FUNDAMENTALS OF RHYTHM Rhythmic Activity is an activity wherein the individual response physically and emotionally to music or any rhythmic accompaniment. In all nature, every individual makes rhythm like foot tapping, head movement, body sway while music is playing. Definition of terms * Rhythm is a measured motion of flow characterized basically by regular recurrence of elements or features as beats, sounds, or accents. This definition implies measurement of time, space, and energy. All works of art require rhythm. Rhythm is most clearly seen through dance ??? the art of movement. Dancing is a means of expressing one’s emotions through movement disciplined by rhythm. It is an art of moving rhythmically and expressively to an accompaniment. The term “Dancing” came from an old German word “danson” which means “to stretch”. * Dance refers to the rhythmic succession of body movements usually to the accompaniment of music and is used as a form of communication. Elements of Rhythm All movements are affected by the element of rhythm. These elements should be learned and understood in relation to dance. 1. Underlying Beat is the steady continuous sound that is heard or felt throughout any rhythmical sequence.
This constant steady pulsation is sometimes called pulse beat. The underlying beat determines the time signature of a piece of music or movements. 2. Measure refers to the identical grouping of underlying beats. This group of notes is between two bar lines. 3. Rhythmic Pattern is a definite grouping of sounds or beats related to the underlying beat. It is also called melody pattern because the rhythmic pattern follows the words or melody. There is a relationship between the word pattern, rhythmic pattern and underlying beat. 4. Phrasing is a group of measures that gives a feeling of unity.
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Learning to identify or recognize phrases is essential to learning and creating dances. 5. Accent is the force or emphasis given to any one beat in a series of pulse beat in a measure. 6. Tempo is the rate of speed of movement, music or accompaniment. It may be fast, it may be moderate or it may be slow. 7. Intensity is the quality of the movement or music. It refers to dynamic or force, such as heavy and light. Fundamental Movements 1. Locomotor Movements are used to move the body from one place to another or to project body upward as in jumping and hopping. Walking ??? moving at moderate pace on feet, lifting one foot only after the other foot has touched the floor or ground. Legs swing from the hips while the arms swing naturally at sides * Running ??? moving on foot with springing steps at rapid pace such that for an instant both feet are off the ground during each step. * Jumping ??? springing and taking off with one foot and landing on both feet. * Hopping ??? springing on one foot and landing on the same foot. * Skipping ??? same procedure as in hopping but bouncing lightly with alternative steps and hops. * Leaping ??? springing on one foot and landing on the other foot. Galloping ??? moving in continuous forward or sideward direction with one foot leading. * Sliding ??? gliding along the floor with either foot. 2. Non Locomotor Movements are performed without appreciable movements from one place to place or movements of the various parts of the body in fixed base. * Flexion ??? bending or shortening of a body part occurring a joint. * Extension ??? turning, twisting or circling * Arm Shoulder Circling * Pendular ??? swinging/swaying arms forward, backward or sideward. * Percussive ??? striking and hitting; pushing or pulling * Vibratory ??? shaking and beating Sustained ??? a slow, smooth flowing movement with a balance of movement throughout the entire series. * Suspend ??? a sharp movement followed by a series of slow or prolonged movements until a peak is reached. 3. Manipulative Skills involve object handling that develops manipulative skills like ball skills. Other objects promote other skills like better hand and eye coordination. Movement is a change of position in space. This is governed by mechanical principles that limit the ability of an individual to effectively and efficiently. Factors that Govern of Affect Movement 1.
Psychological Factor ??? fear, anxiety, and any other mental phenomenal affect movement either positively or negatively. 2. Physiological Factor ??? Physical fitness and body built are two main concerns that affect human movement. 3. Sociological Factor ??? refers to the relationships of the performer with a particular group and his regard to social conformity and norms. Elements of Movement 1. Theme ??? is the main story line of the dance. It tells what the dance is all about. This can be love theme, can be futuristic, can be ritual, etc. 2. Movement ??? refer to the dance steps and basic body movements required of a particular dance. 3.
Technique ??? is a system of movements performed by a dancer. This is developed through constant practice of certain difficult dance steps. 4. Choreography ??? pertains to the organization of the movement and figures in the dance. This makes use of the theme and movements dance steps. 5. Music ??? gives life to the dance. This should be in accordance with the theme and pattern of movements of the dance. 6. Accessories, costume and properties ??? accessories are what dancers wear in addition to the costume such as the earrings, necklace, bells, feathers, etc. Costume refers to what the dancers should wear, and properties placed on stage. . Scenery ??? denotes the background on stage. It completes the whole setting of the dance. This involves back draft of the stage, and the properties placed on the stage. 8. Design ??? refers to the floor pattern in relation to space. 9. Gravity – is the force that holds you to the earth. It is a force you have to work with because it constantly inhibits movement. 10. Balance ??? it is tension of mutual support among all parts that brings the whole together in a new way. 11. Posture ??? to achieve this element you need to change your perception of your body. There is a wide discrepancy between what feels right and what looks right.
