Does style influence register or register influence style? Language is an interesting topic to discuss. Basically, Language is defined as a system of communication by sound, I. E. , through the organs of speech and hearing, among human beings of certain group or community, using vocal symbols possessing arbitrary conventional meanly. [l] It means people use language to communicate and socialize among them. Language can be studied internally or externally.
Internal discussion of language encompasses the structure of language such as phonological, rapscallion and syntactic structures. External discussion of language, on the other hand, discusses about the factors outside of language which relate to Its users such as sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics derived from the words ‘socio’ and ‘linguistics’, so sociolinguists Is a linguistic field which deals with language relate to social context and cultural phenomenon. It’s like what Hudson says in his book. He defined sociolinguistics as the study of language in relation to society. 2] Then, Trudging said that Sociolinguistics is that part of linguistics which is concerned with language as a social and cultural phenomenon.  There are many topics in sociolinguistics are interesting to discuss further. One of the interesting topics to discuss Is variety of language. Hudson states that variety of language Is defined as a set of linguistics items with similar social Based on the definition, register and style are varieties of language. Register is a variety of language based on the use. Style, on the contrary, is a variety of language based on the formality.
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Since two varieties are different-based, it leads confusion that both influence each other. In addition, in mom references, the term ‘register is always hand-in-hand with the term ‘style’. Therefore, this essay will try to solve the confusion between the two varieties, In an attempt to answer the question of does register Influence style or style Influence Despite this apparent simplicity of this question, It Is actually a register. Considerable amount of information to synthesize before coming to conclusion. The first thing to know is the concept of Register.
Then, I try to explain the concept of Style and finally try to see the correlation between register and style whether they influence each other or not. The first item to discuss is the concept of register. The term Register is widely used In sociolinguistics to refer to Varlets of language according to use.  This variety of language relates to certain use or function. Another definition mentioned by Holmes is that register refers to the language of groups of people with common interests or Jobs, or the language used in situation associated with such group. 6] Moreover, Hardware states that registers are sets of vocabulary items associated with discrete occupational or social groups.  From the wow definitions, it is clear that register refers to vocabulary which deals with Job. Surgeons, Lorene pilots, Journalists, programmers and criminals tend to have and grammatical constructions. One example mentioned by Holmes in her book the language used by people who describe a sporting event which can be distinguished easily from language used in other contexts especially in the vocabulary.
In cricket, people describe positions by using terms like silly mid on, square leg, the covers and gully and describe deliveries by using terms like off-break, googol and leg break.  There are some purposes of using registers. Brown states Registers sometimes enable people to identify with a particular group and to maintain solidarity.  The use of registers is to show group’s identity, for example colleagues talk by using medical terms, they must be workers in medical field such as doctors, nurses, or midwives. Moreover, he says register is also sometimes associated with social class distinction. 10] This means registers can distinguish one’s social class, for example educated people will have different registers from uneducated people and rich people will also have different registers from poor people. The notion of register presents the interface between the use of specific code and a particular configuration of situational variables. One way of pinpointing a register is to identify a communicative event along the dimensions.  Holiday distinguishes three general types of dimension: field’, ‘mode’ and tenor’. 12] The three dimensions will be discusses point by point. The first point of dimensions is field’. Field is social setting and purpose of the interaction.  Moreover, Hudson stated field is concerned with the purpose and subject-matter the communication.  From the wow opinions, it is clear that field’ deals with the purpose of interaction. In the case of an academic article in a professional Journal, for example, the field should be the subject matter of the article, and the purpose in publishing it would be to spread the argument and ideas among academic colleagues. 1 5] The second point is tenor’. Tenor depends on the relations between participants.  In addition, Stockpile mentioned that tenor refers to the relationship between the participants in the event.  For example, when a student is talking too teacher, an offender too police officer, an office worker to a superior, or a parent to an infant (baby talk). Here register is generally a marker of formality or intimacy. The last dimension is ‘mode’. Mode refers to the medium of communication (e. G. Spoken, written or e- mailed). 18] The same opinion is also stated by Hudson. He stated that mode refers to the means by which communication takes place – notably, by speech or writing.  It is clear that ‘mode’ relates to medium of interaction. For example, an academic article is in the written mode. Changing this to the spoken mode would change the sister from an ‘article’ to a ‘speech’, and there would be corresponding and differences in the lexicographer; the sentences are shorter and word choice is less formal and perhaps less technical. 20] The three dimensions operate alongside and only when working together can they ensure appropriateness of situation. In other words, register is a variety of language that a language user considers appropriate to a specific situation.  The concept of style is the second item to discuss. The term ‘style’ is not a social or regional dialect, but a variety of language used for a specific purpose. Styles vary considerably within a single language user’s dialect. When you converse informally with a friend, you use different style than you use in an interview for a Job with a prospective employer. 22] Moreover, Holmes style is a variety of language based on the formality. When people speak, they can speak very formally or very informally. Ceremonial occasions almost invariably require very formal speech, public lecturers somewhat less formal, casual conversation quite informal, and conversation between intimates on matters of little importance may be extremely informal and casual. 24] That means the formality depends on situation. Joss as quoted by Brown described five levels of formality. 1 .
