Type Examples If you are referring to the general theme of a book or article Brown (1991) investigated the effects of An investigation into the effects Of maternal age Brown, 1991) found that When to include page numbers When paraphrasing or referring to an idea in another work, page or paragraph numbers are not required. But it can be helpful, for example when paraphrasing or referring to information or an idea that can be located on a particular page, quoting or referring to images, figures or data, or when a work is particularly long and page numbers might be useful for the reader.
Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kenny, 1988, up. 223-224). Kenny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal sentence structure Both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons. Reviews of research on sport and reading have concluded that at least some types of reading behaviors are related to higher levels of physical health (Austin, 1 990; McGovern & Henderson, 2001; Wright & Morgan, 2001).
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When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal sentence structure The year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Wright and Meander (2002) found that although here was a reduction in literacy, the difference was not statistically significant. Group authors and abbreviations The names of groups are usually spelled out each time they appear in text. (University of Southern Queensland, 2009) University of Southern Queensland (2009) Only abbreviate if the name is long, cumbersome and the abbreviation is familiar or easily understood.
First citation in text. (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [MUNCH], 2008) Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (MUNCH, 2008) Us bequest citations. (MUNCH, 2008) MUNCH (2008) One or two authors Cite the names every time the reference occurs: Smyth and Jones (2001 ) found (first and subsequent citations) as has been shown (Smyth & Jones, 2001 More than two authors For three, four or five authors, cite all authors in the first instance, thereafter, only first author followed by “et al. ” (not underlined and with no stop after “et”) and the year of publication.
Campbell, Brady, Bradley, and Smithson (1991) found (first citation) Campbell et al. (1991) found (subsequent citations) For with six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by “et al. ” and the year. In the list of references give all names up to and including six authors. “and” or In running text use “and” to join the names of multiple authors, but use an ampersand (&) inside parentheses. Jones and Brady (1991) continued to find The authors found the same result in the second and third trials (Jones & Brady, 1991 Citing multiple works by the same author at the same time Arrange dates in order (oldest to newest).
Use suffixes after the year when there are multiple publications from the same year. Fifth publication dates are same, the suffixes are assigned in the reference list where these kinds of preferences are ordered in alphabetical order by title (article, chapter or complete work). Several studies (Jackson, 1 999, 2001 a, 2001 b, 2005) revealed a similar outcome. Primary authors with the same surname Include the first author’s initials in all text citations even if the year of publication differs. T. R. Smith (2006) and B. E. Smith (2007) found that J. J. Jackson and Robertson (2000) and E.
M. Jackson and Johns (2005) reached the conclusion that Secondary citations You must acknowledge both the primary and secondary source of information. To do this, include the primary source first and then insert the rods “as cited in” before the secondary source. Cummings (1980) study (as cited in Pulley, 1991) This belief has been confirmed (Cumming, 1980, as cited in Pulley, 1991) You do not need to source the primary or original work cited (e. G. Cumming, 1980) but the secondary source (e. G. Pulley, 1991) needs to be given in your list of references.
No author When a citing a source in text that has no identified author, use a shortened title (or the full title if it is short) and year for the parenthetical citation. The in text citation for the online source “New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure” would be (“New Drug,” 2001 Use double quotation marks for article titles, chapter titles or web page titles. Italicize (without quotation marks) book titles. (Psychological effects, 1 999) For works designated as “Anonymous”, cite in text as Anonymous followed by a comma and the date. Anonymous, 2007) Legislation (includes Acts and Bills) The Equal Opportunity Act 1 995 (Vic) prohibits the Copyright Act 1 968 (Act) according to s. 15 Of the Anti-C)scarification Act 1 991 (SLD) Gambling Bill 2001 (Act) . Legal authorities (cases) Carrey v. Price (2005) Mambo v. Queensland (1992) Quotes Interactive Quotations or quotes are when you use the exact words of another author or your own previously published work. Quotations must always be referenced with page numbers. Quotations of less than 40 words (approximately) should form part of the text and be designated with double quotation marks.
With quotations of 40 or more words, DO NOT use quotation marks; set the quotation in an indented (about a half inch) free standing block of text. Use double-line-spacing to separate the quote from the text of your work. Type Direct quotation Less than 40 words. Always include the author, year, and page number(s) as part of the citation. Students receiving “additional information literacy training achieved higher grades than students who did not attend any skills’ sessions” (Chapel, 2002, p. 323). 40 or more words.
Although the groups contained different age groups, they were not differentiated in the feasibility study: The intensive SSL program was enthusiastically supported by the administration and was popular with the young learners and their parents. Although the groups differed in age, measures of English and French proficiency and language aptitude administered at the outset of the experiment indicated that differences between the Ruth and fifth year classes were non- significant (White, Horst, & Bell, October 2007); thus in the research reported here, we do not distinguish between the two groups. (Horst, White, & Bell, 201 0, p. 34) Do not omit or alter citations embedded within the quote. These embedded citations are not included in your list of references unless used as a primary source elsewhere in your work. In the above example, the 2010 article (where the entire quote comes from) is included in the list of references but the 2007 work mentioned within the quote is not, unless it is used as a source elsewhere in the work. For additional paragraphs within the quotation, insert a double-line-spacing and indent the first line of each an additional half inch (five to seven spaces). Specific parts of a source Always give page numbers for quotations (if available).
For sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if possible, preceded by the abbreviation ‘Para. ‘ (Cello, 2001 , Para. 17) (Brome & Davies, 1 999, Para. 5) (Bray, 1999, chap. 3) (Butler, 2000, Conclusion section, Para. 1) Reference List Books (print and online) General forms (when DOSS are assigned, use them): Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Ii:xx. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher. Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://BMW. Excesses Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from xxxxxxxxxxxx database. Include subtitles.