The purpose of this experiment is to observe what happens when two liquids with a boiling point of 79 and 100 degrees centigrade are heated together and allowed to boil over a specific period, to use the density to determine regenerate composition of ethanol and water and also to understand the process to separating a solution with different boiling points. Distillation deals with a mixture of liquids with different boiling points. It is only very effective when there is a significant difference in the different liquids’ boiling point.
This is because every element has a unique boiling point due to the amount of bonds and structure of that fluid. Hence, understanding the structure and bonds of a fluid gives us more glimpse of what their densities may look like. However, In this experiment, the solution used was 50% ethanol and water. There normal boiling point is 79 and OIC degree centigrade respectively. Therefore, as the solutions get heated in the apparatus, the temperature begins to rise. The ethanol, Which has a lower boiling point than water Will vaporize and condensing into a liquid, which is collected in a beaker through temperature exchange in the condenser.
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In general, the purpose Of this experiment is to understand the exact process of separating a solution with different boiling points. Apparatus used Temperature probe hoses E)water Condenser with two F) mill graduated cylinder and 3 beakers Hot plate G) utility clamp Ethanol EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE We obtained and wore hand gloves. H) 3 boiling chips We assembled the distillation apparatus as shown in the lab manual . We used a mill graduated cylinder to obtain mm’ of water and ml of ethanol which we poured in our flask.
We added 3 boiling chips to ensure the formation of bubbles and we noted the temperature we obtained our first drop. We used a clamp to hold the stopper fitting the probe into the flask in place and we slowly turned on he cold water tap We used a third utility clamp to secure the temperature probe wire We obtained 3 ml beakers which were labeled BBC and beaker A was placed at the end of the condenser and our hot plate was turned to it maximum setting. When ml was collected in beaker one, we removed it and placed beaker 2 and the same comic was collected for beaker 3.
We determine and recorded the mass of ethanol obtained during our experiment. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The result from the data shows the density and percentage of water and ethanol in each fractions Of the experiment. In the distillation process, Mimi Of water and ml of ethanol was collected together however; only 50. Mil was collected meaning that since ethanol has a lower boiling point than water, most of the liquid obtained could be assumed to be ethanol especially during the first two fractions of the experiment.
Also in this experiment, the amount of ethanol collected is in close relation to the temperature of the heated solution. This is because as the temperature increases and reaches the lower boiling point of ethanol, the amount of ethanol that was being dropped began to increase and it as observed that the first two transactions to ethanol was 98% pure with 2% water (error) which was reasonable and expected while the third fraction contained 78% ethanol with 22% fatter (error).
This error occurred as a result of increase in the boiling point, which increased from degree (ethanol) to degree Celsius (water). This error could be controlled by reheating the solution continuously until the percentage of water is greatly reduce According to our observation, the temperature at, which eve experienced our first drop was 73 degree integrate and the boiling point of water in this experiment Vass found to be 89 degree Celsius because the water is diluted water.
CONCLUSION In conclusion, the purpose Of our experiment was to identify the exact process of fractional distillation and to provide an accurate prescription about liquids With different boiling point during separation. The experiment performed using fractional distillation method yielded 98% ethanol and 2% water in the first two fractions meaning there was only 2% error. Therefore, the result was reasonable however, in the third fraction, we obtained 78% of ethanol and 22% error.