TITLE PAGE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN BANKING SECTOR (A Case Study of Union Bank Nigeria Plc, Kaduna Area Office) BY ISMAIL MOHAMMED KPT/CBMS/2003/4471 BEING A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES (CBMS) KADUNA POLYTECHNIC, KADUNA. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SEPTEMBER, 2008 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this research work has been conducted solely by me under the supervision of Alh.
Yahaya Abdulhameed of the Department of Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna and I have neither copied someone else’s work nor someone done it for me. ISMAIL MOHAMMED KPT/CBMS/03/4471SIGNATURE ________________ DATE APPROVAL PAGE This is to certify that this project is an original work undertaken by Ismail Mohammed KPT/CBMS/03/4471 and has been prepared in accordance with the regulation governing the preparation and presentation of project in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma in Human Resource Management, Kaduna Polytechnic. Alh. Yahaya Abdulhameed________________________
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PROJECT SUPERVISORSIGNATURE DATE Alh. Yahaya Abdulhameed___________________________ PROJECT COORDINATOR SIGNATURE DATE Hajiya Talatu Umar Raiya ___________________________ HEAD OF DEPARTMENTSIGNATURE DATE EXTERNAL EXAMINER ___________________________ SIGNATURE DATE DEDICATION I dedicate this project Work to God Almighty for giving me the ability, good health, strength and sparing my life towards accomplishing this great task successfully. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank God Almighty for giving me the strength to pass through my academic programme successfully. My profound gratitude goes to my noble and dedicated supervisor, Alh.
Yahaya Abdulhameed for making out time to correct and guide me at various stages of this project which eventually led to a perfect finish. May Almighty God in his infinite mercy be with you in all your endeavours. I thank my parent for their financial support and my brother and sisters for their moral support. I equally thank my able H. O. D Mrs. T. R Umar and the entire lecturers of management department for helping in shaping my personality academically I equally wish to express my appreciation to the entire lecturers of the department of Management Studies. May Almighty God reward you with the best of everything you are looking for.
ABSTRACT The effect of employee motivation is a critical factor responsible for labour turnover. This research was conducted based on the level of mobility in relationship with motivation. This research project is divided into five (5) chapters and each one has its own topic. In chapter one, a brief introduction of the project topic is made and also the objective of the research, then a hypothesis is stated scope and limitation of the study is also made chapter two is the review of past literature already written by the other researchers/ writers on the topic under review.
Then different motivational theories are outlined. Also, reason for labour turnover and impact of labour turnover in organization performance were discussed. Chapter three is describing the methodology used in collecting the relevant data. The methods and procedures employed in conducting this research include questionnaire and procedure employed involving the population and the sample size. In chapter four, the data collected are presented, interpreted and analyzed to support the aim of the research. The last chapter is chapter five.
Here, the whole research work is summarized, conclusion and recommendation were made based on the finding of the research. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Title Page———-i Approval ———-ii Declaration ———-iii Dedication ———iv Acknowledgement——–v Abstract ———-vii Table of Contents ——–viii CHAPTER ONE: 1. 0Introduction 1. Background of the Studies—–1 2. Statement of the Problem——3 3. Objective of the Study ——4 4. Statement of Hypothesis ——4 5. Significance of the Study ——5 6. Scope of the Study——-5 7.
Limitation of the Study——6 8. Historical Background of the Case Study—7 9. Definition of Terms——-8 CHAPTER TWO: 2. 0Literature Review 2. 1Motivation Defined——-9 2. Motivational Theories——13 3. Importance of Motivation——22 4. Meaning of Labour Turnover —–26 5. Reasons for Labour Turnover——28 6. Ways to reduce Labour Turnover in an Organization-29 7. Impact of Labour Turnover on Organizational Performance—–30 CHAPTER THREE: 3. 0Research Methodology 1. Research Design ——–33 2. Research Population——-33 3.
Sampling Size and Sampling Procedure —-34 4. Methods of Data Gathering Data—-34 5. Justification of method used —–34 6. Method Data Analysis——36 7. Justification of the Instrument Used—-36 CHAPTER FOUR: 4. 0Data Presentation and Analysis—-34 4. 1Data Presentation——-35 4. 2Data Analysis——–35 4. 3Tested Hypothesis——-45 CHAPTER FIVE: 5. 0Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation 5. 1Summary of Findings——-48 2. Conclusion ——–50 3. Recommendation ——-52 Bibliography ——–55 Appendix A——–57 Questionnaire ——–58
CHAPTER ONE 1. INTRODUCTION The emergence of Human Resource Management has provided the focus for a wide ranging debate concerning the nature of the contemporary employment relationship not only in the United States and Britain but in any other market economies too the starting point of this debate is the recognition that the nature of the employment relationship has experienced series of important changes and adaptations over the past decade which are both significant in themselves and look likely to provide the basis for further development in the medium term.
Among the more substantial contemporary changes that can be noted are. a. A decline in the proportion of employees in trade unions. b. A decline in the proportion of employees whose pay is set by unionized collective bargaining. c. A reduction in the range of employment issues that are handed collectively complied with. d. A rise in the range of employment issues that are derived from a managerial agenda. e.
