France has influenced the Philippines in the civil service system. The French public service consists of three main sections – State civil service (central administrations, regional and departmental services of the State, public establishments of the State), – territorial civil service (civil servants of the municipalities, departments and regions), – hospital civil service (administrative and nursing staffs of the public hospitals. The structure of the French civil service is characterized by its fragmentation, due to several factors.
First, the large range of hiring bodies (ministries, local governments, health facilities, branch offices, ©advisements publics) and the existence of three different sections of civil service (State, Local governments, Health). Second, within the State civil service strict sense (I. E. , with tenure), corps, grading and hierarchy are precisely defined and strengthen the esprit De corps, while contract employees belong to another structure The current French civil service system is based on four civil service laws. Together these form the general civil service statute.
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The statute consists of a basic law providing for the rights and obligations of all civil servants as well as of three laws that relate to the three civil service groups. These laws concern the French State civil servants (la Function applique De latent), the public servants working in regional and local government (la function applique territorial) and the public servants working in the public hospitals, in particular nursing staff (la function applique hospitals©re). Civil service law consists further mostly of government decrees.
A majority of employees of central or local administrations are civil servants who are guaranteed a career in the administration. Civil servants start their career as trainees (strategies), generally for a period of one year. At the end of this probation and on-the-Job training period, if they properly filled their duties, they are granted confirmation (utilization) and tenure. In the course of their career, civil servants may access to superior grades, corps or Jobs; or within the same grade or corps, they may take up different Jobs. In all cases, they are guaranteed to climb the steps within a grade, on the basis of seniority.
Civil servants are given a grade within the corps hierarchy. As a rule and as a practice, grade (assigned to the individual and confers him/her rights) and Job (the function) are different and independent from each other. The career system is valued as protection against political changes. The system of career progression within the civil service is based on automatic mechanisms and merit-based selection. There is step progression and class progression. Step progression are particular statutes define the minimum seniority required, though flexibility may apply. Most are automatic, every x year.
In most corps, time spent in a step can either be shortened, as a good performance reward, or increased, as a sanction for bad performance. Class progression consist of civil servants who wish to be promoted in the superior grade are registered, each year, in the promotion roster, in order of merit, as agreed within the corps. Merit appreciation is at the discretion of managers, with the Joint administrative committee as an appeal court. Some corps can also require a professional exam. Finally, an internal competitive exam can be necessary to access the last class of a corps. As a general principle, class progression means change of bob.
For civil servants who wish to change of corps, they may opt for mobility procedures such as condiment (d©attachment) or reassignment out of one’s administration (miss disposition); in practice only, civil servants of Category A use these. There is always the possibility to pass an internal competitive exam, such as the entry exam to civil service schools. The influence of Germany in the Philippine Administrative System Administrative principles and administrative tasks The administrative principles that are regulated in Article 56 of the GO refer to the lawfulness and course of business of the administration.
According to this, the municipality’s administrative activity must be in harmony with the constitution and the law and must only be driven by factual aspects. The municipalities are subject to the obligation to ensure that business runs smoothly and to create the institutions required for this. As far as the administrative tasks are concerned, a distinction is made in Articles 57 and 58 of the GO and in laws between the tasks of the own sphere of responsibility and the transferred sphere of responsibility. Please refer to 1 3 since the tasks of the municipality have already been described in detail there.
Constitution and administration of the municipality The position of municipalities in the government and administrative structure The local autonomy of towns, municipalities and districts is a key element of modern constitutional states. It is “local democracy’. The guaranteed rights of towns, municipalities and districts, laid down in the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany and in the constitutions of the Lender, to organism and administrate the affairs of the local community themselves is the expression of democracy in practice and is an indispensable element of a rule of order that ensures freedom.
Local autonomy safeguards the power of decision at local and district level for the people and presents it as an important element of a decentralized distribution of powers. The Federal Republic of Germany is a state governed by the rule of law in which the principle of the separation of powers applies. For this reason, the distribution of state power is not only horizontal into the legislature, the executive and the Judiciary. State power is also divided vertically, I. E. Into the organs of the Federation, the 16 Lender and the local authorities (municipalities, towns and districts).
