Congo, I decided to focus my paper on the children of the Congo and rounding countries, Including stones of child soldiers of the country and how It affects the community and family stung there. Why? These children are facing an unimaginable reality that is culturally bypassed by our degree of living here in America. I want to see how my recent knowledge of conflict minerals affects this relationship between the young children there and how it contributes to their upbringing, If there is a relationship at all.
For this paper, extensive research has been placed on many sources, both academic and non-academic. I tried to choose viewpoints that showed opposition to en another on the subject of child issues and conflict minerals, as well as find viewpoints that might provide a unique perspective. For the beginning research and to get me started on thinking of the conflicts within the Congo come the two texts we used for our conflict minerals readings and paper one, “Consuming the Congo’ by Peter Chastened and “Coolant” by Michael Nest.
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Both these text offer opposing views on the role of conflict minerals within the Congo and but detail some statistics and personal experience to. Peter Lactated Is a dedicated Journalist who shares stories f human rights abuse and is also a stakeholder in the role of child soldiers, the focus of his first main book written in 2010. He has spent years traveling throughout Africa finding tales of incredible courage from natives and exposing some of the true horror that takes place there. Michael Nest is a Journalist who focuses development issues and governance with regards to natural resources.
He has collected many statistics through his work In Africa to showcase and explain that It’s not only minerals that are fueling the fire in the Congo, and takes a look at other political and economic factors. From my academic books and to hopefully showcase some light on child soldiers’ subject I choose these credible books. First is “Young Soldiers, Why They Choose to Fight by Rachel Brett and Irma Suspect. This book collects firsthand accounts of why children who have been abducted by various militia groups throughout Africa by the former soldier themselves.
It also highlights their roles In book and its accounts within because they offer true words and experiences from these kids. The authors spent a good deal of research to showcase this book and it reflects in the stories that are given. My next piece is title Child Slavery Now by Gary Craig. Gary Craig is an Associate Fellow and Emeritus Professor of Social Justice at the Wildflower Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation where he led a team of workers following modern slavery for nine years.
He currently is His book has brought together countless contributions from multiple authors, each with a high level of understanding of modern slavery issues, all around the world. This piece offers great support for this topic. My last book, titled “War and Children”, is a reference handbook written by Kenned E. Deputy and Shrink Peters. This book, although lengthy, highlights some of the true horrors of mid Africa and there consequences both to the country, and to the children. It’s great interesting to see how an unlucky experience in the Congo or anywhere else can lead to a life full of pain.
This reference also effectively describes the groups and activist that are in the fight to help solve these horrible happenings and uses other sources that help represent additional stakeholders in my paper. Other notable sources used for this paper include some facts that represent United State stakeholders from Whitehorse. Ova, the official government site of the United States of America. I also used an article from the New York Times who offers current and public opinion on what is going on multiple issues worldwide.
These sources are trusted by the people of America for our daily news to governmental policies put in effect across America. Their ethos is incredibly accounted for on a variety of issues and I am happy to have their words and facts within this document. Interesting enough there is a stakeholder that is not represented by words but has had his actions criticized by my other sources. His actions have recently gained national attention and exposure from credible news stations to social media sites such as Backbone and Twitter.
Everyone is asking the same question, where in the world Joseph Kong is. Joseph Kong is the leader of the LIRA, the Lord’s Resistance Army, infamously known for their recruitment of young child soldiers within their group from the Congo, by any means necessary. Joseph Kong might be the most searched man for 2012 but his lack of words will prove to be the source of some of the most heated feelings within the Congo and among my other sources. I look forward to explaining more as the paper goes along.
My luckiest and most valuable source I feel I have for this paper is my friend Maggie who recently spent 6 months in Uganda, a neighboring country of the Congo in which she dedicated her time to helping child soldiers within the area. Before she came, she did years of research, independent study, and kept up to date with Invisible children, rehabilitation centers, what happens to people once they get out of the center. For months she followed Sam Chillers, who opened an orphanage to protect surrounding areas from the dangers of child soldier endangerment and abduction.
