An Autobiography as Defined On TwoMajor Theories of Development – Assignment

An Autobiography as Defined On TwoMajor Theories of Development – Assignment Words: 4435

Writing this autobiography has been a very difficult, challenging and learning experience for me. In the helping of this autobiography I must first give thank to the almighty god who gave me the energy and strength, to my mother, father and friends for their assistance, guardance and support in the helping me to complete this project. You have provided me with most of the valuable information in this project. Your stories have brought vivid recollections of memories.

I am also indebted to the other persons who helped to put together in helping me to complete this assignment. I express my fullest gratitude to these wonderful people. INTRODCUTION This autobiography gives a brief history of my lifetime, on two major theorists of development psychosexual by Sigmund Freud and cognitive development by Jean Piaget. It will show how the different stage of the theories help with my development and also the thing that motivated me, major challenges and situation in my life, stressful situation and what created the negative or positive attitude in my life that created the unique individual in me.

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Shannon Blake is quiet an introvert, outstanding and a respectable person. At 20 years he enjoys playing football, listening music and going to the movies. He has a very attractive smile and a great personality. Which leads to be a moderate person, of good behavior and he is an active person in school. Were he is part of the different clubs. His favorite colors are baby blue, yellow and white. Born in the Kingston at the jubilee hospital, he was name after the doctor that delivered him. He grew up with an extended family.

Where they have a great impact on his lifespan, he is currently living in the water house community with his mother Fredericka Robinson his mother make him the person he is because of the way she stick out, to make sure that he did not get into bad company and to go to school every day. With him growing up without a father because his father left when he was 5 years old, his father Devon Blake did not care much about his son. His mother is currently employed at Excelsior community college. He is one of the most successful Youngman in his community today and his family members and residents in his community are proud of him and is achievement.

He was a past student of st, Andrew technical high school in Jamaica were he past his 7 CXC subjects and currently attends EXED community college were he studying for a associated degree in business. Outline of Theories Human development entails the scientific study of how people change, as well as how they remain the same overtime, early studies of human development focused on describing behavior in order to establish age norms. My Autobiography is based on the following theories. Firstly psychosexual stages of development. Sigmund Freud proposed this theory.

PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT According to Sigmund Freud, an innate sequence of stages through which all human beings pass. At each stage, pleasure is focused on different region of the body. 1. Oral Stage: (0 – 18 months) In Freud Theory, a stage of Psychosexual development during in which pleasure is centered in the region of the mouth. Freud states that if too much or too little gratification occurs during this stage, an individual may become fixated at it. Example: Infant achieves gratification through oral activities such as feeding, thumb sucking, and babbling. 2.

Anal Stage: (2 – 3) a psychosexual stage of development during which pleasure is focused on the anal zone. The process of elimination becomes the primarily focus of pleasure. Example: The child learns to respond to some demands of society (such as bowel and bladder control). 3. Phallic Stage: (4 – 6 years) Freud speculated that at this time we fantasize about sexual relations with our opposite-sex parent – a phenomenon he termed the Oedipus complex. It is a stage in which children must give up their sexual attraction to their sexual attraction to their opposite-sex parent.

Example: The child learns to realize the difference between males and females and becomes aware of sexuality. 4. Latency Stage: (7 – 11 years) In Freud’s theory, the psychosexual stage of development that follows resolution of the Oedipus complex. At this stage, sexual desires are relatively weak. Example: The child continues his or her development but sexual urges are relatively quiet. 5. Genital Stage: (11 – adult) the final stage of psychosexual development- one in which individuals acquire the adult capacity to combine lust with affection. During this stage, pleasure is gain focused on the genitals.

Now, however, lust is blended with affection. Example: The growing adolescent shakes off old dependencies and learns to deal maturely with the opposite sex. This perspective states that behaviors are motivated and controlled by powerful unconscious urges, which he called the id, ego and super ego. The id is in the unconscious reservoir of drives and is ruled by pleasure principle. Its demand must be satisfy immediately. The ego is ruled by the reality principle. The superego serves as a sensor on the ego and deals with moral. Cognitive Development (Jean Piaget)

The cognitive theory was proposed by Jean Piaget and is concerned with the qualitative development and mental processes and abilities. The cognitive theory seeks to understand how changes in behavior reflect changes in thinking. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory – explores the progressive changes that take place in thinking abilities over time. Cognitive development is the combined result of maturation of the brain and nervous system and adaptation to our environment. Elements of cognitive activity . Schema – a mental structure of the situation / object Adaptation – process of adjusting thinking to include new information . Assimilation – acquiring new information and incorporating it into current schemas in response to new environmental stimuli. . Accommodation – adjusting to new information by creating new schemas when old ones won’t do. . Equilibrium – harmony between sensory information and accumulated knowledge. . Equilibration – compensation for external disturbance by moving from structural disequilibrium to a new, higher equilibrium. Involves increase in thinking as one balances assimilation and accommodation.