An oratorical style is used in public speaking before a large audience; wording is carefully planned in advance, intonation is somewhat exaggerated, and numerous rhetorical devices are appropriate. 2. A deliberative style is also used in addressing audience, usually audiences too large to permit effective interchange between speakers and hearers, although the forms are normally not as polished as those in an oratorical style. A typical university classroom lecture is often carried out n a deliberate style. 3. A consultative style is typically dialogue, though formal enough that words are chosen with some care.
Business transaction, doctor-patient conversation, and the like are usually consultative in nature. 4. Casual conversations are between friends or colleagues or sometimes members of a family; in this context words need not be guarded and social barriers are moderately low. 5. An intimate style is one characterized by complete absence of social inhibitions. Talk with family, loves one, and very close friends, where the inner self is revealed, is usually in an intimate style. 25] It is clear that in which condition people involved determines the level of formality or style of speaking.
Furthermore, Holmes in her book explained some things to consider related to style such as the influence of addressee on the speaker’s language and the feature of speech style in a range of context.  In the context of the influence of addressee on the speaker’s language, Holmes stated there are some factors determine the style such as social distance or solidarity, age, and social background of addressee. Social distance refers to how well you know someone and how close you feel to them. 27] That means more intimate relationship, more informal conversation you have with the addressee.
The factor of age deals with to whom you speak. People talk differently to children and to adults – though some adjust their speech style or ‘accommodate’ more than others.  That is clear that the age influences the style of someone’s speech. People will speak more formal when they speak to older people and, on the other hand, they will speak more informal when they speak to younger one. When a father talks to his baby, for instance, he will use simple range of vocabulary and less complex grammar so the baby can understand his speech.
The last factor ‘social background of addressee’ relates to the people you speak to. It is based on the social class of addressee, not the age. The case of this factor was shown by newsreaders on different radio stations in New Zealand. The news is the same and the concept is identical except for one factor – the addressee. So the same person reading the news on the middle-level station reads in a very much less formal than on the higher brow radio station.  The case is clear enough to describe the different style of speech towards different social class.
In other words, people use more formal style of speech when they speak to higher class people or community. In addition, related to the feature of speech style in a range of context, Holmes also mentioned some factors to differentiate the audience. Setting refers to the place where the conversation held. Holmes stated that the choice of appropriate form is influenced not by the personal relationship between the participants, but by the formality of the context and their relative roles and statues within that setting.  That means different setting will influence the level of formality.
Although how close the relationship of a speaker and addressee, they will speak formally if they speak in a formal setting such as at law court. The factor the existence of audience deals with people’s attention to the speech. Holmes claimed that the basis for the distinction between the styles was the amount of attention people were paying to their speech.  Moreover, Spooky stated that the more attention we pay to our language and so the more we are likely conform to the favored and educated norms of our society.  It shows that the more people pay attention to the speech, the more formal conversation they have.
Holmes also gave the example for this factor such as in case of interviewer. The category of style is not only for spoken discourse, but style also can apply to written discourse. The difference of the two discourses is the addressee. The spoken discourse is addressed to listener who can respond immediately and, on the contrary, the written discourse is addressed to readers who cannot respond immediately.  The readers should read the long stretches of discourse such as books, essay, and also letter from the beginning until the end before giving a response.