She worked personally with former child soldiers and listened and learned their stories and built relationships with these children over a span 3 months, recently coming back in September 2011. Her firsthand experience and knowledge of the unfolding events there both give her an incredible amount of ethos and a leg up on my paper for my sources; I feel her story will help me better With these sources in abundance, I have no doubt I have some good information and good opposing views for this paper. These sources are backed by years of research and personal stories/experiences.
I didn’t really give thought to how many resources I should pick, but feel this is quite adequate for the lesson at hand. Their words should really give a detailed look into the lives of the children within the Congo, and how conflict minerals and other factors contribute to this rapidly media attention getting lifestyle of Africa. Section l: Fact: Conjecture and Definition The conjecture of conflict minerals and child issues within the Congo are in abundance with regards to my sources. For the beginning of this section and my early research, I have found that all my sources do in fact agree on the belief that these actions are real.
That is, they are happening. The steady mining of minerals by natives who have been exploited and/or worse, turned into rebel army members to force others to do their dirty deeds has Just been the fuel that has burned this real life wildfire for years. “Consuming the Congo’ written by Journalist Peter Chastened might Just perhaps be the best source to define the term conflict minerals. His book was incredibly easy to understand and relate to as he took me through the Journey behind the curtains of Africans darkest war.
He defines the conflict minerals resources mined in the midst of armed conflict and egregious human right buses” (Chastened). That is, these are minerals used by the world by labor rights that cause conflict within Africa. These conflicts included forcing natives to mine the minerals under the eyes of militia groups that use the minerals to wage for machinery within their rebel groups. As well as his research behind the conflict minerals within the Congo, Peter helps tie in my other research and definition of child soldiers within the country as well.
He in fact wrote his first book about it, titled First Kill your family: Child Soldiers of Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army. From y understanding, Chastened first covered this story to see what was in deed happening right in the land where Maggie traveled. This indeed should build upon hi ethos. Coolant is another great source and Nest’s works goes above and the beyond the violence in Africa. Michael Nest shares some of the dark and disturbing facts and figures of the minerals that are mined daily, there are an estimated 750,000 to 2,000,000 artisan miners in the DRY peg. 7. In 2000, eastern DRY became enveloped in coolant fever, akin to the gold rushes of the 19th century in the United States. Conflict is not new to Congo’ (Nest peg. 6). Between the amount of workers that are exploited for these minerals and the rush for the mineral brought by major corporations, show indeed why these minerals are considered conflict material. “Few share Island’s confidence in the government. Some suggest that if the government wants peace in eastern Congo, it needs to involve mining communities in the structure of the government.
The government needs to become more inclusive, not exclusive. Most communities are isolated and therefore vulnerable, forcing them to turn to armed ethnic groups for protection and for a sense of community and control. (Nest) Young Soldiers. “l entered in war very early, when I was 12 or less I came to Missionaries for schooling and I became involved in war. I never wanted to use gun and I never wanted to fight in my country. [… ]We had to defend and fight, proves that this is indeed happening to kids, on not Just Africa but a global level.
The point of this book shares the untold stories of children, straight from the children themselves. Child issues in Africa are defined in many ways as shown by my sources as well as the conflict minerals. For most of my sources, their reason for their existence is based n the universal, Western definition and belief that children, especially under the age of 18, should not be involved with the actions of war. However ,Young Soldiers, Why they Choose to Fight wants to define these children as indicating they have a choice in whether they pursue this lifestyle or not, a unique perspective.
There following 53 natives of boys and girls The United States of America has constructed laws in attempts to define Child Soldiering and how they would react to it, thus indicating that they do in fact believe these acts are happening. According to this New York Times Article written in 010 about child soldiers in the Congo, the U. S reported the following; “The Congo was exempted because United States-backed programs were helping its military become more professional and fight rights abuses. ” “Recruiting young children for militia purposes and other doings?
