Running head: APA writing style and mechanics APA requires a running head for publication. APA writing style and mechanics the title is in upper and lowercase letters, centered between the left and right margins, and positioned in the upper half of the page. Check with your instructor regarding the preference for including the course number, the instructor’s name, and the due date on the title page.
Student Name Institution Name REQUIRED TITLE PAGE INFORMATION Centered on the page (as shown above), include in this order: • Title of Paper (Mixed upper and lower case letters; centered, see APA p. 296) • Your Name (first and last, do not include academic or license information, e. g. , BSN, RN) • Institution Name (e. g. , University of Phoenix, Axia College, Meritus University) **All lines are double-spaced (no single or triple spacing) throughout the entire document.
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The APA Sample Paper provided by the Center for Writing Excellence represents the consensus of several deans and other key academic officials within Apollo Group. The sample paper attempts to match APA style to the University’s curriculum and academic services. Nevertheless, in advanced matters of style and formatting, differing interpretations of APA guidelines exist. While this sample paper is offered as a tool to help students with APA style, it is not a definitive or binding representation of format accepted by individual faculty members.
As a result, for all unresolved style and format issues, it is essential that you consult with your faculty member before submitting your paper for a grade. Your instructor is the final authority regarding acceptable format and style for papers associated with his or her course, and the instructor’s recommendations will prevail over this sample paper in the event that differences between the two occur. Revised: April 2008 Center for Writing Excellence © 2008 Apollo Group, Inc. All rights reserved APA Writing Style 2 Abstract According to section 1. 7 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001), “An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article; it allows readers to survey the contents of an article quickly, and like a title, it enables abstracting and information services to index and retrieve articles” (p. 12). Note that the abstract paragraph is not indented. An abstract should be no longer than 120 words and should be concise and specific (APA, 2001, p. 13). Because an abstract is not always required for student papers, please adhere to your instructor’s requirements.
An abstract is not always required for student papers. When in doubt, contact your instructor. For additional information regarding the use of abstracts, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), p. 12-15. APA does not permit use of the word “Introduction” as a level heading. Instead, begin the text of the paper by including the same title as the title on the title page (centered, upper, and lower case). See APA, p. 298, 5. 17. APA Writing Style 3 APA Writing Style and Mechanics Indent the first line of each paragraph.
Use the tab key, which should be set at five to seven spaces, or 1/2 inch. See APA, p. 289. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Publication Manual) began as an article published in Psychological Bulletin in 1929. That article reported results of a 1928 meeting of scholars “to discuss the form of journal manuscripts and to write instructions for their preparation” (American Psychological Association [APA], 2001, p. xix). Today the manual is in its fifth edition, and the APA format described in it is a widely recognized standard for scientific writing (i. . , scholarly or professional writing) in the social sciences. Although the stylebook is designed to prepare manuscripts for publication, many school and health care journals have adopted its use as a guide to achieve uniformity and consistency (Cuddy, 2002). Writing in the style prescribed by the Quotations: All short quotes require a page number or paragraph symbol if no page number is available. See APA p. 292. Publication Manual can be a daunting experience for students; however, as with any new skill, “practice makes perfect” (P.
Proofreader, personal communication, June 28, 2004). In this paper, a review of APA information and writing tips most often used by the undergraduate and graduate students is presented. However, this document is no substitute for the Publication Manual itself. While APA formatting software is available from a number of vendors, students are discouraged from purchasing it due to the inconsistency of formatting. TIP: Conclude your introduction by including a sentence that provides a brief summary of the salient points to be addressed in the paper.
Personal communication is explained on p. 214 (APA) and is not included on the reference page. Format Considerations Level One Heading (See APA, p. 113) Some commonly used rules and formats from the Publication Manual are presented and discussed in this section. Please note, however, that some assignments may require unique formatting, and students should consult with faculty for clarification. APA Writing Style 4 Level Three Heading (See APA, p. 113) Correct Margins Margins are one inch on all sides or set at the word processor default.
The rule is broken only to avoid placing a lone heading on the last line of the page or a single line of text on the top of the next page. Page Header The header contains the first two or three words of the title and appears in the header feature of Microsoft Word (See Appendix A for format directions for the header feature). The page number is set at five spaces to the right of the text. The automatic function of a word-processing program should be used to print the headers and page numbers consecutively in the paper. Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc. are used to number each page and begin on the title page. Reference Page The hanging indentation (See Appendix B for format directions for hanging indents) is used for the reference page; that is, the first line of the reference, usually the author’s name, rests against the left margin, and the lines that follow are indented 5 or 7 spaces or 1/2 inch. The Publication Manual (2001) recommends setting the tab key to 1/2 inch (word processor default). The reference page is alphabetized by author and contains the date of publication in parentheses, directly after the author’s name.
