Multifactorial Model of Health Psychology Assignment

Multifactorial Model of Health Psychology Assignment Words: 2393

The multifactorial model in health psychology is a leading paradigm that recognizes the multi-faceted nature of illnesses. It is not a clear-cut, simple case that a disease is caused by a singular factor. The fact is that decades if not over a century of modern research has led to the recognition that a host of factors, as well as their interactions, function in illness and health determination (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126). These varied factors that the multifactorial model indicates to be the range of possible influences or causes of diseases cover the psychological, sociocultural, environmental, and stressors.

This broad range of factors, which include both those within and without one’s control, determine an individual’s health and his/her level of susceptibility to health problems (Nevid & Rathus, p. 127). Psychological or personality and behavior factors figure in quite a large number of health problems. Such is seen in the large number of preventable deaths that occur yearly in the United States. For one, smoking leads to way over 400,000 annual deaths from cancer, diseases of the heart and lungs, and stroke.

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Some 300,000 year deaths stroke, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes can actually be prevented with good diet and proper exercise. Immunizations, moderation or control of alcohol drinking, and abstinence or safe sex practices could also help prevent deaths from infectious diseases, vehicular and other accidents/injuries, and sexually transmitted diseases, respectively (Nevid & Rathus, p. 128). It should be well noted that depression and other negative psychological states could actually render an impaired immune system functioning (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126).

The reason for this is that, contrary to popular thinking, the mental and the physical are not entirely separate domains but, rather intertwined (Nevid & Rathus, p. 131). Biological factors include age, gender, genetics, as well as injuries, exposure to pathogens and inoculations. One’s genetic make-up, while beyond an individual’s capacity to be altered, tend to make certain people falsely assume that their health is doomed by, say, a family history of diabetes. Having a family history of a disease can make some people think fatalistically that nothing they do can improve their chances of overcoming or escaping a disease. Dr. Robert N.

Hoover of the National Cancer Institute, however, says that many cases of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and others merely give rise to predispositions, not really certainties (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126). Environmental factors include pollution, water quality, hygiene from solid waster treatment and sanitation, natural disasters, and even global warming and depletion of the ozone layer. Personal stressors cover a wide range of situations such as daily hassles at home, co-workers, time pressure, and financial insecurity; frustrations; major life changes; workplace situation; and isolation or rejection by peers (Nevid & Rathus, p. 27). Thus, in the diagnosis of illnesses, the multifactorial model considers the possible roles played by psychological, biological, environmental/cultural factors, along with their interactions (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126). In the United States, the application of the psychological health model can be seen in studies that attempt to explain the phenomenon of black Americans seemingly suffering from health problems more compared to the European Americans.

The ethnicity consideration has led to studies showing that African-Americans may indeed be genetically predisposed to hypertension but, at the same time, poor diet, stress and smoking contribute to the development of the disease. Such consideration has also led to findings that the tendency of Afro-Americans to have lower access level to quality health care help explain, for instance, why they are less prone to receive surgeries for hip and knee replacements (Nevid & Rathus, p. 128). Use of Psychology in Understanding Illnesses Diagnosing, understanding and managing headaches have been helped a lot with the use of psychology.

The multifactorial model views headaches, migraine headaches in particular, as being triggered by multiple factors that include fluctuations in hormonal levels/balance, stress, barometric pressure changes, exposure to very bright lights, certain drug use, certain chemical ingestion, and certain foods, among others (Nevid & Rathus, p. 132). Said factors, of course, involve biological and environmental factors, but also psychological ones which are more the concern of health psychology???how psychological factors interact with physical health problems, including in terms of triggering, preventing, or treating diseases (Nevid & Rathus, p. 18). Health psychology studies have shown that stress figures in migraine headaches. The causal mechanisms that underlie migraines have been described to be complex and not well understood???with neurotransmitter serotonin imbalance and resulting blood flow changes in the brain appearing to be related somehow. The psychological perspective has identified stress and glaring lights exposure, among others, as possible triggers for migraine headaches. As well, this branch of psychology has indicated that behavioral coping responses may help people deal with headaches.

