Although learning is a part of education, it has consider both the same. 1. 3 Approaches to Educational Psychology Positivist school Scientific method Behaviorism Cognitive psychology 1. The Positivist School C] Psychologist starts to understand and predict humans behavior Instead of studying 0 They searched to find the principles of human learning by checking the behavior of animals, under exactly defined conditions. Logical Positivism” 0 They accept only experimental data as evidence, so thought and feeling of human was something inaccessible, and there for were not investigated! 1. 4. 1 Behaviorism Russian Pavlov: 0 S-R (Stimulus-Response) theory or “Classical Conditioning” 0 It was considered that all human behavior could be explained in terms of the way in which simple S-R connections were built up.
PROBLEM: It could not consider enormous range of human action. 1. 4. 2 B. F. Skinner 0 Founder of Modern Behaviorism 0 He constructed a system of principles to account for unman behavior in strictly observable terms. 0 Learning as a result of environment VS. Learning as genetic factor notion of operates emphasizing on reinforcement OPERANT CONDITIONING: an individual responds to a stimulus by behaving in a particular way.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Skinner paid more attention to instruction in education and suggested: 0 Teachers should make clear what is to be taught 0 Tasks should be broken down into small, continues steps 0 Students should be encouraged to work at their own pace by means of individualized learning programs 0 Learning should be ‘programmed’ by connecting he above procedures + immediate positive reinforcement is seen as a behavior to be taught Language Learning a language acquiring a set of appropriate mechanical habits Teachers role developing learners good habits, by means of pattern drills and memorization 1. Cognitive Psychology Human Thoughts It concerns with the way in which human mind thinks and learns Therefore it deals with mental process involved in learning and cognition Here learner is seen as an active participant in learning process Information theories, consider brain as a complex computer / I. . Artificial intelligence system;its models of memory and reading process Constructivism movement, Jean Pigged, concerned with ways in which individuals come to make their own sense of the world. . 5. 1 Information Process At the very heart of cognitive psychology is the idea of information processing concerned with: The way in which people take in information Process information Act upon information O BASIC ASSUMPTIONS 1 . Attention: Is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things 2. Perception: Is the organization of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. Sakes many different forms, e. G. Images, sounds or meaning. Construct models or scripts to try to account for the way in which the human mind works 1. 5. 2 Memory 0 Atkinson & Shuffling (1968) describes the memory process in terms of sensory register where stimuli are initially recorded for a brief amount of time before being passed into short-term memory if attention is given to them. 0 3 terms for memory: Short-term memory Working memory Long-term memory 1. 5. Constructivism As perspective in education, is based on experiential learning through real life experience to construct and conditionality knowledge. 0 Pigged & constructive nature of learning process: Individuals are actively involved right from birth in constructing personal meaning, that is their own personal understanding, from their experiences. The End The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done… Jean Pigged