Next, the title, the place of publication, and the name of the publisher are listed. The proliferation of electronic materials has prompted APA to create formats designed specifically for Internet and Web-based written material. Students should bookmark and frequently visit the APA Web site at www. apastyle. org for current formatting of electronic references. APA Writing Style 5 Only those references that have been cited in the paper are listed on the reference page. Personal communications are cited in the text but not on the reference page.
Additional reference examples are available in Appendix C. In Text Citations Level Four Heading. (See APA, p. 113) Direct quotations. Direct quotations need to mirror exactly the original source, even if errors are contained in the original. To alert the reader that errors are part of the original material, the word sic, enclosed in brackets and italicized, should follow the erroneous material. The source of information must be cited. The format of direct quotations may vary with the placement of the quoted material in the sentence.
The following is an example of how one might use a direct quote from a Web site with an author: “Diversity is emerging as one of the most serious issues in the workplace today, yet most employers are not prepared to deal with it” (Copeland, 2003, Erroneous Assumptions, ¶ 1). The author’s last name, the year of publication, the Web site title, and the paragraph number (when no page number is available) are included in the citations. In addition, the following is an example of how one might use a direct quote from a book with one author: Venes (2001) stated, “The types of influenza doctors must prepare for fall into three categories” (p. 06). If the author’s name is stated prior to the quote, include the date of publication (in parentheses) after the author’s name, and follow the quote with the page or paragraph number. See page 121 in the Publication Manual for more information. Appendix C has additional examples of citations when using direct quotes. Erroneous Assumptions is the heading of a section within the Web-based article, Managing the Multicultural Workforce. Use of headings within the citation is explained on p. 120(APA). Quotations of less than 40 words are enclosed in double quotation marks.
APA requires “single quotation marks within double quotation marks to set off material that in APA Writing Style 6 the original source was enclosed in double quotation marks” (2001, p. 119). Quotations of 40 words or more are set in a block format without quotation marks. The block quote is started on a new line and indented 5 to 7 spaces or 1/2 inch. A sample block quote is contained in this paper. Paraphrased material. Paraphrasing allows the writer to use the ideas of another, to represent another’s argument, and to supply proper credit to the original author or authors (Lawton, Cousineau, & Hillard, 2001).
Each time an author is paraphrased, the source must be cited in the text. Page or paragraph numbers are not required for paraphrased material, but the Publication Manual encourages writers to do so (APA, 2001, p. 121). If one were to paraphrase information from an article located in an online database, one would format it in this way: Daniels (2004) included Garden Restaurants on his list of the 50 best companies for minorities. For another example using the same article, consider the following: A list of companies has been singled out as best for minority employees (Daniels, 2004).
Both examples include the author’s last name and the date of publication. If the author’s name is not provided with the paraphrased text, it must be included in the citation. An additional illustration for paraphrasing information comes from an online course materials page: Values and ethics are related closely but different (University of Phoenix, 2004). Appendix C has additional examples of citations in text when paraphrasing. Plagiarism. Plagiarism constitutes a serious academic concern.
According to Lawton, Cousineau, and Hillard (2001), “Academic communities demand that writers credit others for their work and that the source of their material clearly be acknowledged” (¶ 6). Internet access has resulted in an increase in plagiarism. As noted by McCabe (as Electronic source, direct quote citation: If the electronic source does not have page numbers, use the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. Secondary Sources: See P. 247 in the APA manual for citation of secondary sources. Use of primary sources is preferred. APA Writing Style 7 ited in Sterngold, 2004), 41% of students said they engaged in cut-and-paste plagiarism from online sources. The sentences and phrases used must be original or cited and referenced accordingly. While it may be easier to use someone else’s words, doing so only discredits the writer. When in doubt, cite. Other Format Issues Although the Publication Manual (2001) suggests that an abstract of an article precede the text, an abstract is not used in most student papers. Faculty members may require an abstract if students are submitting very lengthy papers or project proposals.
In those cases, the direction to submit an abstract will be in the assignment guidelines. Preferred typefaces in APA style are 12-pt Times New Roman or 12-pt Courier New. Students should avoid using any software settings that reduce spacing between words or letters. Writing Mechanics Besides formatting, correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and sentence structure are essential components of scholarly writing. Strunk (1999) emphasized the importance of being succinct: Block quote – see pages 117 and 118 in the APA manual for an example and a discussion.
Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell. (¶ 1) APA Writing Style 8 Grammar Besides the provision of a standardized format for scientific writing, the Publication Manual emphasizes the importance of proper grammar.
In addition to the Publication Manual, students will have another resource with The Gregg Reference Manual. For a thorough review, chapter 2 in the Publication Manual is particularly helpful for learning good writing mechanics. A few rules of grammar will be addressed here. Subject and verb agreement. A singular noun requires a singular verb, and a plural noun requires a plural verb (APA, 2001). Words that intervene between the noun and verb do not change that basic rule. Noun and pronoun agreement. When writers use a subject which is singular, they need to use pronouns which are singular.