It is the key to balance and movement. 12. Gesture ??? involves using the body as an expressive instrument to communicate feelings and ideas in patterns of movement. 13. Rhythm ??? finding rhythm is largely a matter of paying attention. It is something everybody has; though some people are not aware or sensitive to it. 14. Moving Space ??? you need to be aware of the space around you. You have to move with care and awareness, gauging the space. Space is not just empty air but a tangible element that you move through. 15. Breathing ??? is crucial to dance. Not only dance it bring oxygen to the body but it also gives your movement fluency and harmony.
It is an expressive tool. Movement Qualities Movement expression is attained through the elements of time, force, and space. 1. Time Qualities ??? These are movements which are fast and slow. 2. Force Qualities ??? soft light movement; strong, heavy movement; strong, jerky movement smooth, sustained movement. 3. Space Qualities ??? movement up and down; movement across, back and forth, or around; movement which is low and high Brief Historical Background of Dance Art and religion were the most serious concerns of primitive civilizations. Although during the primitive times, their concerns were mainly how to find food and how to increase its supply.
Unaware of the artistic aspect, they made use of hunting and fishing as their way of life. As regards religion, they believed that the supernatural beings govern their fate. So, to express their feelings, they created rhythmic movements by stamping, shaking their bodies, chanting and other bodily expressions with the use of natural accompaniment. They employed wood, bamboo, dried leaves, and other things to accompany their rhythmic movements which developed into dance by generally perpetuating the movement by passing the tradition to the next generation.
The interweaving factors of rhythm created the dance and later developed into high quality movement and became part of an established art from up to this time. Significance of Dance Education Dancing is part of the dynamic cultural expression of all societies and every individual has the potential ability to dance. The inclusion of dancing in the Physical Education Program of schools is simply to develop such potential into actual skill and to expose everyone, especially the youth to the many benefits of learning dance. 1.
Dancing promotes personality development since people involved in dance improve their grace and rhythm, posture and biomechanics, discipline, dedication, motivation and determination, self-esteem and confidence, self-actualization, values of cooperation, resourcefulness, obedience and respect. 2. Dancing provides emotional, mental, social, and physical well-being. 3. Dancing provides a happy, fulfilled and satisfying life. 4. Dancing improves reflexes and awareness of one’s own body and the immediate environment. 5. Dancing educates oneself and the audience during the performance of a dance.
Characteristics of the Dance 1. Dance makes the body as a medium to convey what one feels or as a means of expressing emotions. Dance therefore becomes a form of a non-verbal communication. 2. Dance has rhythm of body movements in a succession or flow. 3. Dance may be accompanied by music. This means that most dances have some form of musical accompaniment. A few ritual dances are performed without standard music. Instead, the tapping of barefoot on the ground made by the performers, tinkling of hawk bells attached to clothing or accessories, shaking of dried palm leaves or metal trinkets serves as ccompaniment. Dance Elements Dance involves rhythm which takes into consideration the measurement of time, space, weight, and energy. These four are the major elements of dance. 1. Space ??? this refers to the use of the immediate area or surroundings of the dancer ??? the area where various formations or floor patterns are done, the area covered by the performer as he travels from one spot to another, the shapes formed by the body in movement, and the designs in space made by the moving limbs. 2.
Time ??? this refers to the duration of dance performance, tempo, rhythmic variations and the attitude toward filling time from taking one’s time to make quick stops and starts. 3. Weight ??? the use of the body’s weight is important in dancing in order to overcome the pull of gravity to execute light, graceful movements such as in the performance of ballet, surrendering to gravity with heavy or limp movements as in many indigenous/tribal dances, or exerting the body’s weight against gravity with strength as in modern dance and jazz dance. 4.
Energy ??? this refers to the capacity to execute movements, dance figures, a series of figures, a whole dance or a series of dances. Energy is significant in order to execute tense, restrained or bound movements of free flowing motion. Dance cannot be considered complete without the major elements. To enhance the dance, three Minor Elements may be added: 1. Music ??? serves as accompaniment for a dance performance. It could be as simple as hand claps, humming or chanting or as complicated as choral singing or musical ensemble such as band or orchestra. 2. Costume ??? refers to special clothing worn only for dance performances.