Piaget gives the four stages of Cognitive Development listed below in order. 1. Sensorimotor development (0 – 2 years) Manipulation of physical environment. During this stage, child has relatively little competence in representing the environment using images, language, or symbols. 2. Preoperational stage (2 – 7 years) begins to think conceptually, can resolve physical problems. Children develop an internal representation of the world that allows them to describe people, events, and feelings. In Piaget theory children become capable of mental presentations of the eternal world. . Concrete operations (7 – 11 years) can think logically in dealing with physical problems. Piaget states that it is at thus stage that children grasp such principles as conservation and capacity for logical thought emerges. Youngsters gain understanding of relational terms and striation. They come to understand reversibility- the fact that many physical changes can be undone by a reversal of the original action. 4. Formal operational stage (11 – upwards) can think abstractly, can develop and test mental hypotheses, can reason and think logically.

In Piaget’s theory, the final stage of cognitive development, during which individuals may acquire the capacity for deductive or propositional reasoning. Cognitive development also involves language development as well as learning and memory issues at each stage. Infancy (0-2): Object permanence, cooing and babbling, first words. Early Childhood (2 – 6): Egocentrism, centration, irreversibility, telegraphic speech, increased vocabulary, short term memory capacity increases and attention span improves. Middle Childhood (6 -12):

Conservation, decentration, reversibility, metalinguistic awareness, long-term memory improves. Adolescence (12 – 20): Deductive reasoning improves; problem solving becomes more systematic; thought becomes more abstract and reflective; long term memory continues to improve. Young Adulthood (20 – 40): Intellectual abilities and speed of information processing are stable; dialectical thought; application of knowledge. Middle Adulthood (40 – 65): Improved judgment; decline in long term memory other aspects related to learning. .Late Adulthood (65 and older);

Decline in cognitive speed and effectiveness of working memory; fluid intelligence declines and crystallized intelligence remains stable or increases. ANALYSIS Life is a great experience that everyone experience. In life there are good times and bad times, well life for me started on Monday April 1, 1987 3: 00 pm at the jubilee hospital to my grateful parents Fredericka and Devon Blake. I was now making my first appearance into the world. My mother told me that I was the best thing to happen in her life and she thank god that I was safely delivered in to the world without anything bad happening to me.

My father and mother said that I was a precious and valuable gift from god. After my appearance I was quickly named offer the doctor who had delivered me. In the space of three days I made my journey to the house where I will spent my life at 4 north plum lane Kingston 11(water house). I lived and grew in water house with my mother, cousins, uncles and aunts. My home environment has always been warm, humble and stable. My relatives was happy to see me, they treated me as if I was an angel sent by god to brighten their dark corners.

After four months I learn to sit up by myself and I use to place my first two fingers on my right in my mouth which my fingers give me some source of comfort and I use to love put my feet in the air. This stated by Sigmund Freud that at the oral stage of my psychosexual stage of development. I was a very energetic child, I play with symbols and toys to keep my comfort, I was very spoiled and anything I want and I don’t get it, I try to do something evil, according to piaget I was at the sensorimtor stage that as a child I had a relatively little competence in representing the environment using symbols and images.

When I was 1 year old I would suck my thumb for any gratification and pleasure principle, Freud state that I was at the oral fixated personality of my psychosexual stage. After 8 months I said my first word (mama) and at this age I began to creep all around the house. I knew my mother’s face as piaget stated and I and always crying when I was hungry as for most of the times I cry my mother knew I was hungry, I use it as means of communication.

When I was 2 years old my mother start to teach me how to use the toilet and to wash my hands when I was finish using the toilet but my first time of using it was one of the worst time because I had made a great mess to the bathroom. This is the anal stage of Sigmund Freud. At age two I went to the one way basic school were I learn to speak properly and how use numbers. At basic school I did not care about anyone else but my self, my told me that I was very self centre and self gratification. As jean Piaget stated I was at the preoperational stage.

Also as Freud stated my personality at this time was my pure1D here my only concern was myself. Beginning at basic school I get to go to a lot of trips where my mother has to come with me on all the trips. I can remember one time I was going on a trip where my mother was not coming, I could stop crying and to out she is really not coming I run from the school right back home where I told her if she not going I am not going also. My mother told me that she found out that when I was 4 years old I was always showing her my penis and I was curious about my body of others.