To avoid having to use he/she and him/her, writers may reword the sentence and use a plural subject, thereby eliminating the problem. For example, the sentence “A student applying for a job must carefully proofread his or her application” can be reworded to read, “Students applying for jobs must carefully proofread their applications. ” Use of plurals also can help writers reduce sexist bias and avoid stereotypes, as well as keep them from using both singular and plural in the same sentence or paragraph. Punctuation. Correct punctuation establishes the rhythm and readability of sentences.
In APA style, only one space is used after periods, commas, colons, and semicolons. When a hyphen is used, no space appears before or after the hyphen (APA, 2001). APA Writing Style 9 Correct use of commas and semicolons can be challenging for students. Writers are encouraged to proofread their papers to ensure proper use of commas (Proofreading for Commas, n. d. ). Web Address in Text: Do not cite Web addresses in text. See the examples in Appendix C. Capitalization. Capitalization is used to designate a proper noun or trade name, as well as major words in titles and headings.
Instances where capitalization is not used include laws, theories, models, or hypotheses, such as ethical decision-making models; names of conditions or groups in an experiment, such as experimental or control groups; or nouns that designate parts of a book, such as chapter 8 (APA, 2001). A common error in capitalization is its use with the name of a job title or department. An example is human resources versus the ACME Human Resources Department. Seriation. Items contained in a list can help to clarify the point being made or components of a subject.
APA does not permit the use of bullets. To show seriation of separate paragraphs, number each paragraph with an Arabic numeral, followed by a period but not enclosed in or followed by parentheses. To show seriation within a paragraph or sentence, use lowercase letters (not italicized) in parentheses. An example of these formats is shown in Appendix D. Numbers. Spell numbers one through nine in the body text. Use Arabic numerals to express numbers 10 and above. However, many exceptions to this rule can be found on pages 123-128 in the Publication Manual.
Third person versus first person. Writing, “The writer instructed the patients” when “the writer” refers to yourself is ambiguous and may give the impression that you did not participate. Instead, use a personal pronoun: “I instructed the patients. ” However, for the most part, reference to self (first person) is limited to reflection or opinion papers. APA Writing Style 10 Conclusion TIP: Always include a conclusion that summarizes the main points of the paper. Check with your instructor regarding the preference for the inclusion of a “Conclusion” heading.
Understanding the mechanics, usage requirements, and referencing materials of APA formatting will help you improve and communicate clearly the content of your work. The intent of this paper is to help you begin to understand the components necessary for development of scholarly papers. However, not all of the content from the Publication Manual is reviewed, and you are encouraged to refer to this excellent resource as well. APA Writing Style 11 Reference Page Notes: Use a separate references page and double space.
Note that throughout the paper and reference list, titles of non-periodicals and the names of journals, book titles, and volume are set in italics rather than being underlined. See APA Manual, pages 239-281 for examples of various references. In addition, please read pages 215-232 for basic reference guidelines. References Book – Corporate Author – see page 251, #33. American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author. Copeland, L. (2003). Managing a multicultural workforce. California Job Journal. Retrieved October 16, 2004, from http://www. objournal. com Book, revised edition – see APA page 249, #27. Online Database Reference: Do not include the URL from online databases that are password protected (such as the University Library). Including it would not enable the reader to directly locate the article. Only include the name of the database or password protected resource. See APA pp. 278-279. Cuddy, C. M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopaedic Nursing, 21(5), 35-42. Retrieved June 28, 2004, from EBSCOhost database. Daniels, C. (2004, July 28). 50 Best companies for minorities. Fortune, 149(13), 136- 141. Retrieved October 19, 2004, from ProQuest database.
Lawton. K. A. , Cousineau, L. , & Hillard, V. E. (2001). Plagiarism: Its nature and consequences. Retrieved June 28, 2004, from Duke University Guide to Library Research Web site: http://www. lib. duke. edu/libguide/plagarism. htm Document available on a university program or department Web site – APA p. 274, #78. Proofreading for commas. (n. d. ). Retrieved June 28, 2004, from Purdue University Online Writing Lab Web site: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/handouts/grammar/g_commaproof. html Sterngold, A. (2004). Confronting plagiarism: How conventional teaching invites cyber-cheating. Change, 36(3), 16.
Retrieved June 28, 2004, from ProQuest database. Strunk, W. , Jr. (1999). Omit needless words. In The elements of style (chap. 3). Retrieved June 28, 2004, from http://www. bartleby. com/141/strunk5. html#13 Information gathered from a Web site is cited in the text of the paper with the Web page title in the author’s space and the year. The site is then referenced on the references page as shown here. See APA p. 269, 274. University of Phoenix. (2004). Week two overview. Retrieved November 4, 2004, from University of Phoenix, Week Two. GEN480—Interdisciplinary Capstone Course Web site. Information retrieved from online course materials.
