Title Course Instructor Date Women’s Progression Through Employment and Labor Laws The United States of America is known as the land of the free and home of the brave. Americans are privileged to live in a society where there are laws created and continuously enforced to ensure the protection of the citizens’ rights. Law-breakers have consequences and punished for their wrongdoings and not obeying the law. The government is expected and challenged to practice equality in all decisions that are made.
President Abraham Lincoln paved the way towards ending racial segregation by signing the Emancipation Proclamation, which stated, “All men are created equal”. Unfortunately, it did not read, “All people are created equal”. Many people, both men and women, in history have fought for equal rights and succeeded. Minorities have risen from most prejudice and women have also obtained rights of their very own. Before the sass, women did not have the right to vote and were unable to work in the land of the free. Today, more than ever before, women have proven, through their many accomplishments that they deserve their equal rights in society.
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Women have demonstrated that they, too, are brave as they fight honorably for America’s freedom. Unfortunately, there is still discrimination shown and proven not only in American women’s every day personal lives but also in business practice as well. However, there are laws in place that attempt to deter and reprimand this type of unethical behavior. Although there is still some discrimination in our society today, women have progressed tremendously through the employment and labor laws enacted in the United States of America. History of Women and Civilian Employment
American women living in the United States did not always have the same equal rights as men. Prior to the sass, most women would marry and take care of the household and their family. They would stay home to cook and clean, caring for their children while their husband worked and made a living for income. The years from 1900 to 1920 were pivotal decades for women as more of them worked outside of their homes and some even attended universities. Professions available to some women during this time were teaching, nursing, clerical, and social work.
During these decades, most American women began to work and their popular profession as clerical work; however, they were paid significantly less for doing the same Job as the men performed. Today, women are in occupations and holding positions that were once dominated by men. Women are even elected as politicians and Just five years ago, the first woman ran for presidency, Hillary Roadman Clinton. Although Clinton did not win, she became the United States Secretary of State serving under the first African ran for Vice President during that same election year.
Women have progressed through the leadership chain acquiring high-level management positions and even coming entrepreneurs, successfully owning their own businesses. After 9/1 1 and years of America at war, the economy took a toll on everyone and many families were affected. Time has changed significantly for women in the workplace where they may earn more money than their spouse. Therefore, it is not odd to see a woman work while the husband stays at home with the children. A lot of people have been laid off due to businesses closing.
Men could not find Jobs while woman continued working in those businesses that are successful enough to make it through the society financial recession. Also, because of the economy, many should required more than one income to survive. Many women who were previously homemakers while their husband’s worked had to find Jobs to contribute to the family earnings. History of Women Serving in the Military During the Civil War, thousands of American women in the North and South Joined volunteer brigades and signed up to work as nurses.
This was the first time in history that women played a significant role in a war effort (Women in the Civil War, 2012). Women also supplied the Union troops with food, clothing, and cash from fundraisers. Around 20,000 women worked directly for the Union war effort. Wanting to take part in the war, more than 400 women disguised themselves as men in order to fight in the Union and Confederate armies in the Civil War (Women in the Civil War, 2012). After the Civil War, many women who lost their husbands during the war had to earn their own income for their family to survive.
Although working for far less than the minimum wage, women eventually started working in the manufacturing industries. More than 20,000 women served in the armed forces during World War l. Unfortunately, women were not given rank or privileges although they wore the same military uniform. This proved they were still not considered equal as men. However, their service in the military and how the women took care of the home and worked while their husbands were at war was noteworthy towards women’s cause for equality.
World War II was devastating to the nation and it had several overwhelming impacts. The war also had a long lasting, positive impact on women and their gender roles. Women first officially Joined the military during this time to serve as nurses and Air Force pilots. The women pilots, called the Women Air Force Service Pilots (WASPS), were the first women military pilots in story. They were extremely important, as the military was short trained male pilots for the ongoing war. Over 400,000 women served in the war effort during World War II (Women’s Memorial, 2011).
Throughout World War II, women replaced men in both the workforce and the military, while coping with rationing, dislocation, and absence of loved ones (Snookering, 2010). Women started working in industries where they had not been allowed to work before. Hundreds of thousands of women later served in the Korean War, Vietnam Era, and Persian Gulf War before the current war on terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan. Employment and Labor Laws Fifty years ago, President John F. Kennedy signed into legislation the Equal Pay Act of same employer. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 was the first in a series of major federal and state laws that had a profound effect on Job opportunities and earnings for women over the next half century, and laid the foundation for the movement of women into the paid labor force at unprecedented levels” (The White House, 2013). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the bill into law and it paved the way for future anti-discrimination legislation.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was victorious not only for minorities but a triumph for all women as well. The Act enabled women to obtain Jobs normally left for men without discrimination. During this time, about nineteen million of the nation’s nonfat employees were women; the three industries that employed the most women?? manufacturing; trade, transportation, and utilities; and local government??accounted for fifty-four percent of these women (U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010).
The Civil Rights Act also established The Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC) as the lead enforcement agency to receive, investigate, and conciliate discrimination complaints. Signed into law by President Jimmy Carter, The Pregnancy Discrimination Act amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act to prohibit discrimination against pregnant workers, and to require that employers treat workers with pregnancy- related limitations the same way they treat other employees similar in their ability or inability to work (The White House, 2013).
While American women made progress wrought the Civil Rights Act of 1964, they were still being paid less than men doing the same Job. There are many other laws now set in place that protect against discrimination of workers and their safety. The National Labor Relations Board (NULL) investigates unfair labor practices, The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 regulates minimum wage hours, The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) ensures a safe work environment, and The Lilly Letterer Fair Pay Act ensures equal pay for equal work (Rogers, 2012).