Yes, this type of enslavement exists. I have noticed it a lot in (through my research) of the Eastern Countries, in China, India, and especially in the area of Congo, Uganda, Sudan, and Central Republic of Africa”. (Maggie). These are the words from my fellow traveler Maggie, who sums up in agreement what most of my other sources tell me within their own words. Her experience there leaves no doubt in my mind these actual crimes of humanity, as it would be viewed in the United States, are indeed happening overseas. About half of the victims and casualties of war are people under the age of 18 and nearly 250,000 boys and girls worldwide are actively involved in fighting as soldiers. ” (War and Children). This staggering statistic sums up at once the fact that this type of injustice to children, 18 and younger, is happening. Nearly half, half of all the soldiers are merely children, who die as a result of this violence. Here is the law of the United States Child Prevention Act of 2008 which clearly fines child soldiers as illegal to practice.
SUBJECT: Presidential Determination with Respect to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CAPS), title IV of the William Wildflower Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorizing Act of 2008 (Public Law 110 457), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to waive the application to Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, and Yemen of the repetition in section 404(a) of the CAPS.
If you read closely, this law makes child soldiers legal in the above listed areas, but only for a limited amount of time, a window that has far exceeded its curfew here in 2012. The United States is now firmly against the idea of Child Soldiers, all who are The consequence of this are mentioned later. Section II: Causes and Consequences: The amount of varied expressions and claims in this section make it the most interesting in my opinion.
The general agreed upon assumption between all my sources is that the event of child soldiers and conflict minerals do exist in the Congo ND throughout Africa and has caused some serious violence across the country. But there are other sources within that speak with their actions and show what many might think as a consequence as actually a great side effect. For my friend Maggie when asked about the cause of these young fighters, she quickly replied with intensity to her voice. It occurs in Uganda because the rebel army “Lord’s Resistance Army or LIRA” take children because e they are easy targets and are part of their strategy because children are the only age group that will give the LIRA an advantage because their adversaries will reconsider shooting a child. It comes down to free labor,” she breathes “and they don’t have to honor any rights in”. This is Magpie’s view of the impending causes and consequences of the child soldiers within Africa. In this claim, she points to a group of rebels already within Africa, not at the United States. Is this because of lack of knowledge of our involvement or an oversight?
This is Just one viewpoint. As mentioned before she doesn’t really share the same ethos on conflict minerals as my other sources do. Chastened takes a much broader approach to the claim of conflict minerals, ultimately suggesting that the cause of this inflict, besides from the minerals, includes mostly the need for these items and the corporations who pay for them. In Consuming the Congo, he states the following. “Are the producers and consumers of electronics really at fault in eastern Congo? If corporate blame is to be dispensed, it needs to be directed to all. (Chastened, Epilogue 214).
This includes the thought the we, westerners of society, are contributing to the deadly ear that has waged on for years there by the simple use of our cell phones and other daily items. Right from the beginning of his novel, Chastened calls out his audience with this call to action; “Every time you use a cell phone or log on to a computer, you could be contributing to the death toll in the bloodiest, most violent region in the world; the eastern Congo. ” In the eyes of Nest, his view of the cause and consequences both mirror the thoughts of Chastened but still hold his own opinion. Coolant attracts so many armed groups. If there were no 136). By Ezekiel, a representative of the Lubber region, a gold mining community, met by Nest on his travels. The major assumption in this quote identifies the users of these items to be the reasons of conflict in Africa. The consequence is obviously death of millions of natives and mass damage to the land of Africa. Michael Nest’s Book also states the following; “Coolant came to the attention of the general media in 2001 when reports began filtering in of warlords in the Congo earning enormous profits from a rare mineral and a frenzied coolant rush of miners into the Jungle to exploit deposits. Caused by Palpitation 2)peg. 12 Coolant and Conflict page 66-“A common them in all phases of conflicts is the devastating impact of violence on civilians, especially in rural communities. Armed groups have engaged in widespread sexual violence, kidnapped men, women, and children, stolen livestock and possessions, burned houses, and made working in agriculture fields extremely dangerous. ” Peg. 67 As mentioned before, Michael believes there are many cause of the violence of Congo, not Just Coolant. This includes politics, minerals from other countries and the greed of other major corporations within.
