Fights between Arab and Jewish Militias: Late asses-asses, Arabs and Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine begin to fight each other. These are usually small attacks or minor pogroms. Throughout this period, Arabs and Jews lived in segregated villages, so the attacking group would enter the village and wantonly kill the civilians there.
UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II): On November 29, 1947 the United Nations passed a General Assembly Resolution recognizing the right for the Jews of Mandatory Palestine and the Arabs of Mandatory Palestine to declare independence s separate and unique states. Both the United States and Soviet Union supported the Resolution from a pro-Jewish perspective. Arabs across the Arab World were angry and vehemently declared that they would never allow any part of Mandatory Palestine to become a Jewish State. Israeli War of Independence / Palestinian Catastrophe (Knack): This war was fought in two main phases.
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From late 1947 to May of 1948, the British still held nominal control of the territory and the fighting was restricted to groups within Mandatory Palestine. Jewish and Arab Militias more recently fought away from civilian centers (except Jerusalem which was the sight of heavy bloodshed) for control of the area. After the British withdrew on May 14, 1948, the Jews declared their independence. This allowed the conflict to expand and seven Arab nations contributed armies or regiments to assist the Palestinian Arabs. During this period, both sides, but more commonly Israelis, attacked civilians and caused many of them to flee.
After the war, Israel refused to allow them re-admittance. Israel controlled more land after the war than they would have controlled had the Arabs usefully accepted a Jewish State along the I-IN-proscribed boundaries. Suez Crisis: 1956, Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal and blocks Israeli shipping, leading to an alliance of the United Kingdom, France, and Israel attacking Egypt and conquering the Sinai Peninsula. After the War, the United States and Soviet Union Jointly forced the parties to return to the antebellum situation, but while placing UNEVEN troops in the Sinai and giving Israel freedom of the seas.
Six Day War: 1967, By virtue off pre- emotive war, Israel gains all lands in the former British Mandate of Palestine and egging the military occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Settlement construction begins at this point. Jerusalem is unified and the Old City is renovated to allow for mutual religious practice. Yon Kipper War/October War: 1973, Egypt and Syria launch a devastating surprise attack on Israel, making important gains in the first two weeks. When Israel finally reversed the tide, they began conquering territories beyond the Six Day War territories.
The lands were returned to the antebellum state and it was then clear that Israel would not be eliminated through strength of arms. The early Arab victories also shattered the myth of Israeli invincibility and lead to Arabs seeing themselves as less humiliated. Egyptian-Israeli Peace Accords: 1979, Egyptian President Onward Stead and Israeli Prime Minister Mayhem Begin signed the Camp David Accords. Egypt had Sinai returned to it from 1979 to 1982 and the two countries exchanged ambassadors.
Stead was later assassinated for his work to end the conflict. Initiated: 1987-1991, 2000-2005, Palestinians In ten West Ban an Gaza rose up gallant Israel Military occupation and the Settlements. They began to use suicide bombers to attack Israeli Civilians. This resulted in an intense shootout and an Israeli military and intelligence counteroffensive. Oslo Accords: 1993, The Palestinian Authority was formed and given partial control of Gaza and parts of the West Bank by Israeli Authorities.
Jordanian- Israeli Peace Accords: 1994, Following the Oslo Accords, King Hussein of Jordan was willing to make peace with Israel and ceded his claim to the West Bank territories to the nascent Palestinian State. Israeli Withdrawal from Gaza: 2005, All Israeli Settlements and troops were removed from Gaza on the orders of Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. The Palestinian Authority was ceded full control of the region. Separation Fence / Israeli Apartheid Wall: 2006-Present, The Fence made suicide bombing almost impossible and began the rocket attacks which persisted for a while in the West Bank before abating.
Israeli and Palestinian Leaders in the West Bank continue to negotiate a solution for the West Bank. Palestinian Leaders there are improving the Palestinian Economic situation in spite of the Occupation. Gaza Rocket Fire & Operation Cast Lead: 2006-Present, Following the Hams Military Takeover of Gaza, Israel has blockaded the area and been the recipient of numerous rocket attacks. In December of 2008, Israeli military forces invaded Gaza in an attempt to quash Hams’ operations. Numerous Palestinian Civilians died in the raid.
Hams continues to launch rockets at Israeli border towns. Palestinian state recognized by UN :On 29 November 2012, Palestine won an historic victory at the UN when the General Assembly voted by an overwhelming majority – 138 in favor to 9 against, with 41 abstentions – to recognize Palestine as a state, in the teeth of bitter opposition from Israel and the US. The defeat for Israel and the US was even worse than it appears at first glance because only 3 significant states Canada, Czech Republic and Panama) sided with them in rejecting the proposition.