See Appendix C for additional examples. APA Writing Style 12 Venes, D. (2001). Taber’s cyclopedic medical dictionary (19th ed. ). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. See Appendix C for additional sample references, including simulations and other electronic sources. APA Writing Style 13 Appendix A: Header Feature in MS Word Page Headers Page Headers (APA, p. 288, 5. 06): Identify each page with the first two or three words of the title and with the page number placed on the upper right hand corner of the page. Use five spaces between the title and the page number. Do not use your name to identify each page.
Be sure the font type and size are the same as that used in the document. Word 2003 To create a correct APA header with a page number in Word 2003, use the following guidelines: 1. Select the View menu on the toolbar. 2. Select Header and Footer. 3. Place the curser in the Header box and select the right justification button on Word’s toolbar so that the curser in the Header box moves to the right. 4. Type the first two or three words of the title. 5. Press the space bar five times. 6. Use the automatic function for inserting the page number as illustrated in this picture by selecting the first button with the # symbol. . Select Close. Your header is complete. Word 2007 To create a correct APA header with a page number in Word 2007, use the following guidelines: 1. Click on the Insert tab. 2. Click on the Header tab. 3. Click on the Blank header tab from the drop-down menu. This will put the curser inside the header. 4. Click on the Page Number tab. APA Writing Style 14 5. Place the curser on the drop-down menu over Top of Page to bring up another drop-down menu. 6. Click on Plain Number 3 on the drop-down menu (the third choice). This will place a page number inside the header at the right margin. . Type the portion of the title to go in the header and add five spaces. Your header is complete. 8. Click on Close Header and Footer on the far right. APA Writing Style 15 Appendix B: Directions for a Hanging Indent Word 2003 Select the text that requires a hanging indent. As shown in Picture One, use the Indents and Spacing tab (Format menu, Paragraph command). In the Special list under Indentation, select Hanging (Picture Two). Picture One Picture Two APA Writing Style 16 Word 2007 Select the text that requires a hanging indent OR create a hanging indent before typing the text.
From the Home menu, click on the Paragraph command (see Picture One). This will bring up the Indents and Spacing tab (see Picture Two). Under Indentation in the Special box, click on Hanging and OK. Picture One Picture Two APA Writing Style 17 Appendix C: Reference and Citation Examples Basic guidelines for formatting citations in the text 1. Place the complete citation within parentheses. 2. Use the author’s last name and year for the citation: (Smith, 2008). 3. Place the year in the citation, but do not include the month and a day. 4. Use only the last name of the author, and never include the first name or initials. . Place the name of a group author (corporations, associations, and government agencies) first when no individual author is listed in the source. 6. Use the first two or three words of the title of the work when no author is listed: (Writing Executive Summaries, 2007). Capitalize all major words of the title. 7. Include the page or paragraph number for a direct quotation: p. or pp. for page numbers, para. or ¶ for paragraph numbers. 8. Place any necessary punctuation after the final parenthesis of the citation unless it is a block quote. 9. Never use a URL address in the citation.
Basic guidelines for formatting the References page 1. Place the references in alphabetical order. (Do not number references. ) 2. Use periods to separate each major element in the reference: Name, A. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, 24(4), 13-16. 3. Include the author’s last name and first and middle initials: Smith, G. Q. (Always use initials instead of authors’ first/middle names. ) 4. Place the year in parentheses after the author’s name: Smith, G. Q. (2008). If no year is available, put (n. d. ) in parentheses. 5. Place the title of a book or article first when no author is listed in the source. 6.
Place the name of a group author (corporations, associations, and government agencies) first when no individual author is listed in the source. 7. Capitalize the following elements of the first title (e. g. , article titles, chapters from a book) listed in the reference: first word, proper nouns, and the first word after a colon or a dash. 8. Capitalize all major words of the second title (e. g. , journal titles, newspaper titles, book titles) listed. 9. Use italics instead of quotation marks for titles of books, journals, newspapers, and movies. 10. Never use quotation marks or italics for article titles. 11.
Include the retrieval date and location information for Internet sources: Retrieved May 10, 2008, from ProQuest database. 12. Never use the URL address for a source retrieved from a database. 13. Never include a source that is not mentioned in the paper. The following examples provide information about how to format citations in text and how to format the corresponding source on the reference page. Note: The American Psychological Association has added a supplement to the 2001 APA Manual called APA Style Guide to Electronic References. The supplement is for purchase through APA Writing Style 18 http://apastyle. apa. rg and provides example reference entries for a variety of Web sources. A book with one author A book with one author could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to Venes (2001), three types of influenza are spreading throughout the country. Sample 2 Three types of influenza are spreading throughout the country (Venes, 2001). Sample 3 Venes (2001) stated, “The types of influenza doctors must prepare for fall into three categories” (p. 106). [Note: Page or paragraph numbers are always included with the in-text citation when direct quotations are used. ] Reference Page Citation Venes, D. (2001).