That to know I was more attach to my mother and aunts. This is the phallic stage which Freud explains. When I was 5 years old one day I saw my mother suddenly come for me from school and to bring me to this primary school so I did not get to graduate from my basic school. I entered Primary school at age 7, I was very happy and excited, during this time according to Piaget I was at the concrete operational stage of my cognitive development. Piaget would states that I learn through concrete experiences at that age.

I was very slow in anything I do, everything I laugh for, and I give attitude in everything I do, others would say that I had some gender problem, Freud on the other hand state that I was at Phallic stage of my psychosexual development. At age seven going in grade two I did have some difficult with my class work because of the sickness and my family lack of patience did not instill my confidence. Whenever a work was given in class I would cheat to the nearest person sitting close to me and think that I can do my work, but I was packed up with pure id I do it for pleasure principle Freud states.

The secret all reveal one day when the teacher gave a test and I cheat off everything offer the young lady paper, writing off all her name, then the teacher spot it and announce it publicly in front of the class, I was very shame and then my super ego comes in and start to bother my conscience, according to Freud he states that we are given by two forces thonatos which mean hate Eros which mean love, at that stage I could not stand seeing the teacher, and every time I remember her it reminds me of my shame especially when she said she notice it along time.

Freud would say that at times we live in regression; I could not bother to think or deal with my evil past. At age nine my mother was strict on me by not making me go on the road and only to study my book. Of this I get much quit or less talkative to my family and friends. Now I grade 5 where I was preparing to take my common entrance examination this brings pressure towards me because everyone thinks that I will pass.

During the latency stage I was now up and around with my friends (girls) and began to relate to other girls my age in this stage and that my sexual urges are suppressed. But after the results came out I fail but my parents still encourage me to go on. The other year I was much more focus on my work in which I pass for one of the best high schools in Jamaica the Kingston college. When I found out that I pass for KC that was one of the happiness moments in my life. But when my heard the news she could not believe it.

After in first form at 12 I start to handle conflicts, setting goals and achieve them, this is the formal operational stage of Piaget. This stage still continues in my life and the final stage in the cognitive development. I think high school was a big thing in life I must achieve. After in the first from I start my doing well in school in which in mother was very proud of me and she also encourage me to join cadet club at school this club have teach me a lot of things like to respect, how to dress and give me great experiences like going to camps around the country.

In the second form I start getting awards for my good work Third form is the change in my life in which I get to know friend in my community and the one that attends my school so this cause me to start coming out of my house more. In third form according to Piaget at the cognitive development I entered the formal operational stage, which continues throughout life and at the psychosexual stage of development I was at the genital stage Freud state that this continue forever.

I was chosen by my classmates as the class monitor, but my form teacher did not like me, everyone could recognize that he had favorites, he would say positive thing in front of me to uplift me and behind my back he would speak negative thing, but that did not get me down because my ego give me balance, so I could control myself, because negative description I work upon them to make me a better person.

In my interest of girls and is still growing at this moment, in the genital stage I have enjoy in my life. This is now that aims at the more mature level of relationship. With this experience of sex I could relate to my friends more. At this time in my life I found my self going to parties with my friend which I did not normally do. During this period of my life I begin to miss my father and was wanting for a father figure in my home.

In fifth form I was like a role to my friend at school for well dress and out standing schoolwork. Also in fifth form I was the Student Council President, Which I was happy for, others look up to me as their role model and I try my best not to fail them, at gradation I was the Valedictorian and that gave me a positive attitude towards my character and the individual I am, Carl Rogers state that this is my real self the person I am and not the Ideal self who I want to be.

I attend college at age 20 I felt so good because I was just in the same environment and I did not like some staff members at my school, because some of them don’t think good of me so I was glad being at college exploring other environment, according to Freud he stated that I now entered the Genital stage of my Psychosexual development, Where I could now be interested in a more mature level of relationship, Although I Could see others of the opposite sex, and even the same sex, with big body I wasn’t scared or anything nothing was strange for me.

Major Challenges and Situations in my Life that have Created the Unique Individual I am In my life going to school at the Primary and Secondary stage, it was my mother only, she tries a lot to held me go to school but many times there was no money to send me or to buy my school equipment, there are times I would look and cry about this rough situations because I always try to say this going to make me a ignorant Young man, but one day in secondary school at first form I use this rough situations to uplift me and not to conquer me.

I set my motto as nothing is too hard to achieve and I am too anointed to be disappointed, this created the unique person I am, I was glad that it was not transportation for me to go to school, it was a walking distance, so always tell myself that with money or without money I am going to school, at times hungry gave me hard knock but I try not to put my mind towards it, I always claim this thought over my life that there is room for improvement and I ‘am striving towards perfection Freud state that I had an anal personality.