The other 4 votes against came from the Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Naira, and Paula, all tiny south Pacific island states that are dependent on the US. More significant still, Israel has lost more ground in Europe, which a few years ago Israel could rely on for support. Only one EX. State (Czech Republic) backed Israel, 14 (Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden) voted to recognize Palestine as a Tate, and the other 12 abstained.
Hasty Arafat :Mohammed Abdul-Raff Arafat As Squad al-Hussein was born on 24 August 1929 in Cairo**, his father a textile merchant who was a Palestinian with some Egyptian ancestry, his mother from an old Palestinian family in Jerusalem. She died when Hasty, as he was called, was five years old, and he was sent to live with his maternal uncle in Jerusalem, the capital of the British Mandate of Palestine. He has revealed little about his childhood, but one of his earliest memories is of British soldiers breaking into his uncle’s house after tonight, beating members of the family and smashing furniture.
After four years in Jerusalem, his father brought him back to Cairo, where an older sister took care of him and his siblings. Arafat never mentions his father, who was not close to his children. Arafat did not attend his father’s funeral in 1952. In Cairo, before he was seventeen Arafat was smuggling arms to Palestine to be used against the British and the Jews. At nineteen, during the war between the Jews and the Arab states, Arafat let Nils studies at ten university AT Ha I (later collar university) to Talent against ten Jews in the Gaza area.
The defeat of the Arabs and the establishment of the state of Israel left him in such despair that he applied for a visa to study at the University of Texas. Recovering his spirits and retaining his dream of an independent Palestinian homeland, he returned to Fad University to major in engineering but spent most of his time as leader of the Palestinian students. He did manage to get his degree in 1956, worked briefly in Egypt, then resettled in Kuwait, first being employed in the department of public works, next successfully running his own contracting firm.
He pent all his spare time in political activities, to which he contributed most of the profits. In 1958 he and his friends founded AY-Fatal, an underground network of secret cells, which in 1959 began to publish a magazine advocating armed struggle against Israel. At the end of 1964 Arafat left Kuwait to become a full-time revolutionary, organizing Fatal raids into Israel from Jordan. It was also in 1964 that the Palestine Liberation Organization (POLO) was established, under the sponsorship of the Arab League, bringing together a number of groups all working to free Palestine for the Palestinians.
The Arab states favored a more conciliatory policy than Fatwa’s, but after their defeat by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, Fatal emerged from the underground as the most powerful and best organized of the groups making up the POLO, took over that organization in 1969 when Arafat became the chairman of the POLO executive committee. The POLO was no longer to be something of a puppet organization of the Arab states, wanting to keep the Palestinians quiet, but an independent nationalist organization, based in Jordan.
Arafat developed the POLO into a state within the state of Jordan with its own military forces. King Hussein of Jordan, disturbed by its guerrilla attacks on Israel and other violent methods, eventually expelled the POLO from his country. Arafat sought to build a similar organization in Lebanon, but this time was driven out by an Israeli military invasion. He kept the organization alive, however, by moving its headquarters to Tunis. He was a survivor himself, escaping death in an airplane crash, surviving any assassination attempts by Israeli intelligence agencies, and recovering from a serious stroke.
His life was one of constant travel, moving from country to country to promote the Palestinian cause, always keeping his movements secret, as he did any details about his private life. Even his marriage to Such Tail, a Palestinian half his age, was kept secret for some fifteen months. She had already begun significant humanitarian activities at home, especially for disabled children, but the prominent part she took in the public events in Oslo was a surprise for many Arafat-watchers. Since then, their daughter, Schwa, named after Arafat’s mother, has been born.
The period after the expulsion from Lebanon was a low time for Arafat and the POLO. Then the intimidate shaking) protest movement strengthened Arafat by directing world attention to the difficult plight of the Palestinians. In 1988 came a change of policy. In a speech at a special United Nations session held in Geneva, Switzerland, Arafat declared that the POLO renounced terrorism and supported “the right of all parties concerned in the Middle East conflict to live in peace and security, including the state of Palestine, Israel and other neighbors”.
The prospects for a peace agreement with Israel now brightened. After a setback when the POLO supported Iraq in the Persian Gulf War of 991, the peace process began in earnest, leading to the Oslo Accords of 1993. This agreement Included provision Tort ten Palestinian elections wanly took place In early 1996, and Arafat was elected President of the Palestine Authority. Like other Arab regimes in the area, however, Arafat’s governing style tended to be more dictatorial than democratic.