While evidence collated in a study showing that women suffering from regular migraines tend to be more self-critical, likely to make a big thing of life’s stresses, and less likely to look for social support during periods of stress, is only correlation, the study does suggest that people’s behavior may inadvertently be leading them into a vicious cycle. Psychology shows that with recurrent headaches such as migraine, certain behaviors help trigger the illness as much as how the refusal to avail of social support may further aggravate emotional distress and pain from migraines (Nevid & Rathus, p. 32). With advances in health science in general, headaches today are better managed, with its triggers even being avoided. Psychology has helpe understand and cope with migraines also by way of advising people, women in particular, not to accept such an illness as “normal” and, instead, advise them to be more assertive with their doctors who limit migraine treatments to only one approach (Nevid & Rathus, p. 133). The importance of health psychology is, perhaps, more apparent in the case of coronary heart disease or CHD.

This is because this leading cause of mortality in the US clearly lists several types of psychological factors as triggers: diet patterns; anger and hostility; Type A behavior that markedly consists of hostility; job strain; chronic emotional strain and fatigue; sudden stressors; and an inactive lifestyle (Nevid & Rathus, p. 135-137). Health psychology science has established how consumption patterns such as overeating, heavy alcohol drinking, smoking, and high-cholesterol diet lead to coronary heart ailments.

It is also worth noting that the science has also identified that a minimal amount of alcohol appears to be beneficial to the heart. The psychological perspective also makes the suggestion that a modest association between coronary heart disease and Type A behavior exists, particularly among white, middle-aged-to-older men. Hostility and anger are closely linked with increased CHD risk and are even thought of to be a stronger predictor of CHD compared to genetics, obesity, or smoking (Nevid & Rathus, p. 35). With regards work-related psychological factor, the job-strain health psychology model helps understand how highly demanding jobs and jobs that gives workers little control lead to increased risk of heart-related illnesses (Nevid & Rathus, p. 136). The multifactorial health psychology perspective has also led to the understanding of how sudden life stressors, chronic fatigue/emotional strain and a physically inactive lifestyle figure in the development of heart disease and occurrence of heart attacks.

The multifactorial model in health psychology is a leading paradigm that recognizes the multi-faceted nature of illnesses. It is not a clear-cut, simple case that a disease is caused by a singular factor. The fact is that decades if not over a century of modern research has led to the recognition that a host of factors, as well as their interactions, function in illness and health determination (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126). These varied factors that the multifactorial model indicates to be the range of possible influences or causes of diseases cover the psychological, ociocultural, environmental, and stressors. This broad range of factors, which include both those within and without one’s control, determine an individual’s health and his/her level of susceptibility to health problems (Nevid & Rathus, p. 127). Psychological or personality and behavior factors figure in quite a large number of health problems. Such is seen in the large number of preventable deaths that occur yearly in the United States. For one, smoking leads to way over 400,000 annual deaths from cancer, diseases of the heart and lungs, and stroke.

Some 300,000 year deaths stroke, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes can actually be prevented with good diet and proper exercise. Immunizations, moderation or control of alcohol drinking, and abstinence or safe sex practices could also help prevent deaths from infectious diseases, vehicular and other accidents/injuries, and sexually transmitted diseases, respectively (Nevid & Rathus, p. 128). It should be well noted that depression and other negative psychological states could actually render an impaired immune system functioning (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126).

The reason for this is that, contrary to popular thinking, the mental and the physical are not entirely separate domains but, rather intertwined (Nevid & Rathus, p. 131). Biological factors include age, gender, genetics, as well as injuries, exposure to pathogens and inoculations. One’s genetic make-up, while beyond an individual’s capacity to be altered, tend to make certain people falsely assume that their health is doomed by, say, a family history of diabetes. Having a family history of a disease can make some people think fatalistically that nothing they do can improve their chances of overcoming or escaping a disease. Dr. Robert N.