Costumes usually differ from ordinary dresses worn daily in terms of cut, color and material. Masks and accessories like hair dresses, belts, footwear, jewelries, special hairstyles, make-up, and other beautification methods are utilized to give the performer a specific role or character for the performance. 3. Spectacle ??? is a certain quality done to the dance to make it attractive for viewing by an audience. This means lavish costuming, choreography, movement enhancements, sets, props, and other theatrical elements. Dance Forms 1. Classical Dance ??? dances with standardized rules and restrictions.
It can be religious-related dance or for court and royal entertainment. 2. Classical Ballet ??? a dance of supreme standards learned from academe. 3. Modern Dance ??? This is characterized by natural and true expression of the human body and soul. 4. Contemporary Dance ??? a combination of ballet and modern dance. 5. Folk Dance ??? a cultural art form handed down from generations to generations. It communicates the customs, beliefs, rituals and occupation of a region or country. 6. Ethnic and Tribal Dance ??? a dance particularly found in a group of people living together in a locality with common beliefs and customs. . Recreational Dance ??? includes dance mixers, square dancing and round and couple dances. 8. Social and Ballroom Dance ??? this is usually held in the evenings and participants are usually in formal attire for purposes of recreation and entertainment. 9. Creative Dance ??? the highest form of dance for the purpose of entertainment. It is the end product of movement exploration and improvisation as the dancer or choreographer expresses his/her feelings, ideas and interpretation. 10. Popular Dance ??? highly recognized as a dance form in television and other dance centers like disco houses and social gatherings.
Characteristics of Philippine Folk Dances 1. As a rule, Philippine folk dances begin and end with a saludo. 2. In general, dancers are far apart. A distance of about 6-8 ft. from each other is normal. 3. There is very little, if any, body contact although holding hands is common. 4. Most of the dancers are done in pairs and hand movements play a very important role, 5. Many of our dances are done in long formation 6. Our dances are performed by both young and old, and by both sexes. Classifications of the Philippine Folk Dances according to its Nature 1.
Occupational Dances ??? depicting action of a certain occupation, industry, or human labor 2. Religious or Ceremonial Dances ??? performed in connection with religious vows and ceremonies. Examples: Putong, Sta. Clarang Pinung ??? pino. 3. Comic Dances ??? depicting funny movements for entertainment. 4. Game Dances ??? done with play element. 5. Courtship Dances ??? depicting love making Example: hele ??? hele 6. Wedding Dances ??? performed during wedding feasts Example: Pantomina 7. Festival Dances ??? suitable for special occasions or any social gathering Examples: Kuratsa, La Jota, Pandango. . War Dances ??? showing imaginary combat or duel Example: palo ??? palo Common Dance Terms * Abrasete ??? (Spanish origin) Girl at right of partner holds or hooks R arm of boy partner with left arm. * Accented walking steps ??? heavy walking steps. * Allemande left ??? performed in quadrille formation; boy and girl on hi left corner face each other, walk forward, join left hands, turn around each other a half-turn clockwise and walk back to original places. * Circle left ??? all join hands and walk clockwise. * Circle Right ??? all join hands and walk counter clockwise. Do-si-do ??? 8 waltz steps ^ passing R shoulder with partner and 8 waltz steps (backward) passing L shoulder with partner. * Engano with a close ??? step R ; (cts. 1,2) cross and step L across R in front (ct. 3); Step R ; (ct. 1); close L to R (cts. 2,3) * Free foot ??? the foot not supporting the weight of the body. * Free hand ??? the hand is not doing anything. * Habanera Step ??? Step R in place or any desired direction (ct. 1); Close L to R (ct. 2); Step R in place (ct. and) * Habanera with a point brush ??? one habanera step (1 M); point L sideward (cts. 1,2) brush the pointing foot briskly backward (ct. nd) * Istrats ??? ball of one foot placed firmly on the floor while other foot is pushed heavily backward and slightly upward as if making a scratch; a slight bending of the knee of the other leg as the scratch is made makes the movement better. * Kumintang ??? (ilokano term) movement of the half-closed hand from the wrist in a clockwise or counter clockwise movement usually at head level. * Kinewetan ??? raise R foot moving it in half-circle and Step R, close L to R (ct. 2); step R (ct. 3) * Masiwak ??? is the movement of the half-closed fist from the wrist in a direction and with a rising and lowering of the wrist once. Parallel Tortillier ??? move soles of both feet and pivot on heels to sideward R (cts. 1,2); pivot on soles of feet to move heels sideward R (ct. 3) repeat as desired. * Rock steps ??? Step R in front (ct. 1) transfer weight onto L foot in rear (ct. and) repeat as many times as desired with feet in place and transferring only the weight from front to rear. * Waltz balance ??? Step R ^ or ; (ct. 1); Close L to R and immediately rise on toes (ct. 2); heels down (ct. 3) * Waltz Step – Step R ; (ct. 1) close L to R in rear (ct. 2) step R in place (ct. 3)