Stages of human resource development Need investigation, design, implement, evaluation 2. Types of transformational learning styles Instrumental learning-??–learning to control and manipulate the environment Communicative learning—-understanding each others inner world Emancipators learning—-becoming free of hegemonic assumptions 3. Principals of adult learning (Start with the known, readiness to learn, part learning, spaced learning, active learning) The learning should be relevant to the real-life situations and problems.
This enhances the motivation of the learner as well as embedding the new learning into a context. The learning should incorporate the rich experience Of the adult learners, thus utilizing that abundant resource, the tacit knowledge of the adult. The learning should involve the adult learner, at least to some extent, so that the individual’s sense of self-responsibility ensures that the learning is transferred back to the operational site. 4. Two levels of HARDIN Surveillance level, investigation level 5.
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Learning styles Activist, reflector, pragmatist, theorist 6. Explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge is the knowledge that the individual can declare and formulate into sentences. It is captured in drawings and writings. Explicit writing has a universal character, supporting the capacity to act across contexts. It is accessible through conscious thought. One advantage of explicit knowledge is that it can be shared at low cost among individuals. Tacit knowledge is a corner stone in organizational knowledge creation theory.
It covers knowledge that is unarticulated, and tied to the senses, movement skills, physical experiences, intuition, unarticulated mental models or implicit ales of thumb. Tacit knowledge is in the mind of the individual; although the individual may be unaware of it or unable declare it. With time, tacit knowledge becomes more important for solving the problem or challenging, as the tacit knowledge is more efficient to task solutions. 7. Reasons that need investigation are not required 8.
Legitimate system and shadow system Legitimate system: negative feedback loops, single loop learning, equilibrium, immediate future (concentrate on the near-to-certain aspects of the external environment, manage the day-to-day activities of the organization, audit any hanged that may affect the status quo) Shadow system: positive feedback loops, double loop learning, in-equilibrium, distant future(concentrate on the far-from-certainty aspects of the external environment, import and create new knowledge that will ensure the long term future of the organization, export the new knowledge to the legitimate system) Bounded instability 9.
Difference between androgyny and pedagogy The need to know: know only what teacher teaches; know why they need to learn before undertaking The learners self-concept: dependent personality; eve a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions The role of experience: little worth; come into an educational activity with both a greater volume and a different quality of experience from youths Readiness to learn: have a subject-centered orientation to learning; life-centered and they must perceive that learning will help them perform tasks or deal with problems that they confront in real-life situations.