The principle of subsidiary plays an important role in local autonomy; it obliges the state to assist the smaller, subordinate entities such as Lander, districts and local authorities, but it prevents the state from intervening in their tasks if they can perform them on their own. Municipality bodies According to Article 29 of the GO the two principal bodies of Bavarian local authorities are the municipality council and the mayor, both of which are directly elected by the municipality citizens. Their areas of responsibility are regulated with binding effect in the Local
Government Law. Neither of the two bodies may interfere in the areas of the other body. The municipality council and its committees The municipality council, which represents the municipality according to Article 30 1 of the GO, is a collective administrative body of the municipality. It decides upon all matters where the mayor does not make a decision on his own. The municipality council is made up of the mayor and the honorary municipality council members who are appointed for a period of six years (Article 31 1, II GO).
In municipalities tit more than 10,000 inhabitants professional council members can also be elected by the municipality council; they only play an advisory role in matters of their own area of responsibility (Article 40 GO). The number of municipality council members depends on the size of the municipality and is between 8 members in municipalities with up to 1,000 inhabitants and 60 municipality council members in municipalities with between 200,000 and 500,000 inhabitants.
Seventy or eighty municipality council members respectively are foreseen for the two largest cities in Bavaria: Unmerge and Munich (Article 31 Ill GO). The legally prescribed provisions on incompatibility must be observed in the composition of the municipality council. Thus, for example, in municipalities with up to 10,000 inhabitants, spouses, parents, children and siblings cannot belong to the municipality council at the same time. In no municipality may municipality civil servants or professional salaried employees be either honorary mayor or honorary municipality council member.
The same applies to civil servants and salaried employees of an administrative association to which the municipality belongs and to employees from the legal oppressors authority who are directly involved with matters of legal supervision. The influence of China in the Philippine Administrative System The central administrative system in the People’s Republic of China includes: the central administrative organs under the system of the National People’s Congress and the leadership of the central administrative organs over local administrative organs at various levels.
The central administrative organ is the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. The State Council is the highest administrative organ of the state. Its function is to adopt administrative measures, enact administrative ales and regulations and issue decisions and orders in accordance with the Constitution and the law; Local people’s governments at various levels exercise the responsibility system of the provincial governor, autonomous regional chairman, mayor, prefect, county governor, district governor, town and township head.
Administrative supervision refers to state administrative organs conducting all-round supervision over state administrative organs and their staff at all levels and making sure if their official performances are in line with the Constitution, laws and administrative orders. Upper administrative organs or leaders have the power to conduct supervision over lower administrative organs and their staff.
Under normal circumstances, upper administrative organs implement administrative supervision through such measures as annulling inappropriate orders and decisions of the lower administrative organs, checking and awarding or penalizing the staff of lower administrative organs, directing, providing guidance, inspecting and urging the work of lower administrative organs. Upper administrative organs may annul wrong administrative decisions of lower administrative organs by administrative reconsideration.
Administrative supervision bodies exercise supervision over state administrative organs and their staff through such methods as investigation. Supervisory bodies have the power to investigate targets of supervision and put forward due suggestions or make due decisions according to the investigation results. The influence of Sweden in the Philippine Administrative System Sweden is a nation-state, in which the Risking (parliament) has the legislative power. Sweden has a parliamentary constitution, where the Government must be accepted by the Risking.
Municipal self-government is part of the public power that emanates from the people, as guaranteed by the constitution. But the distribution of power and responsibility between the national government and the municipalities is not strictly regulated in the Instrument of Government. It must be possible to change it if necessary, and this does in fact happen from time to time. There are two political levels at which decisions are taken – the government and municipal self-government. Municipal self-government consists of municipalities (the local level) and county councils (the regional level).