A considerable volume of restructuring of organizations and employment away from many tiers of hierarchy and stabke occupational structures, coupled with. f. A corresponding rise in short-term, part-time contracted out or franchised employment. Such a list is merely an indication of the scale of change which has been occurring, it is by no means conclusive. In many respects this agenda has posed the most fundamental threat to established patterns of personnel management and industrial relations in the post 1945 era.
Any assessment of the emergence of the Man Resources Management has at least, to take account o this changing context of employment and provide some explanations as to the relationships that exist between the contribution Human Resource Management has made to some of those changes on the one hand and, on the other hand, impact that such changes have had on the theory and practice of Human Resource Management itself. The outset seeks to engage in the debate about the nature of the Human Resource Management phenomenon.
In this respect its stance is somewhat different from that of more concentrational textbooks, in that it treats Human Resource Management as a significant ??? if recent ??? arrival in the analysis of employment issues, rather than merely as an adjunct to an established set of personnel principles. As a result the approach of the book is that of a critical and realistic recognition that Human Resource Management has become a powerful and influential perspective which has to be taken into account not simple as yet another means of carrying out the personnel function but as both a stance and a prescription in its own right.
The immediate significance of the emergence of Human Resource Management, certainly in the British context is to have opened up a vigorous debate about just what constitutes the change from traditionally conceived employee management policies to those which are claimed to be derived from a different mix of managerial concerns. Among the more prominent aspects which have been claimed for Human Resource Management are that it is derived from a more focused managerial perspective which is often strategically deriven and that it represents a more, unified and holistic approach than the technical piecemeal approach of personnel management.
In this manner Human Resource Management is depicted as having an agenda which address business ??? related issues, and there by contributes to the overall success of the of the organization in a practice manner while personnel management is depicted as having an agenda set for it by the more mundane requirements of the day in a more reactive manner. 1. 1BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY Managing human resources is one of the key elements in the coordination and management of work organizations.
Whatever means are used to ensure the creation and delivery of services and goods in modern economies, the role of individuals and groups as employees and the ability of management to effectively deploy such a resource is vital to the interests of both employee and organization alike. O a large extent this fundamental issue has been at the heart of a great deal of the analysis of how organizations are run and it is as important an issue facing organizations as those of market, finance and strategy.
For these reactions, the question of how to manage employees has remained as a constant element in organization in organizational managerial thought and prescription throughout this century. As each successive analysis of how to manage has unfold, the employment relationship has provided one of the central parts of the debate. In a contemporary context this debate can be seen in the emergence of Human Resource Management as both the description and the practice of employment management.
As the 1990s unfold, Human Resources Management can be viewed not only as a new and further set of operating principles but as a recognizable If unsettling part of the longer debate over what type of relationship does or should exist between, on the one hand, those who manage and on the other who are managed. The term Human Resource Management has come to be used with increasing regularity as a description of the management of employees. However, despite its swift and widespread adoption there remains considerable controversy as to its origins, the reasons for its spread its characteristics, and its philosophy.
The very nature of the emergence of Human Resource Management and its adoption have been accomplished by contentious dispute and wide-ranging debate both among and between practitioners academic analysts and communicators. Why lies in the perspective brought to bear upon Human Resource Management there is a diversity in the Human Resource Management debate derived from the manner in which participants view the essential elements of Human Resource Management and what they believe it is representing which colours the discussion for the purposes of this analysis four broad perspective are set out here. That Human Resource Management represents a fusion of personnel management and industrial relations which is managerially focused and derives from a managerial agenda. ? That Human Resource Management represents a wider conception of the employment relationship, to incorporate an enabling and development role for the individual employees. ? That Human Resource Management can be viewed as part of the strategic managerial function in the development of business policy in which it plays both a determining and contributory role. 2.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS The project is based on the understanding that there are many problems in regards to the practice of Human Resource Management in the banking sector most especially Union Bank as it has to do with selection, recruitment, placement, training and development. These Human Resource problem can be due to wrong employment process in the sense that the people employed in the bank are those that are not fit for the job that is why those are cases of workers having shortages and these shortages are being deducted from their salaries.
Furthermore, the way the bank disengage their workers from work is against the ethics of the practice of Human Resource Management. At any slightest mistake, the superiors will be too critical on the workers and this will lead to sack. Sometimes, one will go to the office and his or her sack letter will be on his or her table without any clear wrong the employee has done. The services being rendered to customers are not effective and efficient as long always observed in the bank and this is as a result of poor selection, poor recruitment based on halo effect and poor sentiment, poor training and development in Union Bank. . OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The overall purpose of the study is to ensure that Union Bank is able to achieve success through people. Specifically, this study is concerned with achieving objectives in the areas summarized believing in the below. 1. Resourcing and Development To ensure that Union Bank obtains and retains the skilled, committed and well motivated workforce it needs. This means taking steps to assess and satisfy future peoples needs and to enhance and develop the inherent capacities of people- their contributions, potential and employability ??? by providing learning and continuous development opportunities.
It can also involve the development of high performance work systems, and management development and training activities linked to the needs of the business. 2. Valuing Employees To enhance motivation and commitment by introducing policies and process which ensure that people are valued and rewarded for what they do and achieve and for the level of skill and competence they reach. 3. Relationships To create a climate in which productive and harmonious relationships can be maintained through partnerships between management and employees and where team ??? work can flourish.