These factors influence the rushes that have placed these natives to work in mines in order to survive. Young Soldiers Why the Choose to fight brings a new claim to the table on why these child soldiers are indeed soldiers. According to a research project conducted by the ILL, about two thirds of child soldiers interviewed in Burundi, Congo-Brazzaville, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and others concluded that they took the initiative of enrolling themselves When I first saw this I was shocked, these is no way this is true.
But further research and analysis done by Brett and Speech and the stories they collected show another side of why these children decide to engage in acts we ourselves in the western world would not even think of. Then again, survival between African kids and American kids has a somewhat different meaning to it. And that’s exactly what some of the causes for this unnatural (or natural behavior) are. Some of these kids that Join are for their own safety, they have nowhere else to go. There are economic downsides for the reintegration of child soldiers back into society.
Sometimes it seems in the best interest in the child to return him to his family but sometimes they are too far gone or families can’t afford to keep them. All my sources seem to agree that there is indeed a consequence of these actions that go with the children and conflict minerals, consequences that are not good, and lead into my next point of tension. Bad consequences include the above. Outside of the children, damage to tribes, any family ties, trust between generations, instills corruption, fight to stay alive, family members turn on family members. (War and Children) Section Ill: Value and Evaluation: Most of my sources would agree the evaluation of the situation is a bad, but maybe not as bad as everyone thinks. This is seen in Michael Nest’s book. “Violence in the DRY is not the result of Just one issue. “(Coolant, peg. 103). This is in terms of Coolant, only one mineral in Africa that provides the world supply of only Just 5 percent. When o look at the numbers and statistics of Michaels I must agree that it seems to be and providing hard times for children who are there mining instead of attending school Other examples of Coolant page 100-105 with this statement. A common theme in all phases of conflicts is the devastating impact of violence on civilians, especially in rural communities Naturally, the narrowed view of Coolant gives Nest a narrow mind set and not as broad as my other sources go such as Maggie with the thought of conflict When I asked my friend Maggie her evaluation this was her response. “My evaluation is that it is bad, I would dare to say it’s terrible. Striping children of their innocence in any way is barbaric is horrible. And the things the Army makes them do is inconceivable.
The issue of child soldiers in not a big deal maybe in our country, but in Africa, it’s become a mainstream issue because anyone around that area has been affected. Whether it be people they know have been taken or have seen the violence, the natives over there have witnessed firsthand this injustice. ” Maggie words speak to my soul and the hurt in her voice can only be the tip of what these children are feeling like when they are forced to do such horrible actions. She personal “l personally see no good consequences of this action because the damage done to the child is far greater than any good could come out of it.
Forcing children to kill parents, or beating, raping, torturing them into submission outweighs any “pros” that exist for the. ” However this is seen in opposition by Joseph Kong, who is the ringleader in gathering up small children to fight in militia groups all around Africa. You could say he is the fire that both Maggie and other activist wish to extinguish and discontinue from burning. I personally have no words from Joseph himself, but his actions have certainly said plenty.
It is quite evident he believes child soldiers are a good thing, a way of cheap labor and early brainwashing that allows his own methods of reasoning to be put in full use. His avoidance of capture suggest he knows what he is doing is wrong, but is perfectly k with continuing his lifestyle of crime, organizing militias to take unsuspecting children and ultimately develop them into a product that might never be able to be returned back to society. When the United States goes into evaluation of the conflict that is taken place in the Congo, it’s obvious by the law that they don’t believe in the practices that are in use there. ” I prohibition in section 404(a) of the CAPS. ” This is there Evaluation that it is no longer going to be tolerated by the United States if it in deed continues to happen, and that we will refuse to help their military should these illegal practices continue to be put into use A Story from War and Children. This quote is summarized by a kid who became part of the LIRA because his uncle turned his family so that his uncle would stay safe. He and two of his brothers were made into child soldiers and her sister had been raped repeatedly to the point where she now has five kids.