The county councils do not control the municipalities in any way. In Vista G¶Tolland and Skin the tasks and duties of the county councils are performed through Regions. In addition to the traditional tasks and duties of the county councils, the Regions also have responsibility for growth and development. This includes drawing up strategies for the region’s development, deciding on investments in the regional transportation infrastructure, and distributing funds for development initiatives. The Government is represented regionally through a county administrative board in every county.
Historically, Sweden has been a state with a strong national level (Risking, government, and national authorities) and a similarly strong local level (the municipalities), with directly elected decision-making assemblies, the right to levy taxes, and an extensive area of responsibility. The regional level in Sweden, at least up until now, has been less prominent. The county councils, which are also directly elected and have the right to levy taxes, are mainly responsible for one area; health care and medical treatment.
However, the importance of the regional level is increasing, as is evidenced partly through the new Regions in Vista G¶Tolland and Skin. Regions The term regions in Sweden is as a rule taken to mean the 21 counties. Historically, they have their origins in the sass as areas for the Kings and the government’s administration. The government’s regional bodies, the county administrative boards, and the regional autonomous authorities, the county councils, are bound to the counties. In two of the 21 counties, Vista G¶Tolland and Skin, the local autonomous authorities have a broader commission that also includes growth and development.
The regional level, and the number of counties/regions, are not regulated in the constitution. The constitution states that Sweden shall have municipalities and county councils (that are both part of municipal self-government). Sweden has 290 municipalities The influence of Mongolia in the Philippine Administrative System Mongolia is divided into 22 major administrative units comprising of 21 aims and the capital city of Lancaster. All are governed by ‘Kraals’, or elected bodies. Aiming populations range between 12,500 and 122,000 people.
They also vary in size with the largest covering as much as 165. Square kilometers of territory. An aiming consists of up to 27 ‘sums’, including the aiming centre. Sums in turn are comprised of ‘bags’. In Mongolia there are 331 sums and 1550 bags. Also the capital city, Lancaster, is subdivided into 121 districts called ‘shores’. In the country, the aiming centre is the administrative seat of local government, and the home of the images legal bodies, theatres, hospitals, businesses, schools and industry.
Most of the aiming population work in light industry, services and small business enterprises. Bags populations tend to work in agricultural and animal husbandry. Bags residents mainly lead a nomadic life. They migrate with their herds depending on the change in season and weather conditions. Typically their seasonal camps are located within the borders of their sum and bags, though droughts, duds, and other natural disasters, can push them to different areas.
Local self- government The Constitution of Mongolia proclaimed that “Governance of administrative and territorial units of Mongolia shall be organized on the basis of a combination of the principles of both self-government and central Government”. Local governance is a combination of central provenance and self-governance which are two types of social governance. The self government means that citizens of Mongolia can decide directly and indirectly all matters concerning their life through respective or representative bodies taking account of the State interest, local specificities and financial resources.
In spite of this, they must decide the matters themselves independently in conformity with the Constitution, the Law on Governance of Administrative and Territorial Units and other related legislation of Mongolia. System of Local self-governing bodies: In Aims, the capital city, Sums and Duress there shall be Kraals (Assemblies) of representatives of the citizens of respective territories; In Bags and Shores – general meetings of citizens. Between the sessions of the Kraals and general meetings their Presidium shall assume administrative functions.
Kraals of Aims, the capital city, Sums and Duress enjoy considering and deciding all problems, which do not depend on higher stage of Kraals or other organizations, in its territory. The main form of local self-government is the Kraal. In between the sessions of the Kraal and general tenting the presidium shall assume administrative functions. The memberships of the Kraals as well as those of aims, the capital city, sums and duress, bags and Shores are different.
For example: In aims and the capital city Kraals’ Presidium of Representatives of Citizens is composed of 5-9 members, whereas, in sums and duress 5-7 and in bags and horrors 3-5 members, including the chairman and secretary respectively. Regular meeting of the Kraals of Aims, the capital city, Sums and Duress shall be convened once every year and of the Kraals of Bags and Shores shall be convened less than twice every year. Governor State power shall be exercised on the local territories of Aims, the capital city, Sums, Duress.