Developmental Psychology Assignment

Developmental Psychology Assignment Words: 1405

Studies in social development started centuries ago with Darwin in 1877. Other early works was developed during sass and 1 9305, but was interrupted during World War II. Fortunately, new research began during the cognitive revolution with the main theorist of child development Jean Pigged (1896-1980), with his theory of cognitive development. However, Viscosity (1896-1934) found most dominant theories about the social contribution to the process of development, and he decided to conduct new experiments, with his theory of calculators development.

Social developments of children theories are principally based on individual differences in sociability, peers acceptance, social skills and so on. So, this essay will describe the velveteen of proboscis behavior in childhood, and explain the role of parents in this development. Different issues will also be considered, like different stages of development, the development of the self, friendship and the presence of peers. A detailed evaluation summary of the topic will be given regarding early research and the testability of childhood social development theories.

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It will be argued, that children social development is one of the most important developments in shaping personality behavior. Children social development can be defined, as the child’s experience, expression and management of emotions, and the ability to establish positive and rewarding relationship with other individuals. (Cede. Ca. Gob, 2015) Many theorists tried to understand this mechanism, and the role of parents in this development. However, it is first important to know all stages of young children development and how parents involved in this case.

Proboscis behavior starts at the second year of life, with language, communication and imitation repetitions of words, and so on. At the third year, the child will often says ” No”, showing feelings (angry or happy), but at the fourth year, he is liking freely and a big step in social development occurs, because he wants to have companionship, play freely, but still stay close to an adult. The four -year-old child, will be more dependent and confident, he needs the presence of other children to play with, he asks for help to an adult freely, talks freely and often says ” Why”, and he cares about others.

In addition, the five-year, old child, is more likely to be confident, independent and very friendly, he often says “Why/’ like a four-year-old child, he learns that he needs to share attention and affection with others, his personality is becoming well defined, and he do not wants to be rejected by his peers. The six-year-old child is friendly, trusting, more open with adults, interested and curious. He usually says ” is it true? Likes the adults to be close. Telling jokes and so on.

The seven-year-old, starts complaining against parents, he is self-controlled, starts having a best friend. And between the ages of eight and eleven, the child is independent of the adults and other children, boys and girls mix well together, he takes his own decisions and chooses his own friends. Lee, 1990) Furthermore, these stages are essential, and parents make and important role during all these stages, to help to develop their children social development. They have to make contact with their children to avoid rejection, by giving love, trust, and acceptance.

They provide a place to live, foods, companionship material for play, time for their children, as well as protection to avoid danger around their children. They also need to make rules, limits, for example young children need bounds, for the reason that it makes them feel safe. And it is important for children to have encouragements from their parents because they need motivation for greater achievements on their activity as well as the fact of being confident. So, parents play a fundamental role in the social development of their children. Lee, 1990) Parents are also considered as agents of colonization. Cruses and al (1983) have proposed, that Anglo-European parents rarely punish their children when they do not want to share or help, because they are more likely to see the situation as unfair and it will promote less initialization. (Smith and Hart, 2002) Moreover, theories have been used to understand social development in holding with the first research conducted by Pigged (1932), who argued that children’s relationship with adults were qualitatively different from their relationships with other children.

Because he believed that adults have power, and dominance over children, what he called (vertical dimension). On the other hand, this relation with other children is more equal (horizontal plane). So, he also believed that it is on this horizontal plane that children are more or less equal because they can find compromises. (Keenan, 2002) Besides, play is one of the most important social elements in development. Visigoths (1978) argued that play builds mental structures through the child’s use of tools acquired from the culture around them such as language and number.

This means that children can imagines, and creates different ways to play using what their knowledge. In the same case, (Height & Miller, 1993) suggested that, play promotes the development of social competence or skills. (Keenan, 2002) On the other hand, the development of the self is also essential. Research has developed some experiments and discovered that between the age of 1 8 and 24 months, child can have a sense of self develops. This is conducted by the rouge test, which is a test of self-recognition.

In this research an experimenter marks a child’s face with a red sticker for example and the child is place in front of a mirror. If the child removes the red sticker, he will be considered as able to have a sense Of self. Pigged also conducted some cognitive development to understand children social development, so he believed that children couldn’t think logically and need to experience events before they can understand events and develop the language to describe them. (Keenan, 2002) Furthermore, friendship is a significant element in young children social development.

Hart, (1989), defined friendship as a relationship between two equals, which involves commitment to one another, and reciprocity. John Goodman, recorded the conversations of children aged between 3 to 9. This research demonstrates that children at these ages are connected, they communicate, and they exchange information and establishing common ground for example. (Keenan, 2002) Peer acceptance is another important element in social development. For example, children will generally play with children who are the same sex as hey are. This is more common with, after the age of seven years old.

Macomb & Cackling suggest, that one reason for this preference is due to the differences between boys and girls, because boys tend to be more aggressive instead of girls, who are not high in aggression. There are different other examples Of the determinants of peer acceptance. (Keenan, 2002) Another relevant theory is the social development theory found by Viscosity (1978). He argued that child learning occurs through social interaction with a tutor in terms of collaborative dialogue. Beside, according to Viscosity (1 978), engage is an important factor of cognitive development.

He proposed that private speech diminishes and disappears with age not because it becomes socialized, as Pigged suggested, but rather because it goes underground to constitute inner speech or verbal thought. One example of experiments created by Viscosity concerned a contemporary educational application used to improve student’s ability to learn from text. In this method, teacher and students collaborate in learning and practicing four key skills: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher’s role in the process is educed over time. McLeod, 201 5) Now, to evaluate that topic it is important to understand, that all theories about young children social development are relevant, but there are not enough experiments. All theories are using children’s behavior observations. On the other hand, Pigged received more level of intense scrutiny than Viscosity due to the time taken to translate Russian experiments to English language. Viscosity also provided less specific hypotheses for his research. However, Rigors (1990) suggested that Visigoths ideas are culturally universal. McLeod, 201 5) To conclude this essay about children proboscis behavior, it is important to consider that young children growths across different developmental stages, from 2 years old to 8 years old. Several relevant theories permitted to understand childhood social development. Like Jean Pigged (1959) and viscosity (1978). Other main characteristics play a considerable role in children social development like play, the self-development with one of the most famous experiment called the “rouge test”, peer acceptance, and so on..

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