ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Assignment Words: 402

The two primary sources of organic compounds are oil and coal. Other sources of organic compounds are plants, animals, and microorganisms. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. There are various classifications of hydrocarbons. Classification of the Hydrocarbons Aliphatic hydrocarbons (Greek for “fat”) consist of alkaline (paraffin’s), alikeness (double bonds) and alkaline (triple bonds). Aromatic hydrocarbons contain the benzene ring. 53 c c alkaline alkaline benzene Hydrocarbons can be further divided into saturated hydrocarbons that have only ingle carbon-carbon bonds (alkaline), and unsaturated hydrocarbons that have multiple carbon-carbon bonds (alikeness, alkaline, aromatics). Most of the aliphatic compounds are named based on the first ten alkaline (Table 14-1). As a rule, hydrocarbons with names ending in -ANNE are alkaline, -NNE are alikeness, and -YEN are alkaline.

Name Molecular Formula methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptanes octane anyone decade Carbons Alkaline Series For example, if a hydrocarbon had four carbons with no multiple bonds, it would be named butane (saturated). If the compound had a double bond, it would be named butane (unsaturated), or a triple bond as butane (unsaturated). The various classes of hydrocarbons can be distinguished from each other by the types of reactions they undergo. In other words, alkaline react differently than aromatics, alikeness, and alkaline under the same conditions.

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The various hydrocarbons also have different physical properties. Hydrocarbons are very non- polar and will only dissolve in similarly non-polar solvents (like dissolves like). Water is a polar solvent while logrolling (a mixture of saturated alkaline) is non-polar. Therefore, the hydrocarbons would tend to dissolve in logrolling or other non-polar solvents (for example COCO) rather than polar solvents (water). REACTIONS OF ALKALINE Alkaline are relatively inert (do not react). The most common type of reaction they undergo is the reaction with oxygen.

Gasoline and heating fuels are mixtures of alkaline which when combined with oxygen given off heat and light. CHI 4 202 co 2 (excess) 154 energy If the oxygen content is limited, the hydrocarbons do not burn efficiently. In addition to producing carbon dioxide and water, the hydrocarbons will also give off carbon monoxide (CO – a poisonous gas) and elemental carbon (soot). Co H2O (limit tied) Alkaline can be identified using bromine dissolved in COCO. The dissolved bromine (BRB) is a brown liquid and the disappearance of the brown color indicates a reaction has taken place.

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