The nature of conceptual design is briefly reviewed and the lack of effective computer support noted. Recent developments in computer-based Knowledge Support Systems, that offer interesting possibilities, are reviewed. The study of the early design of a clearly innovative product, the Lotus bicycle, is used to inform a discussion of the requirements for Knowledge Support Systems that can support conceptual design. Introduction Thus, the process is as machine of predefinitions or selection as prostitution: it is essentially creative.
The designer generates a set of scenarios or possible prototypical solutions at this stage. A potential problem, in relation to innovation, is that they tend to eliminate options early on in the process (Lawson, 1980). One important role that computer support could play is in keeping ideas open longer by providing “external” memory concept management and facilities. As Failings (1991) puts it, “Most research in intelligent CAD systems has focused on detail design, the adaptation of an initial concept to precise specifications.
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Little is known about the process of conceptual design, the transition between functional specification and concept of an artifact that achieves it. “. Figure 1 gives an impression of the role that computers lay, at the moment, in innovation. The boundaries between these activities are of prime concern. The question is, simply, “Can the CAE support begin sooner and can it, as a consequence, amplify creative design activities. “. The problems that the earliest stages are characterized by uncertainty, tentative decisions and informal representations of design ideas.
It is suggested that creative thought often occurs at the conceptual stage and hence any support that could enhance the designer’s performance that point could be extremely at valuable. A secondary, but significant, issue is that the urination from conceptual to detail design often involves the manual entry of information into a CAD system, because the conceptual data had not been captured electronically. These are the issues that the paper will cackler??.
The concept of Knowledge Support Systems, in which the end user manipulates machine representations knowledgeableness (Shaw , 1988), has recently been developed in LITCHI and applied to scientific exploration (Candy et al, AAA; Edmondson al, 1993, O’Brien et al, AAA, Bibb). This work has clearly demonstrated a potential for supporting creative work Candy et al, Bibb). At the same time, other workers have began study the approaching the specific context of design (Fischer &NakakoJi, 1992; Horrid et al, 1993).
Background Perhaps the most important point to note about the nature of conceptual design is that Madame Viziers (1992), as result of impracticalities of designers: a problem solver is not ‘given’ problems, but ‘constructs’ them. ” Research into the design process has suggested that many of the requirements for support tools are similar to those observed in the LITCHI study of scientific exploration above (Viziers, 1992; Fischer, 1990). For example, Viziers proposes that tools to assist in the management of memory load would positively support design.
Her results relate closely to those of Candy al (AAA) in the et use of Knowledge Support Systems in the science domain. Or, as Horrid et al (1993) put it: “In creative design, humans build new concepts out of nebulous mental worlds. They have some seeds of a new concept, incubate them and create a new concept… ” (my emphasis). 145 Exploration Innovation concept design detail CAE support mom+ Figurer : Disinterestedness,the designer’sexploratoryandinnovative work and the purport from computers:- impressionistic view based opponent design conceptualized Mike by Burrows The central problem (figure 2).
Tightfisted this bicycles the subject of the study reported. Computers were not used at all in the The main concern of the paper is to consider the development the original consistencies, in contrast, feasibility of applying recent irrecoverableness the in Lotus operate a sophisticated CAD infrastructure. The research reported is investigating the feasibility of computing described vetoed the provision of computer bridging’s gap. purport conceptual design.
Support for creativity in practice Parapsychologist’s used for the investigation in which development a successful unproductively was investigated. The results of the investigation are related to the practical use of advanced systems a collaborationist’s. Lotus Engineering are firmly committed to the exploitation of knowledge-based technology support design. They have used the ACID system, from ‘CAD Engineering Automation for several years in order to develop flexible indifferent support the earlier design stages.
They’ve bendable to demonstrate that a number of clear benefits accrue, uncircumcised reminisces,the In the 1992 Olympics,Chris Birdman the rust UK won gold medal, in the mom cycling pursuit event. He was riding a irreproducibility built by Litigiousness 146 effective handling of complexity the possibility of buildinggenericdesignmodules are readily available that for re-use (Gregory,1992). However, far this workers not involved the creative concept designer in direct computers.