Introduce high commitment management practices, which recognize that employees are valued stakeholders in the organization and help to develop a climate of cooperation and mutual trust. Help Union Bank to balance and adapt to the needs of its stakeholders cowners, government bodies or trustees, management, employees, customers, suppliers and the public of large). Manage a diverse workforce, taking into account individual and group differences in employment needs, work style and aspirations.
To take steps in ensuring that equal opportunities are available to all and that an ethical approach to managing employees is adopted based on concern for people fairness and transparency. The objective is to develop and maintain a level of morale and human relationship which evoke willing and full cooperation of all persons in the organization in order to attain optimum operational performance. 4. STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS The following hypothesis are formulated to be tested in the course of this research work.
Thus, null and alternative are tested below: H0:Human Resource Management is not a significant tool for effective management of Union Bank. H0:Human Resource Management is a significant tool for effective management of Union Bank. 5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study reflects on Human Resource Managements` significance in the banking sector. Bearing in mind that, Human Resource Management plays an important role in management effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, it is expected that this study will be beneficial in the following ways. 1.
It meets the need for a strategic approach to Human Resource Management which achieve ‘fit’ between the business and the Human Resource strategy. 2. A comprehensive and coherent approach to the providers of mutually supporting employment policies and practices adopted, through the development of integrated Human Resource policies and practices. 3. The importance of gaining commitment to the organization`s mission and values is stressed ??? it is commitment oriented. 4. Employees are seen as assets or human capital to be invested in through the provision of learning opportunities and the development of a learning organization. . Human Resource are viewed as a source of competitive advantage in line with the concept of resource ??? based strategy. 6. The approach of employee relation is unitarist which believe that employees share the same interest more than separate interests. 6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY This research study concentrate on the significance of Human Resource Management, the researcher conducted this study within Union Bank Plc Kaduna Area office. All data used were collected from management, staff and supervisory employees of the bank.
The research work encountered some limitation and there are explained below: 1. Human Factor: Human beings are unpredictable and the data finding could be subjected to bias and sentiment. However, the researcher was able to get the necessary and relatively adequate information needed for this research inspite of the limitation. 2. The materials the researcher used were not much as to administer questionnaires to the employees of Union Bank and that has limited the study. Regrettably, some employees refused to return the questionnaires administered to them by the esearcher. 3. The employees (respondents) should non-challant attitude due to the fact that they were complaining about the hecticness and demanding nature of their work and this also limited the study. 7. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The researcher view on the rationale for the study centers around the history and business of the case study Union Bank. Its services prosperity of its customers and as well its branches nation-wide. Union Bank Plc was established in 1917 as a colonial bank with its first branch in Lagos.
In 1925, Barclays Bank Dominion Colonial and Overseas was formed to take over the activities of the bank. In 1969, the bank was legally incorporated in Nigeria as a wholly owned subsidiary of Barclays Bank international Ltd. And renamed Barclays Bank of Nigeria Ltd. The ownership structure remained unchanged until 1971 when 8. 33% of the bank`s share were offered to Nigerians. The landmark in the bank`s history occurred in 1979 when Barclays Bank sold off 50% of its shareholding in the Bank to Nigerians.
This resulted in the change of the bank`s name from Barclay`s Bank of Nigeria Ltd to Union Bank of Nigeria Ltd to Union Bank of Nigeria Ltd to reflect its new progressive image and ownership structure. Today, Union Bank is one of the oldest independent and non-governmental banking institutions that is 100% owned and wholly managed by Nigerians. Since its establishment in 1917, the bank has stood out strongly as a resilient institution, which has served as a veritable hub of the financial intermediation process in Nigeria financial system. s a key player in the banking industry, the bank is conscious of the prevalent development in the industry, which are accentuated by changing customers demands as well as the expectations of shareholders and other stakeholders. In order to face the challenges of banking in the millennium, Union Bank has embarked on re-engineering process aimed at bringing about a complete change and transformation in service delivery. An important aspect of their initiative is the development of modern information technology (IT) in all sphere of its banking operations.
Union Bank has a large branch Network of two hundred and ninety four (294) including a full-fledged off shore branch in the city of London and a representative office in Johannesburg, South Africa. The group as a whole has built up an extensive presence in every nook and cranny of Nigeria with a total 313 branches. The bank has won the Nigerian Stock Exchanges president`s merit award in the financial sector. It has won the former`s of the year award in 28 out of 36 states including Abuja and it has also won this award consecutively for over ten years.
Future Prospects The Bank has put in place the structures; strategies and strong management team to enable it to stay ahead of competition. The bank are poised to exploit these limitless opportunities offered by the emerging train of globalization in the market place. and with the pace of growth in our business supermarket and strategic focus of information technology, the bank has truly become a colossus in the domestic scene and attribute we hope transfer into the international arena. By so doing, the bank shall be living up to its mission. . 8DEFINITION OF TERMS Human Resource Management: Can be defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization most valued assets. Bank: A bank may be defined as a financial institution set up purposely for safe-keeping of money, valuable goods and documents like wills and others. Effective: Means getting it right the first time you attempting doing it. Efficient: Means using minimum resources to achieve maximum result. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 1. THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
The definitive origins of Human Resource Management is as elusive an exercise as arriving at its defining characteristics. Certainly there are antecedents in organizational theory, and particularly that of the Human Relations School, but the nature of Human Resource Management has involved important elements of strategic management and business policy, coupled with operations management too, which make a simple ‘family tree’ explanation of Human Resource Management derivation highly improbable.