Taber’s cyclopedic medical dictionary (19th ed. ). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. In-Text Citation Sample 4 Cleckley (1997) noted that diversity in the classroom prepared young Americans for work in a global society. Sample 5 Diversity in the classroom prepared young Americans for work in a global society was the idea presented by well-known scholar Bernard Cleckley (1997). Sample 6 Checkley (1997) stated, “Because youth have had experience working and playing with children of other races and cultures while growing up, they will be better able to interact with those of other cultures when working within intercultural corporations” (p. 7). APA Writing Style 19 Reference Page Citation Cleckley, B. (1997). Strategies for promoting pluralism in education and the workplace. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. A book with two or more authors A book with two or more authors could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 Often, people compare Caldwell and Thomason’s book (2004) to The DaVinci Code because of the brilliant writing and historical context. Sample 2 The Rule of Four (Caldwell & Thomason, 2004) has been compared to Dan Brown’s The DaVinci Code.
Sample 3 The novel is described as “an encyclopedia masquerading as a novel” and as “a dissertation on everything from architecture to zoology” (Caldwell & Thomason, 2004, p. 136). Reference Page Citation Caldwell, I. , & Thomason, D. (2004). The rule of four. New York: Dial Press. In-Text Citation Sample 4 Mandelbrot and Hudson (2004) have combined Mandelbrot’s mathematical framework with Hudson’s knowledge of Wall Street to produce a must-read for any serious investor. Sample 5 For the individual who manages money for a living, one of the best books on the market is The Misbehavior of Markets by Mandelbrot and Hudson (2004).
Sample 6 Mandelbrot & Hudson (2004) stated, “This equilibrium market clearing price is automatically interpreted as being the mean of a normal probability distribution” (p. 46). Reference Page Citation Mandelbrot, B. , & Hudson, R. L. (2004). The misbehavior of markets. New York: Basic Books. APA Writing Style 20 A book with a group author A book with a group author could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 The 9/11 Commission Report (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004) is one of the most important documents of this century.
Sample 2 A very clear mandate was expressed by The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks (2004). Sample 3 The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks report stated, “Investigate the facts and circumstance relating to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 . . . and other areas as determined by the Commission” (2004, p. 14). Reference Page Citation National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. (2004). The 9/11 commission report: Final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. New York: W. W. Norton. An online dictionary (New Entry! )
An online dictionary entry could be formatted in the any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to the Oxford English Dictionary (n. d. ), a caucus is a political party meeting that occurs prior to an election and is used to further the party’s interests. Sample 2 A caucus is usually a “private meeting of the leaders or representatives of a political party” (Oxford English Dictionary, n. d. ). Reference Page Citation Caucus. (n. d. ). In Oxford English dictionary online. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from http://www. oed. com/ APA Writing Style 21 A journal article
A journal article could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 Walker and Schutte (2002) believed that the five areas of team building were not inclusive of all the areas needing attention. Sample 2 Not everyone agrees with the five areas of team building (Walker & Schutte, 2002). Sample 3 According to Walker & Schutte (2002), “Given sufficient time, a team should be able to surmount any and all challenges to productive activity” (p. 52). Reference Page Citation Walker, J. , & Schutte, K. (2002, January). Practice and process in wraparound teamwork. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorder, 12(3), 182.
A journal article from an online database A journal article from an online database could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 Daniels (2004) included Garden Restaurants on his list of the 50 best companies for minorities. Sample 2 A list of companies has been singled out as best for minority employees (Daniels, 2004). Sample 3 According to Daniels (2004), “At the Olive Garden and Red Lobster chains, diversity efforts are encouraged from ‘boardroom to dining room'” (¶ 5). [Note: No page number was listed in this particular article because of the way the article is written.
When no page number is available, count the paragraphs and use the paragraph number, as above. In long documents, you can count the paragraphs of a particular section and indicate that within the citation: (Daniels, 2004, Methods section, ¶ 3). ] APA Writing Style 22 Reference Page Citation Daniels, C. (2004, July 28). 50 best companies for minorities. Fortune, 149(13), 136-141. Retrieved October 19, 2004, from ProQuest database. A journal article from an online database—anonymous author An anonymous journal article from an online database could be formatted in any of the ollowing ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 In its “Corrections” section (2004), Fortune magazine did name the CEO of Rite-Aid who is currently in prison for fraud. Sample 2 Fortune magazine did name the CEO of Rite-Aid who is currently in prison for fraud (“Corrections,” 2004). Reference Page Citation Corrections. (2004, November 1). Fortune, 150(9), 32. Retrieved November 3, 2004, from ProQuest database. A journal article from an online database with an assigned DOI (New Entry! ) DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier and is an identification record provided by the publisher.