His parents were killed in front of him by LIRA soldiers because they would not turn in their children to them. It’s sad to think that your own family can be the cause of your situation as was the case with this child Consuming the Congo- “Over five and a half million have died as a result of the violence that takes place there. Every time we use a mobile phone, use a video game console, or open a tin can, we hold the lives and deaths of the eastern. ” This is the deep evaluation of Peter Chastened, which in Africa. ” Peg. 5.
It’s an exaggeration that is meant to receive sympathy from the audience which in turns reveals that Peter does feel that the situation in the Congo is needlessly bad, and we have a chance to stop it. Young Soldiers- Why They Choose to Fight: The want for this particular source answers this proposal of this is bad. Children “volunteering” Just to have a meal it sickens me. But the stories within are not all as “bad”. There are children like Stephen from the United Kingdom and German, from the DRY who want to fight for their country. Is that a bad thing?
Certainly not, I myself have a close friend who is joining the air force. The only difference is that he is 18, these kids are 12. It’s this hype of cross roads that mix the evaluation as bad or good between my sources, heck even in between my own sources. Here in the United States it’s against the law to Join the army so young, but we view defending our country as a good and honorable thing. Is it not Just as honorable if it’s a child, according to most of my sources, and our western ideology in our modern world, the answer would be no. It sure gives something to think about through.. Section lb.
Proposal Between all my sources, the current paid media attention and my own feelings toward these actions, it is quite evident that the call to action is to help these hillier and natives of the Congo. However, finding having the right call for action is like finding the right wireless network. Should one go unlimited, helping every known cause of war and conflict affecting these children, Juggling mass activist projects and let loose their opinions simply because they can, or should one personalize their data plan, attacking the heart of problem of which they believe to have the most anguish and severity. And if so, what plan is right?
To Maggie, the answer is clear. “Ending child slavery is a desirable action, for having it continue would be an injustice to these children and allow torture to continue. The emotion in Magpie’s voice during this answer shows me she really cares about the inhumane actions that are happening here. She’s seen firsthand the negative effects that continue to drive against these children. She also believes certain actions would lead to this desirable outcome. “On a small scale, apprehending Joseph Kong would go a long way. All the higher ups of the rebel army, all LIRA officials must be apprehended. Efforts by the U.
S are in route but might be too late. I support people are trying to make this an issue. ” Here Maggie reflects on the recent resurgence and the fight to bring this man, Joseph Kong, to Justice. “It’s turned into genocide and we have ignored it for years for what, no icon value in Africa, focus on oil. Too fine he would be easy, he goes through talks and negations through other people but would flake out, for years the government has known where he is but has not gone after him. ” When I questioned about the impending coverage of these children and Joseph Kong she replied with this; “It’s finally getting more coverage, so it’s on the radar.
Mostly people Jumping on the bandwagon but it’s out there All comes down to economics, the fact that we didn’t alp reinforces the idea that they are not worth helping. ” Here, Maggie claims that it is indeed important to bring down Joseph Kong and that we need to take charge in part of the United States is represented as well as I see a connection between Magpie’s thoughts real events happening. The want to bring this guy to Justice is strong, flooding the airwaves of social media network to people all over the world.
But its action from these people that will make a difference, not Just the click of a button in agreement with the above policy. The Proposal claim for Consuming the Congo was found in Chastened epilogue. The Congolese must create their own solutions to their problems. The key to solving the conflict minerals puzzle lies within the people of the eastern Congo and their government. Rather than engaging in aggressive public relations tactics, rights, campaigners, advocacy groups, and others might better become involved in eastern Congo in more meaningful ways.