What can be said is that Human Resource Management appears to have its origins in the United States in 1950s although it did not gain wide recognition until the beginning of the 1980s, and a number of reasons for its emergence over the last decade, among the most important of which are the major present experienced in product markets during the recession of 1980 ??? 82, combined with a growing recognition in the US that trade union influence in collective employment was reaching fewer employees.
By the 1980s the US economy was being challenged by overseas competitors, most particularly Japan. Discussion tended to focus on two issues, the productivity of the American worker, particularly compared to the Japanese worker and the declining rate of innovation in American industries (Devanna et al, 1984:33) from this sprang a desire to create work situation free from conflict in which both employers and employees worked in unity towards the same goal ??? the success of the organization (Fomrum, 1884:17).
In the UK in the 1980s the business climate also became conducive to changes in the employment relationship. As in the US this was partly driven by economic pressure in the form of increased product market competition, the recession in the early part of the decade, and the introduction of new technology.
However, a very significant factor in the UK, generally absent from the US, was the desire of the government to reform and reshape the conventional model of industrial relations, which provided a rationale for the development of more employer ??? oriented employment policies on the part of the economy saw a rapid decline in the old industries and a relative rise in the service sector and new industries based on high???tech products and services, many of which were comparatively free from the established patterns of what was sometimes termed the ‘old’ industrial relations.
These changes were overseen by a muscular entrepreneurialism promoted by the Thactcher government union legislation ‘which’ encouraged firms to introduce new labour practices and to re-order their collective bargaining arrangements (Henry and Pettigrew, 1990: 19). A further important theme in the development of Human Resource Management in the UK was some recognition of the fact that the poor performance of British management was partly responsible for the weakened state of the economy. aking their cue from overseas experience (particularly Japanese, German and American) critics accused employers of poor training and management development which shifted the whole debate on these and related human resource issues straight into the board room (Coopers Lybrand, 1985, Handy, 198; Constable and McCormick, 1987). The influence of the US ‘excellence’ literature (Peters and Waterman, 1982, Kanter, 1984, for examples) also associated success of leading edge companies with the motivation of employees by involved management styles which also responded to market changes.
As a consequence, the concepts of employee commitment and empowerment’ became another strand in the ongoing debate about management practice and Human Resource Management. 2. ASSUMPTION ABOUT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human Resource Management as a restatement of existing personnel practice. It is possible to view this first standpoint as a basic but natural reaction to a new and somewhat threatening reformulation of traditional functions.
There is, perhaps, an understandable skepticism that Human Resource Management can or ever could, like up to the wider claims of its ability to so totally transform the employment relationship that some of the inherent problems of managing a volatile set of employee issue can be resolves more satisfactorily than by approaches that have grown out of the historical development of personnel management.
In large part such a reaction can be explained in terms of the gulf that appears to exist between personnel managerial ‘on the ground and the rather more theoretical and strategic nature of a great deal of the discussion surrounding Human Resource Management for many practitioners the notion that their roles and functions can be seen in anything other than a highly pragmatic light is no more than wishful thinking there is an important, if straightforward, task of recruiting, selecting, rewarding, managing and developing employees that must be carried out as ‘efficiency as possible.
In this sense, Human Resource Management might be viewed as no more than another trend in the long line of management prescriptions that have each enjoyed a vogue and then lost favour, while the pragmatic nature of established personnel management has ensured that the operational tasks have been accomplished.
Human Resource Management as a New Managerial Discipline The second perspective contains more diversity and complexity and incorporates such issues as the philosophies of personnel and industrial relations, the professional desire to present the management of employees as a holistic discipline (akin to the inclusive approaches of Accounting and Marketing for example), and the belief that an integrated management approach can be provided by Human Resource Management.
This would not unite the differing perspectives of personnel management and industrial relation but create a new and broader discipline as a result of the fusion of these traditional elements. An important outcome of this approach is to view some of these traditional components as now irrelevant or outdated and as dealing with problems which typify past, as opposed to current practice this is, perhaps, most noticeable in the renaming of functional activities so that industrial relations becomes ‘Employee Development.
This retiling is not solely designed to update an image, although that is important in itself, but is more specially aimed at expressing the nature of the employment relationship in what are seen as hanged circumstances. Thus Industrial Relations is seen as expressing a relationship based upon a manual, manufacturing (and, often by implication male) unionized workforce rather than the supposedly wider concept of ‘Employee Relations’ which involves a total workforce which includes white-collar and technical staff of whom many will be female and some or all non-union.
Human Resource Management as an Individually focused Developmental Model A further perspective has been brought to bear on Human Resource Management from those approaches that stress the role of the individual in organizations, rather than the collective employment models outlined so far. Personnel management, to a large degree at least, has always been concerned with the interface between the organization as the individual and the requirement of the organization and the needs of individual employees.