If the journal article has a DOI, use the DOI in lieu of the retrieval date, the online database name, and the URL. A journal article from an online database with an assigned DOI is not formatted any differently in the in-text citation but is formatted differently on the reference page. In-Text Citation Sample 1 Tzschenteke, Kirk, and Lynch (2004) studied the motivations behind why lodging owners in Scotland made the move to green their properties. Sample 2 Operational cost reduction was one reason some hotel owners opted to green their properties (Tzschenteke, Kirk, & Lynch, 2004).
APA Writing Style 23 Sample 3 This paper “discusses the preliminary findings of a wider study on environmental decision making in the context of owner-managed lodging operations” (Tzschenteke, Kirk, & Lynch, 2004, p. 116). Reference Page Citation Tzschentke, N. , Kirk, D. , & Lynch, P. A. (2004). Reasons for going green in serviced accommodation establishments. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16(2), 116-124. doi: 10. 1108/09596110410520007 A newspaper article A newspaper article could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation
Sample 1 Herron and Miles (1987) addressed the recent Supreme Court decision regarding promotions based on race. Sample 2 Efforts have been made regarding racial parity (Herron & Miles, 1987). Sample 3 The Supreme Court declared, “A company may decide to promote an employee on the basis of race under certain circumstances” (Herron & Miles, 1987, p. 32). Reference Page Citation Herron, C. R. , & Miles, M. A. (1987, March 1). Promotion based on race is upheld by Supreme Court. New York Times, p. e4. An online newspaper article (New Entry! ) An online newspaper article could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation
Sample 1 McGrath (2007) interviewed some Oxford English Dictionary employees about the deletion of hyphens from 16,000 dictionary entries. APA Writing Style 24 Sample 2 The recent article about the deletion of 16,000 hyphens from the Oxford English Dictionary explored how hyphens have become unnecessary with many words in modern usage (McGrath, 2007). Sample 3 McGrath (2007) stated, “The greatest hyphenator ever was Shakespeare (or Shak-speare in some contemporary spellings) because he was so busy adding new words, many of them compounds, to English: ‘sea-change,’ ‘leap-frog,’ ‘bare-faced,’ ‘fancy-free'” (¶ 8).
Reference Page Citation McGrath, C. (2007, October 7). Death-Knell. Or death-knell. New York Times. Retrieved from http:www. nytimes. com A Web site with no author A Web site with no author could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 The Web site for the National Osteoporosis Foundation (2004) has many interesting facts about this debilitating disease. Sample 2 Osteoporosis is a highly preventable disease (National Osteoporosis Foundation, 2004). Sample 3 The National Osteoporosis Foundation (2004) stated, “Eighty persons of those affected by osteoporosis are women” (¶ 1). Reference Page Citation
National Osteoporosis Foundation. (2004). Fast facts. Retrieved October 15, 2004, from http://www. nof. org In-Text Citation Sample 4 Subaru (2004) makes it easy to compare its Outback with similar cars. Sample 5 Subaru currently has five models in its lineup (Subaru, 2004). Sample 6 According to Subaru (2004), “All Subaru Outback models blend the rugged versatility of an SUV with the driving performance and comfort of a passenger car” (¶ 1). APA Writing Style 25 Reference Page Citation Subaru. (2004). Subaru previews all-new. Retrieved November 4, 2004, from http://www. subaru. com A Web site with an author
A Web site with an author could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to Copeland (2003), the adaptation required when minorities enter the workplace is a two-way street. Sample 2 Diversity is a positive thing in the workforce (Copeland, 2003). Sample 3 Copeland (2003) stated, “Diversity is emerging as one of the most serious issues in the workplace today, yet most employers are not prepared to deal with it” (Managing a Multicultural Workforce, ¶ 1). [In a long online document with no page numbers, you can list the title of the section and the paragraph number within that section. Reference Page Citation Copeland, L. (2003). Managing a multicultural workforce. California Job Journal. Retrieved October 16, 2004, from http://www. jobjournal. com In-Text Citation Sample 4 According to Nix (2004), no definitive national Christmas tree exists. Sample 5 Apparently, four trees could be the national Christmas tree in the United States (Nix, 2004). Sample 6 Nix (2004) mentioned that "four trees touted to be the nation’s Christmas tree” (¶ 1). APA Writing Style 26 Reference Page Citation Nix, S. (2004). The Amazon and neotropical rainforest. Retrieved November 6, 2004, from http://forestry. about. om Microsoft® PowerPoint presentations References to Microsoft® PowerPoint presentations can take two forms: PowerPoint as a presentation PowerPoint as an online presentation PowerPoint as a presentation Sometimes it is necessary to reference a PowerPoint presentation you have seen, either by itself or as part of a longer presentation. If the presentation cannot be retrieved by the general reader, cite the PowerPoint as a personal communication only within the text. In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to a PowerPoint presentation in the GEN 380 class (2006), the streets in Toronto are cleaner than the streets in New York.