When the right-wing government of Benjamin Entertain came to power in Israel in 1996, the peace process slowed down considerably. Much depends upon the nature of the new Israeli government, which will result from the elections to be held in 1999. POLO – Palestine Liberation Organization:The POLO (Palestine Liberation Organization – Immunization al-Their al-Affiliations) was founded in 1964 by Arab governments, as a pan-Arab competitor to the Fatal group with Madam Shakier as head. The POLO is the umbrella organization of the Palestinian anti-lesser organizations.
After the collapse of the Arab war effort in the 6 day war in 1967, Hauser Arafat and the Fatal took over the POLO. In the wake of the October (Yon Kipper) war in 1973, the POLO was given UN observer status. It was recognized as “the only legitimate representative of he Palestine people” by almost all Palestinian groups until it undertook to recognize Israel, abandon violence and opt for a two state solution in the 1993 Oslo Agreements.. The POLO became, essentially, the Palestine National Authority (PAN) through the Oslo agreements.
The POLO charter calls for destruction of Israel. Following the Oslo Agreements, several organizations withdrew from the POLO. The Hams and Islamic Jihad in particular remain outside the POLO. The POLO organization has these formal components: PAN (Palestinian National Council) as parliament, which elects leader and makes policy decisions; created in its 964 formative stage, now with 669 members, but until recently had 484 members from all POLO factions as well as independents, with seats left vacant for representative of occupied territories.
Current President is Salami Suzann (previously: ‘Bad al-Mussing Qatar from July 68; Yah Hammed from September 69, Khalid’s al- Fame from July 71-84, Shaky ‘Bad al-Humid al-Isaiah from November 84-1993); Vice- Pres is Tsarist Squab’s; Secretary is Muhammad Shabby; 2nd Secretary is Lily Karri. The PAN meets infrequently, though is is mandated by its fundamental law to meet every 2 years. Resolutions are passed by a simple majority, but two thirds of the members must attend for quorum.
Palestine Central Council – makes policy decisions when the PAN not in session, acting as a link between PAN and POLO-SEC: formed in Junk, as an ad hoc body to coordinate between groups in Jordan. Its members are elected by PAN on POLO-SEC nomination, and chaired by PAN president. Membership has risen from 42 (1976), 55 (3/77), 72 (1 1/84), 107 (earliness’s(mid-ass). POLO Executive committee acts as a cabinet, implementing policy (c. 18 members), selected from PAN and choosing its own chairman. Membership from 1969 to 1988 is listed here.
HAMS- Hams is the largest and most influential Palestinian militant movement that, along with the more moderate Fatal party, serves as one of the two primary Palestinian political factions. Founded in 1987 during the first Intimidate, Hams is a Sunnis Salamis group and a U. S. -designated Foreign Terrorist Organization violently opposed to the state of Israel. Hams, an acronym for Hardhat al-Managua al- Islamic (Islamic Resistance Movement), has exercised De facto rule over the Gaza Strip since wresting the territory from its rival Fatal, which governs the West Bank, in
I nee two parties nave mace overtures AT reconciliation In ten wake AT ten Ran Spring revolutions, but progress on this score has proven elusive. Despite its militant reputation, Ham’s local support, in many ways, can be traced to its extensive network of on-the-ground social programming, including food banks, schools, and medical clinic. The State of Palestine is a sovereign state that was proclaimed on 15 November 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization’s (Plop’s) National Council (PAN) in exile in Algiers which unilaterally adopted the Palestinian Declaration of
Independence. It claims the Palestinian territories (defined according to the 1967 borders) and has designated Jerusalem as its capital. The areas constituting the State of Palestine have been occupied by Israel since 1967. The 1974 Arab League summit designated the POLO as the “sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people” and reaffirmed “their right to establish an independent state of urgency. ” The POLO held observer status at the United Nations as a “non-state entity” from 22 November 1974, which entitled it to speak in the UN General Assembly but not to vote. After the
Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly officially “acknowledged” the proclamation and voted to use the designation “Palestine” instead of “Palestine Liberation Organization” when referring to the Palestinian permanent observer. In spite of this decision, the POLO did not participate at the UN in its capacity of the State of Palatine’s government. On 29 November 2012 the UN General Assembly passed resolution 67/19 upgrade Palestine from an “observer entity” to a “non-member observer state” within the United Nations system, and implicitly recognizing Plop’s sovereignty