Both men and women employees benefit from these established laws. These various laws can all be used to ensure employees are getting equal pay amongst the other workers doing the same Job, working in a safe environment, getting paid for their overtime, and not being discriminated against because of their race, religion, or gender. As the first African American President and being raised by a single working mother, President Barack Obama felt strongly about equal rights.
The first bill he signed into law was the Lilly Letterer Fair Pay Act; making progress in a decades- long struggle to ensure women have the right tools they need to fight for equal pay or equal work (Obama for America, 2013). Lilly Letterer sued Goodyear Tire Company because she was getting paid less than other men doing the same Job. This was a case of sex-based discrimination, which the Civil Rights of 1964 prohibited. A Jury ruled in her favor but the Supreme Court took the verdict away stating she waited too long to sue the company.
Because the Court’s ruling concerned the interpretation of a law passed by Congress, Congress had the power to pass a new law essentially correcting the Court’s misinterpretation of the original statute and effectively overturning the decision. Legislation was introduced to do if it did (Schaeffer, 2009). The United States Supreme Court failed to acknowledge the differences between a discriminatory pay claim versus other types of Title VII claims (Rimier, 2011). President Barack Obama also established the Equal Pay Task Force and supports the Paycheck Fairness Act.
Since the establishment of the Task Force in January 2010, the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission has obtained more than $62. 5 million in monetary relief through administrative enforcement for victims of sex-based wage discrimination, obtained changes to workplace practices that infinite over one quarter of a million workers, and filed five cases including sex-based wage discrimination claims (The White House, 2012). President Obama said the following in a speech on April 6, 2012, “Right now, women are a growing number of breadwinners in the household.
But they’re still earning Just 77 cents for every dollar a man does??even less if you’re an African American or Latin woman. Overall, a woman with a college degree doing the same work as a man will earn hundreds of thousands of dollars less over the course of her career. So closing this pay gap?? ending pay discrimination??is about far more than simple fairness. When more women are bringing home the bacon, but bringing home less of it than men who are doing the same work, that weakens families, it weakens communities, it’s tough on our kids, it weakens our entire economy. ” (The White House, 2012).
Military Regulations on Women The heightened need for security since the devastating terrorist acts of 9/1 1 and build-up of military units to support the war on terrorism also brought with it more opportunities for women to serve in the ultimate non-traditional Jobs – military occupational specialties in the United States armed forces (The White House, 2013). American women are now in occupations and positions that were once dominated by or only available to men in the Army. With over 214,000 women serving on active duty in the armed forces, they total more than fourteen percent of the total military population (Women’s Memorial, 2011).
More than 200,000 female soldiers (Active duty and Reserve) have deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan since 9/1 1, earning more than four hundred valor awards, including two Silver Stars, the nation’s third-highest award for valor (Tan, 2012). For the past couple of years, female soldiers have been allowed to work in Army combat arms battalions with infantry, field artillery, and armor specialists. Previously women in the military could only serve in non-combat arms battalions or only at the headquarters and brigade level of Army combat arms units.
Currently, the Army is researching to allow women to actually serve in all combat-specific occupations with no limitations. More than ninety percent of all career fields in the armed forces are now open to women (Women’s Memorial, 2011). Both enlisted and officer women eave already been serving in Army branches such as Engineers, Military Police, Aviation, and Air Defense and will soon be allowed to serve alongside Special Forces soldiers in combat. The Army is in the beginning stages to ensure it is a smooth transition for both men and women.
The Army is using technology to obtain data from the military through surveys on the impact it would have on soldiers and the mission. This research will assist leaders in making a decision to how best facilitate this as physical limitations and female privacy, many are looking forward to the transformation. If successful, women could enlist in the Army without any limitations to military occupational specialties. This will eventually allow more women to serve in higher leadership positions that were only held for combat arms specialties.
Allowing women to serve their country in all armed forces alongside men in all different types of occupations and levels within the military is an equal right long overdo. It is only ethical to treat women with the same respect as men. Allowing them to serve in positions and obtain the same Jobs as men is acknowledging that women can be Just as successful as men. Conclusion Although there is still some discrimination in our society, women have progressed tremendously through the employment and labor laws enacted in the United States.
Women, before the sass, were not allowed to have a college education, a successful career, or even a right to vote. Women were considered inferior to men and gender roles were well understood by everyone in society. Because of the struggles and determination of advocates in our history, American women have earned their rights in society. American women have achieved outstanding accomplishments throughout the many long years. Women have fought in the military in every major conflict from World War I through the current war on terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Two women have also earned the prestigious Silver Star award in combat for their heroic and selfless acts. Since passage of the Equal Pay Act, women have transformed the workplace and economy, integrated many previously exclusively male Job fields, and achieved success at the highest levels of many fields (The White House, 2013). Laws such as the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, The Pregnancy Discrimination Act, ND the Lilly Letterer Fair Pay Act have enabled women to serve in the military fighting in combat with men and work alongside them in the civilian workforce with an effort to obtain equal pay for equal work.
Technology is providing the necessary data to ensure women are successfully integrated into combat arms specialties in the military. Unfortunately, some people are still adjusting to this transformation and may not want to accept women being placed into all occupations and at every level within the civilian sector and armed forces. However, society has made huge strides or narrowing the gap between men and women in the workplace and continues to move forward towards equality for women. References Rimier, A. M. (2011).