Sample 2 The streets in Toronto are cleaner than the streets in New York (GEN 380, personal communication, September 3, 2006. ) [Note: If the name of the presenter is known, use the first initial and last name of the presenter instead of the name of the class, as follows: (G. Smith, personal communication, September 3, 2006). ] Sample 3 According to a PowerPoint presentation in the GEN 380 class, “Compared to New York City, Toronto’s streets are free of litter, graffiti, and garbage” (personal communication, September 3, 2006). Note: In a personal communication that is not written, do not use page or paragraph numbers with a direct quotation. ] Reference Page Citation A personal communication is not listed in the references. APA Writing Style 27 PowerPoint as an online presentation (New Entry! ) An online PowerPoint presentation can be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to a PowerPoint presentation from the National Security Council (2007), the United States has succeeded in reaching many of the objectives outlined at the start of the war with Iraq, including the capture of Saddam Hussein.
Sample 2 The United States has succeeded in reaching many of the objectives outlined at the start of the war with Iraq, including the capture of Saddam Hussein (National Security Council, 2007). Sample 3 According to a PowerPoint presentation from the National Security Council (2007), “Winning in Iraq will not end the War on Terror, but it will make success in the War on Terror much easier” (slide 3). Reference Page Citation National Security Council. (2007, January). Highlights of the Iraq strategy review [P[PowerPoint slides]Retrieved from http://www. whitehouse. gov/nsc/iraq/2007/iraq-strategy011007. df Personal communication Sources that the general reader cannot access should be cited as a personal communication. This can include information from interviews, emails, newsgroups, letters, memos, lectures, and Microsoft® PowerPoint presentations. A personal communication is cited only within the text because items in the reference list at the end of the essay are reserved for sources that can be retrieved by the reader. In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to Smith (personal communication, September 3, 2006), pit bulls are no more dangerous than German shepherds.
Sample 2 Pit bulls are no more dangerous than German shepherds (G. R. Smith, personal communication, September 3, 2006. ) APA Writing Style 28 Sample 3 Smith stated, “Pit bulls are no more dangerous than German shepherds” (personal communication, September 3, 2006). [N[Note: In a personal communication that is not written, such as an interview, do not use page or paragraph numbers with a direct quotation. ]eference Page Citation A personal communication is not listed in the references. Electronic text (e-text) authored by individuals specifically for an Apollo Group subsidiary (e. g. University of Phoenix, Axia College, Meritus University) An e-text authored by individuals could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 If we create our experience (Paul & Elder, 2002), then we are responsible for our lives. Sample 2 We can control our experience (Paul & Elder, 2002). Sample 3 Paul and Elder (2002) stated, “For most people, experience is understood as something that ‘happens to them,’ not something they create for themselves” (chap. 8, p. 131). [N[Note: In the e-text, you may need to include the chapter to clarify the source. ]eference Page Citation Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2002). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your professional and personal life [U[University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-text]Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Retrieved November 24, 2004, from University of Phoenix, GEN480—Interdisciplinary Capstone Course Web site. APA Writing Style 29 E-text that is a compilation of pieces of other works edited by an Apollo Group subsidiary (e. g. , University of Phoenix, Axia College, Meritus University) as a completely new book An e-text that is a compilation of other works could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation
Sample 1 According to the University of Phoenix textbook (2002), educators need to pay attention to the environment in which learning takes place. Sample 2 Environment can be an important factor in the learning process (University of Phoenix, 2002). Sample 3 As stated in the textbook, “Social learning theorists stress the role of environmental factors in learning, but they acknowledge the importance of cognitive factors as well” (University of Phoenix, 2002, section 3, p. 358). Reference Page Citation University of Phoenix (Ed. ). (2002).
Lifespan development and learning [U[University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-text]Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. Retrieved November 26, 2003, from University of Phoenix, PSYCH/538—Lifespan Development and Learning Course Web site. E-text from an electronic database (New Entry! ) An e-text could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to Hlebowitsch (2005), macrocurriculum and microcurriculum are two levels of curriculum design. Sample 2 Curriculum design has two levels, macrocurriculum and microcurriculum (Hlebowitsch, 2005).
