure team members across the various functions-development, finance, sales, marketing, service and manufacturing-adhere to a project-based approach. ” (PM Network, 2007). The author Mr. Kerr decided created his own set of "Ten Commandments” (Kerr, 2006) for new Project Manager Trainees. By following the advice of other Project Managers, they can ensure their future success in all their upcoming projects.
By looking at what other managers have suggested, the trainee gets a chance to learn. Also, they learn the best way to use their creativity. What Not to Do "If you see too many signs of danger, cut your losses and either restructure the project or kill it. (Perkins, 2007) ” Most Project Managers agree that they never waste their time or energy on a dead end project. They always split large projects into several small ones, in order to get the project done quicker. Most managers agree that projects may take extra time and cost to finish.
Be flexible and able to adjust the changes, as needed for each step of the project. Planning and creating projects is for those, who can be creative and diligent in seeking the completed project. The look of satisfaction in their clients; is what all Project Managers strive for. They try to do their absolute best, in order to avoid disappointments with the client. Some try to make the client impressed, by showing off their creativity. However, keep it simple and use the graphics that will capture the client’s attention. Over-crowding can make the presentation look bad and cause the client to be unsatisfied.
Being the Best Now, many schools offer a certification in Project Management, in order to earn more money in their career. Each certification will allow the individual more career opportunities, but it has lost its appeal of the years. These credentials "will not open more doors” (Carr, 2007), but the individuals experience will be the key to getting hired. According to Mr. B. Perkins (2007), there twelve reasons why IT companies fail or cancel over half of their projects. Only "20 % "of all IT project are "successful” (Perkins, 2007) and on maintain the correct budget and ideas.
He believes that most projects fail, due to ineffective or weak sponsors that support that project. Conclusion Most businesses are changing to project-oriented business and some business have realized how important their Project managers are. According to a survey (personal reference, 2007), 2 of 3 Project Managers had a high school diploma, Associates Degree in Business, was currently employed, and shared the career with a family member. All three survey member is a family and are currently happy with their current career goals. However, only one wanted to be a Project Manager since high school and college.
Each one has 3-5 years of experience and a yearly salary that ranges from 50,000- 90,000. However, only one person in the survey, wanted to go further in their education and pursue a possible Doctorate in Business. Each Participant was asked to rate the importance of family, education, career choice, and possible change. The right education and career can lead to happiness in your family life. Every Project Manager has many responsibilities which they must oversee, but the satisfaction of completing the project is enough to keep them busy.
The salary is competitive, once the person obtains a degree in Business or a certification in Project Management. Many employers are looking for educated and hardworking managers for their projects. Once, a company has found their match: they will do anything to keep them employed. References: 1. Carr, D. (2007) Project Management Certification Baseline; Issue 71; P. 72-72; 1p Retrieved on July 12, 2009 in the EBSCO database in the AXIA Library http://search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx? direct=true&db=bth&AN=24652150&site=bsi-live 2. Kerr, J. 2006) The Ten Commandments of Project Management, Computer World, Inc. Framingham, USA; Vol. 4, Issue 4; pg. 44; 1 pgs Retrieved in Pro Quest Database in the AXIA library on july 13, 2009 http://proquest. umi. com/pqdweb? index=95&did=1143682541&SrchMode=1&sid=6&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1176519730&clientId=2606 3. Perkins, B. (2007) 12 Things You Know About Projects but Choose to Ignore Computer World; Vol. 41; Issue 34-34, 2/3p Retrieved on July 12, 2009in the EBSCO database inside the AXIA Library http://search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx? direct=true&db=bth&AN=24388939&site=bsi-live . Unknown (2007) Multidivisional Management PM Network, Vol. 21; Issue 4; p. 20-21; 2p Retrieved on july 19, 2009 in the EBSCO database in the AXIA Library http://search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx? direct=true&db=bth&AN=24728552&site=bsilib. 5. Sisk, Tony, july 15 2009, "History of Project Management” [Electronic Version] retrieved on February 26, 2006 from http://www. sims. berkeley. edu:8000/courses/is208/s02/History-of-PM. htm http://www. microsoft. com/downloads/details. aspx? FamilyID=c1f9b881-d879-4b54-b07b-55041685f15f&displaylang=en 6. Process Quality Associates Quality Inc. (PQA) 2005, “History of Project Management” [Electronic Version] retrieved on Aug 2, 2009 from http://www[Electronic Version]ces/ccpm/W05002001. html 7. Max’s, 2006, “Project Management Wisdom” [Electronic Version] retrieved on july 17, 2009 from http://ww[Electronic Version]ssacons2/1275. htm 8. Gido and Clements, 2006, “Successful Project Management” Thomson Corporation, Mason, OH 45040 9. David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (2006). Global project management handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. 10. Paul C. Dinsmore et al (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005.. . 82 and further. 11. Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. p. 110. 12. Joseph Phillips (2003). PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. p. 354. 13. Chatfield, Carl. “A short course in project managemen”. Microsoft. http://office. microsoft. com/en-us/project/HA102354821033. aspx. 14. David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (2006). Global project management handbook. “Chapter 1: “The evolution of project management”. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. 15. Martin Stevens (2002). Project Management Pathways.
Association for Project Management. APM Publishing Limited, 2002 p. xxii 16. Morgen Witzel (2003). Fifty key figures in management?. Routledge, 2003.. p. 96-101. 17. F. L. Harrison, Dennis Lock (2004). Advanced project management: a structured approach?. Gower Publishing, Ltd. , 2004. p. 34. 18. Bjarne Kousholt (2007). Project Management? –. Theory and practice.. Nyt Teknisk Forlag. p. 59. 19. Winston W. Royce (1970). “Managing the Development of Large Software System” in: In: Technical Papers of Western Electronic Show and Convention (WesCon) August 25-28, 1970, Los Angeles, USA.