Does the hypha have a regular geometric form or is it irregular? hypha has a regular geometric form, The 5. How would you describe the general hyphal structure? What is the general form ofa hyphal tip (i. e. tapered, hemispherical, flat, etc. ) A long tubular, webbed like mass, interwoven throughout the fungi, it somewhat resembles the artery and vein structures of the human body. 6. Does the hypha appear to be segmented into cells; i. e. are septa (cross walls; singular- – septum) present? Hypha does appear to be segmented into cells.
The hypha is divided by a dark looking structure deemed as the septa. The septa are clearly visible in the Hypha of the Filamentous fungus. Draw some hyphae in the space provided on the next page. Glomeromycota Members of the recently recognized phylum Glomeromycota form endomycorrhizae with many types of plants. 7. What does “endomycorrhizae” mean? “Endo” meaning “insid???’ mycorrhizae the fungus root means inside the fungus root. 8. Do an Internet search for images of mycorrhizal fungi. Describe what you see. The majority of the images are view below the surface of land.
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Displaying images of roots and the make up of what the roots consist of. The mycorrhizal are growing on the roots of the plant and seem to overstake the organism. Closely resembling a hairy characteristic and staying on the surface f the root. 9. What do these fungi do to benefit the plant with which they associate? The mycorrhizal fungi, aide in improving the process of delivering phosphate ions and other minerals to the plant by being more efficient. 10. What do the plants do to benefit the fungi? The Plant supplies the Fungi with organic nutrients i. e. Carbohydrates, as well as a host for the fungus.
Chytridiomycota Chytrids are zoosporic fungi classified in the phylum Chytridiomycota. Chytrid fungi are important saprophytes and parasites in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats and have been collected from the arctic to the tropics. They are seemingly ubiquitous biodegraders of materials such as chitin, keratin and cellulose, and hence play a role in nutrient recycling. As parasites of aquatic organisms, chytrids may have a role in natural control of populations. Their potential transformational role in aquatic food webs is little studied and newly recognized.
Chytrids tell us quite a bit about the origin of fungi: Chytrids are predominantly aquatic, not terrestrial. This means that fungi probably got their start in the water, as did plants and vertebrates. Chytrids have flagellated gametes. No other fungi have flagella, which suggests that he other fungi lost this trait at some point in their evolutionary history. This is also consistent with what we know about the closes relatives to the fungi, which also have flagellae. Like other fungi, chytrids have chitin strengthening their cell walls. The presence of chitin is an important defining feature of the fungi.
Answer the following questions: 1 1. What characterizes this phylum? Characteristics of the phylum are: Decomposers, having a globular fruiting body forming and multicellular-branched hyphae, cell walls made of chitin consisting of a flagellated spores (zoospores), and are believed to have erived from other fungi. 12. What is chitin? Chitin is the main component of the cell wall of fungi. It is flexible polysaccharide, which is also found in the exoskeleton of insects and arthropods. 13. What are some interesting ecological niches occupied by members of this group?
This particular group of fungi is significant to the ecosystem of our planet due to their talent and ability to break down certain matters for other organisms. Without Chytrids, sheep and cattle would be unable to digest the plant matter, which they consume. Creating a problem in the nutritional area f the livestock to which humans rely on for meat, clothes and dairy. Zygomycota The Zygomycota are commonly known as the “black bread molds. ” Most of their reproduction is accomplished by means of spores produced asexually in sporangia.
IJnder certain conditions and when the right mating types are present, Zygomycota reproduce sexually by means of thick walled resting structures called zygospores (see below). The zygospores are held up by inflated cells called suspensors, the remnants Of the gametangia. Diagram the typical life cycle of Rhizopus stolonifer. Ascomycota Morels Morels are delicious edible mushrooms that form in the spring. These “sponge mushrooms” are much sought after by mycophagists (people who eat mushrooms). They can usually be found around dead elm trees or in old apple orchards when “the oak leaves are the size Of a squirrel’s ear. Do an Internet search for a microscopic image of the fruiting bodies (z ascocarps) for an ascomycete. Your image should show the asci and cells of the ascocarp. 14. How many spores are there in each ascus? 8 spores Draw a complete ascus below. Deuteromycetes The deuteromycetes are commonly known as the “molds. ” These organisms are often considered the “imperfect fungi,” as they have no known sexual tate during their life cycles. Therefore, reproduction in this group is by asexual means alone, which results in the production of spores via mitosis.
If the sexual state of one of these organisms is discovered, it is re-classified under one of the major taxonomic phyla that we are investigating in this lab. Remember that this cluster of fungi is just a ‘dumping ground’ for fungi that have no known sexual State – deuteromycetes is not a true phylogenetic designation. Conidia are the asexual spores borne at the tip of the conidiophores, which are specialized fungal stalks. 15. What are three medically important deuteromycetes? Antibiotics derived from Penicillium, Ergot (Alkaloids) claviceps parasitizes wheat, corn, rye and other cereals.
In addition, Toxins Aspergillus flaxus like Aflatoxin Bl a potent liver cancer forming chemical which is a product of Aspergillus. Basidiomycota The basidiomycetes are best known for the production of large fruiting bodies, such as mushrooms, puffballs, brackets, etc. However, the group also contains some microscopic fungi, including the important rust fungi and smut fungi that parasitize plants, and some yeasts. Many of the basidiomycota with the larger fruiting bodies are common and mportant agents of wood decay or decomposers of leaf litter, animal dung. tc. Others are mycorrhizal on forest trees. Several species are grown commercially for food, including the common cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and some more exotic species, which can be found on supermarket shelves. Basidiomycota bear their sexual spores externally on club-shaped structures called basidia. Do an Internet search for a microscopic image of a basidium and draw what you observe in the space below. Lichens Lichens are a symbiotic partnership of two separate organisms: a fungus and an alga.