Sample 3 Macrocurriculum embraces “the design of the all-school experience and concerns itself with building-level design factors, including the organization of courses across and within grade levels, school-wide APA Writing Style 30 mission features, and school-wide (extra-classroom) experiences” (Hlebowitsch 2005, p. 9). Reference Page Citation (Note: A retrieval date is not needed. If the e-text is available from a public site, then change “Retrieved from” to “Available from” and include the actual Web address. ) Hlebowitsh, P. S. (2005). Designing the school curriculum. Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
Online course materials Documents listed in online course materials could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 According to Axia College Week Three Supplement (2006), three major steps for analyzing sources exist. Sample 2 A key question to ask is “Which source is strongest? ” (Axia College, 2006, Week Three Supplement). Reference Page Citation Axia College. (2006). Week Three supplement: Appendix B. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from Axia College, Week Three. CRT/205—Critical Thinking Course Web site. Online forum messages, discussion groups, and newsgroups (New Entry! An online forum message, discussion group message, or a newsgroup message could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 In Boardman’s (2008) Week Two forum message, he asked the students to answer, “Why do good people do bad things? ” (para. 3). Sample 2 As a follow-up question in the Week Two forum message, students were asked to explore the difference between effective and efficient communication for a scenario involving two scientists and their non-technical audience (Boardman, 2008). APA Writing Style 31 Reference Page Citation Boardman, B. (2008, April 15). Week two class notes [M[Msg. ]Message posted to University of Phoenix class forum, MGT/344—Organizational Behavior and Ethical Responsibility course Web site. Podcasts (New Entry! ) Podcasts could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 In Fogarty’s (2007) podcast about the differences between who versus whom, she provided tips to determine which one should be used in a question. Sample 2 This podcast explores the confusion of who versus whom, and the speaker reminds the listeners to use who when a person is the subject of the sentence (Fogarty, 2007). Reference Page Citation Fogarty, M. (Writer/Speaker). 2007, March 9). Who versus whom [E[Episode 44]Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. Podcast retrieved from http://grammar. quickanddirtytips. com/who-versus-whom. aspx Video weblog posts (New Entry! ) A video post could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 In an Internet video, Gore (2008) stated that 68% of the American population believes that human activity is a contributing factor in global warming. Sample 2 This Internet video on the update of global warming explores the urgency to “organize our response appropriately” to the climate crisis (Gore, 2008).
APA Writing Style 32 Reference Page Citation Gore, A. (2008, April). TED Talks Al Gore: New thinking on the climate crisis [V[Video file]Video posted to http://www. ted. com/talks/view/id/243 Simulations Simulations could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 In the University of Phoenix simulation (2004), students are allowed to apply theory to practice. Sample 2 A situation providing a dilemma regarding confidentiality allows us to apply theory to practice (University of Phoenix, 2004).
Sample 3 This simulation states, “The three possible candidates all have strengths and weaknesses for this position” (University of Phoenix, 2004, para. 10). Reference Page Citation University of Phoenix. (2004). Keeping information confidential [C[Computer Software]Retrieved September 26, 2004, from University of Phoenix, Simulation, COM525—Advanced Communications Management Course Web site. Software [N[Note: Reference entries are not needed for off-the-shelf software and programming languages. In the text, give the proper name of the software and the version number. Do provide reference entries for specialized software or computer programs with limited distribution. Software could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 The strength of ACI (2002) as a real estate appraising software program is its ease of use. APA Writing Style 33 Sample 2 Because it is user friendly, many more real estate appraisers are using ACI (2002). Reference Page Citation ACI—The appraiser’s choice. (2002). (Version 0. 0) [Computer software]Retrieved November 3, 2004, from http://www. aciweb. com/p_aci. asp Television series
A television series could be formatted in any of the following ways: In-Text Citation Sample 1 The Seinfeld series (Ackerman, 1989) presented a major, creative breakthrough in evening sitcoms. Sample 2 The four main characters in Seinfeld represent people whom we all know (Ackerman, 1989). Sample 3 One of George’s famous sayings to Jerry is, “On some level, I have always been handicapped” (Ackerman, 1989). Reference Page Citation Ackerman, A. (Producer). (1989). Seinfeld. (Television series). New York: NBC. Team Toolkit University of Phoenix. (2004). Learning team toolkit.
Available on the University of Phoenix student/faculty website: http://ecampus. phoenix. edu (Retrieved May 10, 2008). APA Writing Style 34 Virtual Organizations Please use the following format to reference information found within the Virtual Organizations: Apollo Group, Inc. (Latest copyright date). Virtual Organization Name. Title of Web page. Retrieval Date. Course Number and Name. URL Reference Page Citation Example Apollo Group, Inc. (2006). Riordan Manufacturing. Finance & accounting – overview. Retrieved March 28, 2007. CIS/319 – Computers and Information Processing. https://ecampus. hoenix. edu/secure/aapd/CIST/VOP/Business/Riordan/Finance/RioFandA001. htm APA Writing Style 35 Appendix D: Seriation Seriation (lists) (APA, p. 292, 5. 12): To show seriation (lists) within a paragraph or sentence, use lowercase letters (not italicized) in parentheses: Job satisfaction is increased when nurses are provided with (a) therapeutic massage, (b) relaxation therapy, and (c) music therapy. To show seriation of separate paragraphs, number each paragraph with an Arabic numeral, followed by a period but not enclosed in or followed by parentheses. APA does not allow the use of bullet points.