Traditional personnel management policies which have been developed to cope with this trade-off have often taken a price meal approach to certain aspects of this issue: historically, the early the twentieth-century personnel function stressed the welfare role that could be afforded employees so that basic working condition (both physically and contractually) could be established.
Subsequently, other styles of personnel management sought to introduce, administer or rectify particular aspects of jobs and roles that individuals carried out this tradition fostered a belief in equitable selection and reward systems, efficient procedures for discipline dismissal and redundancy, and clear and operable rules for administering large numbers of employees to avoid arbitrary judgements over individual cases. The prevailing rationale behind all these activities could be seen as a desire to manage the difficulties of the organization/individual relationship in as technically neutral a manner as possible.
This emphasis has fostered a culture within personnel management which is characterized as cost minimization, with the individual as the cost which has to controlled and contained. In these circumstances employees become one of the aggregate commodities within the organization that have to be managed within the organization’s resources in the same way that, for example, the finance available to the organization has to be managed within a framework and according to accounting conventions. The logical extent of this model is reached in manpower planning with precise numerical assessments of internal and external demand for and supply of labour.
Human Resource Management as a Strategic and International Function The advent of Human Resource Management has also brought forward the issue of the linkages between the employment relationship and wider organizational strategies and corporate policies historically, the management of Industrial Relations and personnel has been concerned to cope with either the ‘downstream’ consequences of earlier strategic decisions or to ‘firefight’ short-term problems which threaten the long-term success of a particular strategy.
In these instances the role has been at best reactive and supportive to other managerial functions, at worst a hindrance until particular operational problems were overcome. In the private sector the well known case of British Leyland in the 1970s demonstrated a situation where considerable amounts of managerial effort (up to 60% of operational managers time by some estimates) were devoted to fixing shop floor problems.
In order to re-establish managerial control the company effectively turned the reshaping off industrial relations into its strategy so that it could refashion its product range and market position. In the public sector throughout the 1980s a series of major affected the operations of schools, hospitals and local authorities (among many such examples); in each of these cases changes to the nature of the employment relationship were the root causes of the dislocation.
The Leyland case and the public sector experiences are extreme the employment relationship can have on total operations These assumptions about Human Resource Management are represented diagrammatically Strategic FusionDevelopment Restatement 3. MODELS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT A model is the graphical representation or interpretation of a theory. A theory is a set of principles and conceptual framework guiding and explaining some certain activities or behaviour as proved by hypothetical test.
The following models will be considered. i. The Matching Model ii. The Map of HRM Model Territory iii. Henry Model of Strategy iv. Storey`s Hard and Soft Model The Matching Model This is an early model of Human Resources Management, developed by Fombrum, Tidry and Devanna (1984) it introduced the concept of strategic Human Resources Management by which Human Resources Management policies are inextricably linked to the formulation and implementation of strategic corporate ans/or business objectives.
They lead that Human Resources system and the organizational structure should be managed in a way which is congruent with organizational strategy hence the name matching model. The matching model emphasis the necessity of tights fit between the Human Resources strategy and business strategy policy. This in turn has led to a plethora of interpretation by practitioners of how these two strategies are linked.
Some offers synergies between human resource planning (MPP) and business strategy with the driving force rooted in the product market logic whatever the process, the result is very much an emphasis on the unitarist`s view of Human Resources Management unitarism assumes that conflict or at least differing views cannot exist within the organization because the actors ??? management ad employees are working forward the same goal of the organization`s success what makes the model particularly attractive for many personnel practitioners is that Human Resources Management assumes a more important position in the formulation of organizational policies.
They further explained that there is a human resource circle which consist of four generic processes or function that are performed in all organizations. these are: i. Selection ??? Matching available Human Resources ii. Appraisal ??? performance education iii. Reward ??? Developing high quality employees ILLUSTRATION OF THE MATCHING MODEL HUMAN RESOURCE CYCLE The Map of HRM Territory/the Harvard Model This is a more flexible model developed by Beer and his Associates (1984) at Harvard University. The map of HRM territory as the authors titled their model also know as the Harvard and framework by Boxal (1992) recognized that there were a variety of stakeholders in the cooperation hich included shareholders, various groups of employees, government and the community. At one, the model recognized the legitimate interests of various groups and that the creation of Human Resource Management strategies would have to recognize human resource strategy and ultimately the business strategy. The acknowledgement of the various interest groups has made the model much amendable to export as the recognition of different legal employment structures, management styles and cultural differences can be more easily accommodated within an organization. this neo-pluralistic model has also been recognized as being useful in the study of comparative HRM (Poole 1990).
According to Boxal (1992), the advantages of the map off HRM territory model are as follows: i. It incorporate recognition of a range of stakeholders interest ii. It recognizes the important of trade-off either explicitly or implicitly between the interest of owners and those of employees as well as between various interest groups. iii. It widens the context of HRM to include employee influences the organization of work and associated question of supervision. iv. It acknowledges a broad range of contextual influence on management’s choice of strategy, suggesting a meshing of both product market and socio-cultural logics. v. It emphasizes strategic choice, it is not driven by situation.
