In an organization, systems in an organization the management of human resources means that they must be recruited, com- to ensure the effective and penetrated, trained, and developed. Efficient use of human talent to accomplish the organizational goals. HER Management Challenges The environment faced by HER management is a challenging one; changes re co- curing rapidly across a wide range of issues. A study by the Hudson Institute, en- titled Workforce 2020, has highlighted some of the most important workforce issues. From that and other sources, it appears that the most prevalent challenges facing HER management are as follows: q Economic and technological change q Workforce availability and quality concerns q Demographics and diversity issues q Organizational restructuring Economic and Technological Change Several economic changes have occurred that have altered employment and co- occupational patterns in he United States. A major change is the shift of Jobs from manufacturing and agriculture to service industries and telecommunications.
This shift has meant that some organizations have had to reduce the number of employees, while others have had to attract and retain employees with different capabilities than previously were needed. Additionally, pressures from global competitors have forced many U. S. Firms to close facilities, adapt their manage- meet practices, and increase productivity and decrease labor costs in order to be- come more competitive. Finally, the explosive Roth of information technology, particularly that linked to the Internet, has forced many changes throughout organizations of all types.
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OCCUPATIONAL SHIFTS Projections of the growth and decline in Jobs illustrates the economic and the largest percentage growth anticipated between 1996 and 2006. It is interesting to note that in Figure 1-??1 most of the fastest-growing occupations percentages are related to information technology or health care. The increase in the technology Jobs is due to the rapid increase in the use of in- formation technology, such as databases, yester design and analysis, and desktop publishing. The health care Jobs are growing as a result of the aging of the U.
S. Population and workforce, a factor discussed later. 4. Chapter 1 Changing Nature of Human Resource Management 1 The 10 Occupations with the Fastest Employment Growth, 1996-??2006 failure 1-?? Numbers in Thousands of Jobs Employment Change, 1996-??2006 Occupation 1996 2006 Number Percent Database administrators, computer 212 461 249 118 support specialists, and all other computer scientists Computer engineers 216 451 235 109 Systems analysts 506 1,025 520 103 Personal and home care aides 202 374 171 85
Physical and corrective therapy 84 151 66 79 assistants and aides Home health aides 495 873 378 76 Medical assistants 225 391 166 74 Desktop publishing specialists 30 53 22 74 Physical therapists 115 196 81 71 Occupational therapy assistants 16 26 11 69 and discourage: U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http:// stats. Bless. Gob/cooper. Tablet. Tambala COMPETITION One major factor affecting these shifts is the globalization economic forces. As seen the past few years, the collapse of Asian economies significant effects on U. S. -based organizations.
One estimate by U. S. Govern-meet statisticians is that over 25% of all U. S. Manufacturing workers hold Superintendent on exporting goods to other countries. This is particularly true wither highly skilled, technical Jobs in technology-driven industries. As a result,these export-driven Jobs pay wages averaging 25% higher than most other man-factoring Jobs. 4 On the other hand, the less-skilled manufacturing assembly Jobsharer been shifting from the higher-wage, developed economies in the United States and Western Europe to developing countries in Eastern Europe,
China,Thailand, Mexico, and the Philippines. Due to the increase in information technology, global linkages are now more ex-tensile and production and transportation can be coordinated worldwide. There-fore, the loss of manufacturing jobs in the United States has been replaced withholds in information technology, financial services, health care, and retail services. In summary, the U. S. Economy has become a service economy, and that shifts expected to continue. Over 80% of U. S. Jobs are in service industries, and moisten Jobs created by the year 2006 also will be n services.
It is estimated authenticating Jobs will represent only 12% to 15% of all U. S. Jobs by that date. Workforce Availability and Quality many parts of the United States today, significant workforce shortages exist duet an inadequate supply of workers with the skills needed to perform the Jobs be-ins added. In the last several years news reports have regularly described tightrope markets with unemployment rates in some locales below 3%. Also, contain-joyously there are reports by industries and companies facing shortages of qualified,