Hoover of the National Cancer Institute, however, says that many cases of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and others merely give rise to predispositions, not really certainties (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126). Environmental factors include pollution, water quality, hygiene from solid waster treatment and sanitation, natural disasters, and even global warming and depletion of the ozone layer. Personal stressors cover a wide range of situations such as daily hassles at home, co-workers, time pressure, and financial insecurity; frustrations; major life changes; workplace situation; and isolation or rejection by peers (Nevid & Rathus, p. 27). Thus, in the diagnosis of illnesses, the multifactorial model considers the possible roles played by psychological, biological, environmental/cultural factors, along with their interactions (Nevid & Rathus, p. 126). In the United States, the application of the psychological health model can be seen in studies that attempt to explain the phenomenon of black Americans seemingly suffering from health problems more compared to the European Americans.

The ethnicity consideration has led to studies showing that African-Americans may indeed be genetically predisposed to hypertension but, at the same time, poor diet, stress and smoking contribute to the development of the disease. Such consideration has also led to findings that the tendency of Afro-Americans to have lower access level to quality health care help explain, for instance, why they are less prone to receive surgeries for hip and knee replacements (Nevid & Rathus, p. 128). Use of Psychology in Understanding Illnesses Diagnosing, understanding and managing headaches have been helped a lot with the use of psychology.

The multifactorial model views headaches, migraine headaches in particular, as being triggered by multiple factors that include fluctuations in hormonal levels/balance, stress, barometric pressure changes, exposure to very bright lights, certain drug use, certain chemical ingestion, and certain foods, among others (Nevid & Rathus, p. 132). Said factors, of course, involve biological and environmental factors, but also psychological ones which are more the concern of health psychology???how psychological factors interact with physical health problems, including in terms of triggering, preventing, or treating diseases (Nevid & Rathus, p. 18). Health psychology studies have shown that stress figures in migraine headaches. The causal mechanisms that underlie migraines have been described to be complex and not well understood???with neurotransmitter serotonin imbalance and resulting blood flow changes in the brain appearing to be related somehow. The psychological perspective has identified stress and glaring lights exposure, among others, as possible triggers for migraine headaches. As well, this branch of psychology has indicated that behavioral coping responses may help people deal with headaches.

While evidence collated in a study showing that women suffering from regular migraines tend to be more self-critical, likely to make a big thing of life’s stresses, and less likely to look for social support during periods of stress, is only correlation, the study does suggest that people’s behavior may inadvertently be leading them into a vicious cycle. Psychology shows that with recurrent headaches such as migraine, certain behaviors help trigger the illness as much as how the refusal to avail of social support may further aggravate emotional distress and pain from migraines (Nevid & Rathus, p. 32). With advances in health science in general, headaches today are better managed, with its triggers even being avoided. Psychology has helpe understand and cope with migraines also by way of advising people, women in particular, not to accept such an illness as “normal” and, instead, advise them to be more assertive with their doctors who limit migraine treatments to only one approach (Nevid & Rathus, p. 133). The importance of health psychology is, perhaps, more apparent in the case of coronary heart disease or CHD.

This is because this leading cause of mortality in the US clearly lists several types of psychological factors as triggers: diet patterns; anger and hostility; Type A behavior that markedly consists of hostility; job strain; chronic emotional strain and fatigue; sudden stressors; and an inactive lifestyle (Nevid & Rathus, p. 135-137). Health psychology science has established how consumption patterns such as overeating, heavy alcohol drinking, smoking, and high-cholesterol diet lead to coronary heart ailments.

It is also worth noting that the science has also identified that a minimal amount of alcohol appears to be beneficial to the heart. The psychological perspective also makes the suggestion that a modest association between coronary heart disease and Type A behavior exists, particularly among white, middle-aged-to-older men. Hostility and anger are closely linked with increased CHD risk and are even thought of to be a stronger predictor of CHD compared to genetics, obesity, or smoking (Nevid & Rathus, p. 135).

With regards work-related psychological factor, the job-strain health psychology model helps understand how highly demanding jobs and jobs that gives workers little control lead to increased risk of heart-related illnesses (Nevid & Rathus, p. 136). The multifactorial health psychology perspective has also led to the understanding of how sudden life stressors, chronic fatigue/emotional strain and a physically inactive lifestyle figure in the development of heart disease and occurrence of heart attacks. Reference Nevid, J. S. and Rathus, S. A. (2000). Psychology and the challenges of life. John Wiley & Sons.

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