They have choices. ” These choices don’t Just include “Jumping on the bandwagon” as Maggie would say or even stopping using popular devices such as cell phones that use minerals mine by children and other natives who are doing forced labor. From his claim I have deemed that it is important that the Congo help themselves, and show a want to change of the conflict that arises from these terrible actions Michael Nest proposal conclusion shares some actions from opposing author Peter Chastened. However, he has his own proposal and reasoning. What can and should a concerned person do to end the relationship between coolant and the war in the eastern Congo. He wants you to learn the facts, become educated. All decisions should be made if you are an informed person. ” It might not be worth to participate in a mobile phone boycott. ” (Coolant, 185) Nest offers a lot more participation from the government and politics to help bring a stop to the violence within the Congo. I whole heartedly agree with Nest’s proposal because as more and more attention to this matter comes up, especially in conversations with my peers, I am noticing a lack of knowledge on the subject.
If one wants to run and help, they must first learn to walk. Nest’s also elaborates on the importance of the Congo needing to help themselves, placing some blame on the government. “Few share Island’s confidence in the government. Some suggest that if the government wants peace in eastern Congo, it needs to involve mining immunities in the structure of the government. The government needs to become more inclusive, not exclusive. Most communities are isolated and therefore vulnerable, forcing them to turn to armed ethnic groups for protection and for a sense of community and control. (Nest) Based on this thought, it seems the government is not doing enough in Nest’s opinion to take care of the growing problem. Having an inclusive community can change how they interact with one another and possible change their horrid lifestyles. The United States has proposed to stop Child Soldier with their Child Soldier Prevention act of 2008 as already discussed. With this law, aid of our Unites States military will not go those who allow people under the age of 18 to fight in wars.
With this proposal put in effect, it has discouraged other countries from losing the aid we would give them, this is ultimately the action we want to take place in order to have the government of the Congo follow through and not allow Child Soldiers. My last proposal comes from Why They Choose to Fight. This book is unique as it begins to break down the stories of the children and ex-soldiers and asks them what they involvement from other to help build better education and employment opportunities so that kids now have more options then to have to fight for their freedom from rebel groups. Three of the most significant are education, employment, or other economic activity to reestablish relationships within families” (Young Soldiers) it seems they want people here to help and protect these three important factors in order to stop the flow of violence. The question of proposal that is being answered in the topic is: What can help the dire child issues within the Congo as well as its relation with conflict minerals. Nest and Chastened follow that of action, becoming educated and maybe Joining activist groups that know that follow the cause.
The United States and Nelson feel it is important the Congolese Government step up and fight this issue. From the current media attention and Maggie thoughts, finding Kong 2012 is of the utmost importance. For authors Brett and Aspect, and Gary Craig argue to end child labor and cruelty by keeping children in school, employed, factors that don’t influence to turn to this lifestyle. Each source brings good ideas to proposal, and factors them above and below everyone else’s respectively. But the assumption of the need to help is there in all sources, and motivates its audience to do the same.
Reflection, Synthesis, and Points of Entries for Papers 3 and 4 So this is it. This is the moment I have dreaded since I first became admitted into the University of Colorado Colorado Springs. This is the paper that will make or break me and allow all my weaknesses to be seen with hopes that the will either be improved, or point me down a much darker path that has no writing in my future. I am scared for this paper 2. Not because of the number of pages or the deadline. It’s the no BBS part. This paper is very real and is expected to be of superb material. How am l, a freshman, supposed to be able to produce this?
To say I feel way in over my head is a huge understatement, I am not even sure where to begin. I know my focus on my paper should follow what we have covered in class and that has been the uprising of violence within the Congo. But what does that mean? Why do I care? How am I going to manage at least 15 pages of stasis theory to cover this in a way that puts me ahead of my scholars? That’s my main concern, I really want to start proving I am a writer UT I feel so lost, to people here I’m Just another student, but I have dreams and I fear that this work will be for nothing.
But anyway, let’s focus more on this paper shall we. Children; kids, the future, young, innocent, free. These are the usual thoughts and synonyms that describe these little people that could very well end the dire situation I have recently learned. We all have our own thoughts and when it comes to portraying children, now I think of them holding guns. Think of nine and ten year olds working to feed their families, being abducted from their village to Join militia armies