The Harvard Model has exerted considerable influence over the theory and practice of HRM, particularly in its emphasis on the fact that Human Resource Management is the concern of management in general rather than the personnel function in particular. The new HRM model is composed of policies that promote mutual respect, mutual reward and mutual responsibility. The theory is that policies of mutuality will elicit commitment which in turn will yield both better economic performance and greater human development. The Harvard model outlines for HR policy area 1. Human Resources recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal, assessment and termination etc. 2. Reward system, – pay system, motivation 3.
Employee Influence ??? Delegated levels of authority, power and responsibility. 4. Work system ??? definition/design of work and alignment of people. This is turn lead to the ‘four C’S’ or HR policies that have to be achieved i. Commitment ii. Congruence iii. Competence iv. Cost Effectiveness The Henry Model of Strategic Change Henry and Pettigrew (1990), have adopted the Harvard model by drawing on it analytical aspects. They see HRM as a perspective on employment system characterized by their closer alignment with the university of Warrick they analyze that HRM has element. 1. Outer Context 2. Inner Context 3. Business Strategy Content 4. HRM Context
Their emphasis was to recognize business strategy and HRM practice, the external and internal context in which these activities take place and the process by which change take place, therefore explores more fully the implication for employee relationship of a variety of approaches to strategic management “they provide” better description of structures and strategy. Making complex organizations and of framework for understanding them which are an essential under ??? printing for analyzing HRM. They believe that as a movement, HRM expressed a mission to achieve a turn around in industry. HRM was in a real sense heavily a normative from the outside: it provides diagnosis and proposes solution. They also suggested that what HRM did at this point was to provide a label to wrap providing a focus for challenging deficiencies ??? in attitude scope coherence and direction of existing personnel management. The Story`s Model HRM Story focus on two type of HRM i. e. had and soft HRM He try to ifferentiate clearly between personnel management and individual relation with HRM practice by stating 27 points of difference induce by elements; Firstly, the human resource capability and commitment which in the final analysis, distinguishes successful organization from the rest. Secondly, because HRM is of strategic importance in need to be considered by top management in the formulation of corporate plan. Thirdly, there are long-term implications to be integral to the core performance of the business or public sector organization. Fourthly, key covers of development of HR, evaluation and rewarding system are to be used to seek not more compliance but commitment. Those elements have been classified into: 1.
Beliefs and assumption (capacity and commitment) 2. Strategic concepts (formulation of corporate plans 27 point of difference) 3. Line management 4. Key levers The hard HRM: The approach to HRM emphases the quantitative calculated and business ??? strategic aspect of managing the headcount resource in rational way as for any other economic factor. It adopts a business oriented philosophy which will obtain competitive advantage. It regards people as human capital from which a return can be obtained by investing judicially in their development. The soft HRM: The soft HRM traces its roots to the human relation school. It emphases communication, innovation and leadership.
As describe by assets, a source of competitive advantage through their commitment, adaptability and high quality (of skills, performance and so on). He therefore views employees in the words of guest as, means rather than objects. The soft approach to HRM emphases the following. 1. The need for commitment ??? the heart and mind of employees through involvement 2. The need for communication and other methods of developing high commitment. 3. The need for a high-trust organization attention is also drawn to the key role of organization culture, soft HRM is focused management and employees can indeed should, coincide thereby making it a unitarist approach. 4. THE IMMEDIATE CONTENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Human Resource Management, however defined, concerns the management of the employment relationship. It is practiced in organization by managers. The nature of organization and the way it is managed, therefore, constitute the immediate context within which HRM is embedded. They generate issues and tensions that HRM policies, practices and procedures attempt to resolve. The nature of organizations and the need for management. At its simplest, an organizations comes into existence when the efforts of two or more people are pooled to achieve an objective that one would be unable to complete alone. The achievement of this objective calls for the completion of a number of tasks.
Depending upon their complexity, the availability of appropriate technology and the skills of the people involved these tasks may be subdivided into a number of sub-tasks and other people employed to carry them out. This division of labour constitutes the lateral dimension of the structure of the organization. its vertical dimension is constructed from the generally hierarchical relationships of power and authority between the owner or owners, those employed to complete these tasks and those employed to manage them. Some of the basic elements of an organization, then, are its ownership and source of authority. The purposes it is intended to achieve, the tasks that flow from those, the tools or technology, its boundary and relationship with what lies outside it.
The very nature of organization, therefore, generates a number of significant tensions, between people with different stakes in the organization, and therefore different perspectives upon and interests in it, between what owners and other members in it, between what owners and other members of the organization may desire and what they can feasibly achieve, between the needs capabilities and potentials of organizational members and what the environment demands of and permits them. Management is the process that keeps the organizations from flying apart because of these tensions, that makes it work, secures its survival and according to the type of organization, its profitability or effectiveness This process also becomes subject to a division of labour and the activities it comprises are allocated to individual mangers.
Working on behalf of the organizations owner or shareholders and with the authority derived from them, managers draw upon a number of resources to enable them to complete their task: raw materials, finance, technology, appropriately skilled people, legitimacy, support and goodwill from the organizations environment. They manage the organization by ensuring that there sufficient people with appropriate skills, that they work to the same ends and time table, that they have the authority, information and other resources needed to complete their tasks, that their tasks detail and are performed on an acceptable standard and at the required pace. 2. 5KEY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES The key activities of HRM carried out in organization are: 1.
