External growth strategy diversify through M&A * Divestment liquidation of some parts of the business (often it doesn’t meet expectations) * Intended strategy rational decision-making process * Emergent strategy evolve over time, from the “roots” of the organization Chapter 4: Analysis and Design of Work * Work-flow design tasks necessary for production or services analyses outputs; analyses work processes (activities); analyses work inputs (raw material, equipment, HER) * Organizational structure stable and formal network of interconnections among jobs dimension of structure (centralization or decentralization); differentiations (degree to which work units are grouped based on functional similarity); functional Truckee (marketing, finance, personnel etc; normally with centralization; Jobs are narrow and highly specialized); divisional structure (consumer electronics, automotive, household furnishing etc. Owe level of centralization) * Job analysis getting detailed info about Jobs; very important because many other activities are based on this (work redesign, HER planning, training, performance appraisal, career planning, Job evaluation); line managers must have detailed information about every job in their work group, if they hire, they must know about the skills necessary, they deed to evaluate peoples performance two types of information most important: Job description (tasks, duties, responsibilities); Job specifications (knowledge, skills, abilities, other characteristics; characteristics of people which are not directly observable) * Subject matter experts incumbents, supervisors, * Two Methods for analysis: Position Analyses Questionnaire standardized with 194 items; six sections (information input, mental process, work output, relationships with other persons, Job context, other characteristics); in order to answer people need to be able to read
Occupational Information Network describes 1000 occupations * Desorbing a field of work instead of one single Job * Job Design defining a way work will be performed * Job Redesign changing an existing Job * Four Job design ways: Mechanistic approach roots in classical industrial engineering, simplest way to structure work that maximizes efficiency; also known as scientific management; one best way Motivational Approach roots in organizational psychology, focuses on stuff like satisfaction, intrinsic motivation; Skill variety, task identity, autonomy, task significance, feedback Biological Approach roots in bio-mechanics; minimize physical strain on the worker; ergonomics (interface between workers and work environment) Perceptual-Motor Approach roots in human-factor literature; focuses on human mental abilities and capabilities; design work so it does not exceed mental telltales; one looks at ten least capable worker; essence presence state when one Is interacting with multiple media (e. G. N the phone while driving) Chapter 5 – Human Resource Planning and Recruitment * Three keys to effectively utilize the labor market: know about current infatuation, where the company wants to be in the future, discrepancies between current and future situation * Forecasting (demand and supply of HER; through historic trends or subjective Judgment) statistical methods can be used as leading indicators; multiple regression analyses supply take retirements, promotions etc into account; transitional matrices are helpful * Labor surplus if known in advanced the company can freeze hiring other ways are: Downsizing (companies with a lot of R;D downsizing can be bad; not only loose talent but also links within a network) Pay reductions Demotions transfers
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Work sharing hiring freeze natural attrition early retirement retraining * Labor shortage: Overtime temporary employees (high flexibility, no own testing program required, reduces training costs, hired person brings objective perspective) outsourcing retrained transfer turnover reduction new external hires technological innovation * Workforce utilization review (proportion of protected subgroups compared to proportion within relevant labor market) * HER recruitment identifying and attracting potential employees; make a list of potential new employees recruitment activities are designed to affect: umber of people who apply type of people who apply likelihood that somebody accepts an offer * Internal vs.. External recruiting * Employment-at-will policies * Due process policy (steps a employee can take to appeal to a termination decision) * Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards * Image advertising * Recruitment sources: internal vs. external direct applicants (directly apply without prompting from organization) and referrals (people who are prompted to apply for a Job by someone within the organization) low cost and there is self-selection or selection going on advertisement in swappers and periodicals