Henry Henry Villa’s decision to split with the Roman Catholic faith strengthened England and enabled it to become the leading and powerful country it is today and has been for five hundred years. His breach with the Roman Catholic Church, defied the greatest power of Europe, but in doing so he laid the foundation for England’s strength and self reliance. Henry started a new denomination, which separated England from Europe Ideologically and politically. This Isolation forced England to defend herself with no allies and no protection from Rome. It required her to develop a strong military in defense.
The British power and individuality that developed as a result of Henrys decision has ramifications well into the 21 SST century In creating the England known today. Henry VIII was born on June 28, 1491 to the great English King Henry VI’, who reunited all of England after the War of Roses. Henry VIII was described as a bright, brilliant, strong minded young man. But he was doomed to enter the monastery because his older brother, Arthur, had been intended as the next king. Arthur died in 1502 before he could take the crown and left behind only a widow. In 1 509, after the death of his father, Henry was crowned King of England and Henry
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VIII. On June 11, 1509 Henry VIII married his brother’s widow, Catherine of Argon. He had to earn special papal exceptions and grants in order to defy the bible and marry his brother’s widow. But Henry felt this was necessary to restore and strengthen the English and Spanish relationship. Catherine was the daughter of the extremely powerful and Catholic monarchs of Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand, as well as the aunt of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Like his wife Henry was a devote Catholic, so much so that with the help of his right hand man, Cardinal Wolves, the
Archbishop of York and the Lord Chancellor and the help of the Speaker of the House, Thomas More, Henry wrote The Defense of the Seven Sacraments In response to Martin Lather’s 95 Theses. This book and Henrys stance on Protestants led the pope, Clement VII to name Henry the Defender of the Faith. (Weir) Unfortunately Catherine and Henrys marriage took a turn for the worse. When they failed to have any surviving male children. Catherine provided only one child who survived infancy, a daughter, Mary. It soon became clear that Catherine could have no more children and Henry panicked.
With the help of Wolves and More, he appealed to the pope for n annulment. Under normal circumstances the pope would have agreed. But Catherine and her powerful nephew opposed It. Clement VII needed Charles’ political power. He could not deny Charles and Catering’s request. Clement could not afford to loose the strength, support, and protection of Charles, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Eventually he conceded to Henry and sent an Archbishop to hold a trial with Cardinal Wolves in London. The trial was unable to reach a verdict and was sent back to Rome.
Henry wasted no time in releasing Wolves of his political powers. Cardinal Wolves was replaced by Thomas More. And Catherine of Argon as replaced with Anne Bobble, one of Catering’s Ladles in waiting. More and Anne encouraged Henry to break from the Church. Henry cut off all ties with Rome and declared himself the head of the Church. He married Anne secretly, before it was even legal . He Increased ten strength AT parliament In order to pass Lolls. Sun as, the Act of Supremacy, which officially named Henry the head of the church and broke England from Rome.
He closed all of the monasteries and convents and took their wealth and land. He used this land and money to pay off his debts, fund the military, and reward nobility loyal to him. This strengthened his position in the country, created a powerful drawback to the return of Catholicism and increased England’s military might. Henry did very little to actually change the church in itself, despite this England broke out into religious turmoil and Henry was forced to execute both Protestants and Catholics to keep the peace in England. Bernard) These catastrophic events took place when alliances were changing, shifting, and more powerful and important than ever. Henry himself went through multiple alliances with Spain and then France, but not a year later would be a war with both. The engagements of his monger sister Mary are proof enough. At her time of betrothal with Spain, Henry was on bad terms with France and needed Spain’s alliance. But not much time passed before this engagement was broken and Mary was betrothed to France during tense times with Spain. (Edward) Alliances were created solely on the purpose of each country own benefit and advancement.
There was no greater benefit or opportunity of advancement than that provided by the Roman Catholic Church. He gave up the alliance with France through his sister, with Spain through his wife, and with the Holy Roman Empire also through his wife. He also gave up his previous tradition of adding Spain at a moments notice and doing the dirty work. Henry gave up his place as playing pawn for France and Spain. England discontinued its support of these countries as they discontinued their support of Henry and cleaned themselves of this Protestant nation.
Henry VIII took chances in economics, theology, politics, and the safety of his own country and crown. He thereby shook the foundations of the politics of his time. Henry removed England from the classic Church centered economy of his time. The wealth confiscated from he Catholic monasteries and convents not only paid off his debts but helped to given birth to the British navy. The Ana grew from five to fifty three ships. This Ana eventually helped to conquer lands all over the world and create an empire so large that the sun never actually set on it.
This navy, when led by Henrys daughter, Elizabeth, not many years later managed to defeat the enormous and powerful Spanish Armada. This Ana was the start of a powerful defense and army that led the world even through the First World War. Henry also managed to consolidate the power of the monarch as well as strengthen the parliament’s power at the same time. By increasing his wealth and forcing the alliance of his nobles, Henry managed to create a stronger united country. This country was able to avoid destruction and fatal civil wars.
At the same time he increased the body of representatives for the people, the parliament, as well as that of his personal advisors, the Privy Council. Henry created a government that allowed for a peaceful transition from monarchy to a republic. England was one of the few countries able to peacefully transfer to a republic and keep its monarchy. This all took place only three hundred years after Henry VIII under the rule of Queen Victoria. This gradual shift in power allowed England to retain its power before and after its transfer from form of government to another.
Anne, like Catherine, failed to provide the son Henry desired. She bore only a gaunter, Elation, Ana was executed unaware ten pretense AT adultery. Henry went through four more wives and had only one son, Edward to his third wife, Jane Seymour, before his death on January 28, 1547. His protestant son Edward took the crown but quickly died. Edward was underage and his brief reign was run by his uncles, strong Protestant nobles. English Protestants tried to put Henrys niece Lady Jane Grey on the throne after Edwards death, but his daughter Mary, a Catholic took the throne.
She earned the title of Bloody Mary by executing Protestants and enforcing Catholicism. Once again the country was in religious unrest until after Marry death, when her sister Elizabeth ascended to the throne. She was a protestant but fought to keep religious stability, as well as peace in England. Elizabeth also fought to defend her throne and country from the attacks of Spanish Catholic invaders who wanted to see England return to Catholicism. (Weir) After her death Henrys Catholic Scottish nephews, the Stuart, took power. The Stuart caused religious turmoil when they tried to reinstate Catholicism.
They caused a rebellion and the brief Puritan Republic. Eventually the Glorious Revolution was caused as well. The Glorious Revolution shaped the modern Anglican Church and made being a Protestant a requirement sit on throne of England and rule. Henry VIII established England’s religious identity, and in doing so strengthened the parliament, the military and created the foundations of the British Empire. Henry increased the countries wealth and self reliance. He strengthened his country and created a new world of politics never before seen.
During the Second World War, when England and its former colonies fought Germany and Italy at a time when other nations capitulated, they fought in the tradition of Henry VIII. This tradition started when Henry separated from Rome and refused to conform and bend to Europe.