Organization Design ??? Developing an organization which caters for all the activities required, group them together in a way which encourages integration and cooperation, operates flexibility in respect to change and provides for effective communication and decision making. Job and role design ??? Deciding on the content and accountabilities of jobs or roles in order to maximize intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. – Organizational Development ??? stimulating, planning and implementing programmes designed to improve the effectiveness with which the organization functions and adapts to change. 2. The employment Relationship ??? improving the quality of the employment relationship by creating a climate of trust, developing a more positive psychological contract. 3. knowledge management ??? Developing processes for capturing and sharing knowledge to enhance organizational learning and performance. 4. Resourcing – ) Human resource planning ??? assessing future people requirements in terms both of numbers and of levels of skills and competence and formulating and implementing plans to meet those requirements. b) Recruitment, selection and placement ??? obtaining the number and type of people the organization needs in terms of qualifications, and putting them in the right job. 5. Performance management ??? setting better from the organization, terms and individuals by measuring and managing performance within agreed framework of objectives and competence requirements; assessing and improving performance, identifying and satisfying learning and development needs. 6. Human Resource Development – ) Organizational and individual learning ??? systematically developing organizational and individual learning processes, providing employees within learning opportunities to develop employees their capabilities, realize their potential and enhance employability. b) Management Development ??? providing learning and development opportunities, which will isolate the capacity of managers to make a significant contribution to achieving organizational goals. c) Career Management ??? planning and developing the careers of people with potential 7. Reward management a) Pay system ??? developing pay structures and systems which are equitable, fair and transparent. b) Contingent pay ??? relating financial rewards to results, competence, contribution, skill and effort. c) Non ??? financial rewards such as recognition, increased responsibility and opportunity to achieve and grow 8. Employee Relations: ) Industrial Relations ??? managing and maintaining formal and informal relationships with trade unions and their members b) Employee involvement and participation ??? giving them a voice, sharing information with employees and consulting them on matters of mutual interest; c) Communications ??? creating and transmitting information of interest to employees. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1RESEARCH DESIGN The research design used in the research work is the “descriptive” method. The description research design is used in order to enable the researcher to describe and give full analysis of data collected, it is aimed at identifying problems or opportunities in gathering information on the problems and formulating alternative courses of action thereby giving valuable suggestion and recommendations to the prevailing topic under review. 3. 2RESEARCH POPULATION
The population of this research involves all the current workforce of Union Bank Plc Kaduna Area office. 3. 3SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE The sampling size is 80, which was selected within Kaduna Area Office. It does not consider other branches of union Bank. ‘ The techniques used here is convenience sampling which is the act of collecting information by selecting certain proportion from the whole population from which conclusion can be dtawn relating ton the whole. In a convenience sampling selection, the researcher choose the sampling units on the basis of convenience or accessibility 3. 4METHODS OF GATHERING DATA In view of this research work, the following approaches were used in collecting data. 1.
QUESTIONNAIRE: Written questions were used to obtain facts about the data. the distribution of questionnaire was to those workers of Union Bank Area. Office Kaduna who can read and write. 2. DOCUMENTATION: This was used to obtain data from the record kept by human resource department of Union Bank Area office Kaduna. 3. INTERVIEW: This was used to source information from both staff of Union Bank that can read or write and these that can not read of right. 3. 5JUSTIFICATION OF METHOD USED The researcher used questionnaire method so as to source information about Union Bank Kaduna Area Office. It is on this method that the analysis was drawn. 3. 6METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
In analyzing the data obtained percentages and frequency table as well as chi-square test were used. X2 = ((O ???E)2 E 3. 7JUSTIFICATION OF INSTRUMENT USED The instrument used in collection of data are the primary and secondary type. The primary instrument are questionnaire and personal interview. The secondary instruments are documentation that is text book, annual reports past records, journals seminar papers. CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4. 1DATA PRESENTATION Eighty questionnaires were distributed to management and staff of Union Bank Plc Kaduna Area office, out of this number, seventy-five were returned duly completed which represented 93. 5%, this shows that five were not returned representing 6. 25%. The following presentation was done based on the returned questionnaires. Table 1 |Number of questionnaire distributed |Number of returned questionnaire |Percentage | |80 |75 |93. 75% | Table 1 showed that the number of questionnaires distributed is 80. But 75 questionnaires were returned representing 93. 75%, while 5 questionnaires representing 6. 25% were not returned. Question 1: Sex of respondents Table 2 Responses |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Males |45 |60 | |Females |30 |40 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 2 showed that 45 respondents representing 60% were males, while 30 respondents that the number of males is greater than the number of females in the organization Question 2: Position of the respondents Table 3 |Management Level |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Top management |15 |20 | |Middle management |35 |46. 7 | |Lower management |25 |33. 33 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 3 depicted that 15 respondents representing 20% were top management, 35 respondents representing 46. 67% were middle management while 25 respondents representing 33. 33% were lower level management. The analysis of the table shows that the middle level management are the majority in the organization. Question 3: Educational qualification of respondents Table 4 Educational qualification |No of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Tertiary institution |30 |50 | |Secondary institution |20 |26. 