Until now I don’t allow myself to be in uncertainties, my mommy always say that I have a aim and she would do anything for me to pursue it and I am determine to get it. Freud would say that at some given times I don’t want to deal with my past but at times my past motivate and strengthen the individual I am and let I think that anyone can make it and that they can reach to that desire.

As Carl Rogers humanistic Psychology would state that as human we can strive to the best we can and that as individual we had choice to make. The Positive Attitude that Created the Unique Individual I am now displaying I always try to examine other to their fullest potential and that would motivate me towards my schoolwork and towards life. However I always try to do my best in my school work and I always try to get involved in groups that mean to succeed in life, so that create a positive attitude towards my ocial, physical and emotion life, until now I try to embrace this positive feelings amongst others in different environment that I visit. I always had this sense of motivation to hold up my head high through thick or thin whether sorrow or pain I always strive for the best because I always say that there is a God and no one is above him and what he say no one cannot change it.

A Stressful Situation that I have undergone and how I dealt with it During high school doing my CXC completion, on Sunday I would have classes and church together, but according to Frederick Hertzberg he state that every one of us had a need, so at times I could prefer to go to class because I always said I need my qualification but on the other hand while at school on Sunday my mine is on church, saying I am not giving the lord my best, and when class is finish I would not feel please with myself because I always think that I miss out a lot from god.

However when I am at church in the morning my mine would be on classes, so consider it as a stressful situation. Fredrick Hertzberg would say that this is my acquired need my qualification a thing that I desire to have, it my secondary need, Maslow’s on the other hand would say that I also had a social and self actualization need.

I have undergone this situation by examine others who don’t go to any extra classes and still achieve to their fullest potential, I have always seek to find others that master their education; and then I think and say I can do it also, so I stop going to class on Sundays and I to go to church instead and I would collect Sunday notes from others and pay attention during class time in the week.

Those people had motivate me a lot, furthermore on the other hand my pastor had motivate me a lot, I had always try to follow her precepts, when I am down, she always find the time to encourage me, and she could uplift my spirit when I feel that I am not love so that motivated me to say on track and not to be as stressful, Hertzberg would say that it is a force that pushes me to gain what I want in Christ Jesus and what I need do achieve in school.

I love friendships and I love to meet new people I always try to tell other about the love of Jesus, at times my facial expression shows that I am not ok, but in the eyes of god I am blessed, gifted and will talented, in life what I tell myself that failure had no excuses so I know I can accomplish what I want and what I need. I recognized blessing in my life when I let go off my self and let god had His way in my life, I try not to under estimate anyone, but where honor is due I would give it. I believe strongly that no one is born to stay at a no level but others can move up the ladder, but it is a process, it takes times.

I try to embrace love to every one because I hate segregation, my aim in life is to help others whether high or low, feeble or weak is for them being the best they can be and what they can do because I knew that every one did born with a potential, a dream and a desire each time I look back over my life and see where I could have been, I can truly say that I am loved by the almighty god. INTERVIEW QUESTION ?At birth did I cried a lot? (Yes) (No) ? From birth to age two was I troublesome? (Yes) (No) ? Was my academic performance excellent? Yes) (No) ? The reports from my teachers were it good or bad (Yes) (No) ? Did I mature fast? (Yes) (No) ? Was I a quick learner? (Yes) (No) ? Was my behavior masculine or feminine? (Yes) (No) ? Who was attracted most, mother or father? (Yes) (No) CONCLUSION Psychology is defined as the science dealing with the mental process and behavior. For my 20 years on the face of the earth I think I have princes, which experiences, which have served to shape my personality thus far. I am ambitious, determined to achieve, courageous and generous.

On reflection upon my life in the scheme of things I am not obsessed with what might had been but derived satisfaction from the life I have lived based on my strong moral conviction and the belief that I must work hard for what I want to achieve. I see crises as stepping stones rather than obstacle as I strive to achieve my goals in life. Within my autobiography I have stated two major theories of development; they are Sigmund Freud of the psychosexual stages of development and Jean Piaget of the cognitive development, only they two theorist I had stated have been has its own development stages and I have related them within my life story.

One can say that these theories have proven to relate to my life experience. MY FAMILY TREE Mother Father Fredericka Robinson Devon Blake Daniel Bailey Shannon Blake Reference Atkinson, L. Rita 1(1990) Introduction to psychology. (10th Ed. ) Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. Rathus, S. A. (2002) Essentials of Psychology. (7th Ed. ) Harcourt Brace Publishers, USA. Rathus, S. A. (2002) Concepts and connections. (7th Ed. ) Wadsworth N. Y. , USA. Smith, E. et al. Atkinson and Hilgard’s introduction to psychology. (14th Ed). Belmont. C. A. Wadsworth/ Thompson Learning.

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