67 | |Professional qualification |15 |20 | |Others |10 |13. 33 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 4 depicted that 30 respondents representing 40% posses tertiary institution certificates, 20 respondents representing 26. 7% have secondary school certificates, 15 respondents representing 20% have professional qualification, while 10 respondents representing 13. 33% possessed other certificates. This shows that those that possessed tertiary institution certificates have higher percentage in the organization. Question 5: Age distribution of respondents Table 5 |Age Group |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |21 ??? 30 |30 |40 | |31 ??? 40 |20 |26. | |41 ??? 50 |15 |20 | |50 and above |10 |13. 33 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 5 showed that 40% of the respondents were between the ages of 21 ??? 30, 26. 67% of the respondents were between the ages of 31 ??? 40, 20% of the respondents were between the ages of 41 ??? 50, while 13. 33% of the respondents were between the ages of 50 and above. This shows that the organization have younger personnel. Question 5: what type of Human Resource Management do you adopt? Table 6 Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Hard HRM |30 |40 | |Soft HRM |45 |60 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 6 depicted that 30 respondents representing 40% said that the organization adopts hard HRM, while 45 respondents representing 60% said the organization adopts soft HRM. This shows that the organization adopts soft HRM. Question 6: How do you see Human Resource Management in your organization? Table 7 |Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Very effective |20 |26. 7 | |Effective |30 |40 | |Fairly effective |15 |20 | |Very poor |10 |13. 33 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 7 depicted that 20 respondents representing 26. 7% see Human Resource Management in the organization as very effective, 30 respondents representing 40% see Human Resource Management in the organization as effective, 15 respondents representing 20% see Human Resource Management in the organization as fairly effective while 10 respondents representing 13. 33% see Human Resource Management in the organization as very poor. This means that Human Resource Management in Union Bank Kaduna Area Office is effective. Question 7: To what extent do you support the current mode of Human Resource Management in your organization Table 8 |Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |To a great extent |40 |53. 3 | |To a little extent |30 |40 | |Non of the above |5 |6. 67 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 8 depicted that 40 respondents representing 53. 33% supported the current mode of Human Resource Management in the organization to a great extent 30 respondent representing 40% supported the current mode of Human Resource Management in the organization to a little extent while 5 respondents representing 6. 67% supported non of the above. This shows that he current mode of Human Resource Management in the organization is being supported to a great extent. Question 8: Do you agree that employees job satisfaction depend on effective Human Resource Management? Table 9 |Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Agreed |55 |73. 33 | |Disagreed |15 |20 | |No comment |5 |6. 7 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 9 depicted that 55 respondents representing 73. 33% agreed that employees job satisfaction depend on effective Human Resource Management, 15 respondent representing 20% disagreed that employees job satisfaction does not depend on effective Human Resource Management while 5 respondents representing 6. 67% have no comment. This shows that employees job satisfaction depends on effective Human Resource Management. Question 9: How does your organization initiate decision-making? Table 10 Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Collective effort |10 |13. 33 | |Strictly superior |50 |66. 6 | |Partially joint effort |15 |20 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 10 showed that 10 respondents representing 13. 3% said that decision making in the organization is based on collective effort, 50 respondents representing 66. 67% said that decision making in the organization is based strictly on superior while 15 respondents representing 20% said that decision making in the organization is based partially on joint effort. This shows that decision making in Union Bank is strictly based on superior. Question 10: Do you think ineffective Human Resource Management is one of the causes of conflict in your organization? Table 11 |Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Yes |65 |86. 7 | |No |10 |13. 33 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 11 depicted that 65 respondents representing 86. 67% agreed that ineffective Human Resource Management is one of causes of conflict in the organization, while 10 respondents representing 13. 33% said ineffective Human Resource Management is not one of the causes of conflict in the organization. This shows that ineffective Human Resource Management is one of the causes of conflict in Union Bank Plc, Kaduna Area Office.
Question 11: Which of the following is the major cause of concept in your organization? Table 12 |Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Non implementation of collective bargaining |25 |33. 33 | |Inadequate application of Human Resources |45 |60 | |Management | | | |All of the above |5 |6. 7 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 12 showed that 25 respondents representing 33. 33% concerned that the major cause of conflict in the organization is non-implementation of collective bargaining, 45 respondents representing 60% said that the major cause of conflict in the organization is as a result of inadequate application of Human Resource Management is the major cause of conflict in the organization. This shows that the major cause of conflict in Union Bank Kaduna Area Office is adequate application of Human Resource Management. Question 12: How top management staff hold meetings with the other management level? Table 13 Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Very often |- |- | |Occasionally |60 |80 | |Very rare |15 |20 | |Total |75 |100% | Source:Field survey Table 13 depicted that 60 respondents representing 80% said that top management staff of the organization hold meetings occasionally with the other management level, 15 respondents representing 20% said that they hold meetings on a very rare cases. This mean that top management of Plc Kaduna Area Office hold meetings with the other management levels occasionally. Question 13: Are you always satisfied with explanation you obtained from the top management as to the application of Human Resource Management in your organization? Table 14 Variable |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Very satisfied |20 |26. 6 | |Satisfied |25 |33. 33 | |Partially satisfied |20 |26. 67 | |Not satisfied |10 |13. 3 | |To