Methanol’s (meet-an-oh-Jinn) -?? archdeacons that produce methane gas as a waste product of their “digestion,” or process of making energy. Wholesale (Hal-oh-flees) -?? those archdeacons that live in salty environments. Thermopiles (there-MO-files) -?? the archdeacons that live at extremely hot temperatures. Acropolises (sigh-crow-files) -?? those that live at unusually cold temperatures. Archie look and act a lot like bacteria. So much so that until the late asses, scientists assumed they were a kind of “weird” bacteria.
Then microbiologist Carl Woes devised an ingenious method of comparing genetic information showing that hey could not rightly be called bacteria at all. Their genetic recipe is too different. So different Woes decided they deserved their own special branch on the great family tree of life, a branch he dubbed the Archie http://www. Microbrewery. Org/types-of- microbes Identify multiple types of professions using microbiology. Here are a few examples: Bacteriologists focus specifically on bacteria and how they help or hurt us. Virologists specialize in viruses and how they infect cells. ; Mycologists study fungi in particular. ; Proctologist’s devote their efforts to protozoa. Epidemiologists investigate infectious disease outbreaks to learn what caused them and if we’re facing a deadly new microbe. ; Immunologists study how the body defends itself against microbial invaders. Describe the role and impact of microbes on earth. Microbes & Human Health The microbes living in our digestive system break down food and produce useful vitamins.
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The millions of microbes that coat our skin and insides form a protective barrier against more dangerous microbes. Without them, our bodies would be open to microbial attack. Microbes are narrate to humans. Many cause diseases and epidemics: smallpox, AIDS, influenza, food poisoning and anthrax. These diseases result in severe illness, or even death. As scientists learn more about bacteria, fungi and viruses, they are better able to treat and prevent these diseases. Common treatments include antibiotics that kill bacteria and vaccines that help the body fight off viruses.
Microbes & Ecosystems Like humans, many microbes do this by eating plant and animal material. A typical microbe buffet consists of waste from humans and other animals, dead plants and animals, and food scraps. Bacteria, fungi and algae all take part in decomposing -?? or reeking down -?? this waste material. Without them, the world would quickly be overrun with discarded food scraps, raw sewage and dead organisms. Microbes are also involved in the cycling of many other important compounds in -?? and between -?? ecosystems, including oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.
Many microbes use the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide to oxygen, which we need to breathe. As they do this, they create new organic material -?? themselves -?? which are then eaten by other organisms. Microbes & Food and Agriculture making beer using the fermentation abilities of yeast reduction of other foods, such as yogurt, cheese, wine, bread, vitamins, beans and chocolate. Industrial Applications of Microbes Decomposing microbes are active in wastewater treatment plants, composting facilities and landfills.
They break down food scraps and waste materials into compost or fertilizer that can be used on gardens or in agriculture captures methane gas that is produced during certain types of decomposition which is used to make ethanol for cars or to generate electricity. Altering the DNA of microbes, or using their DNA to alter other organisms to produce products like insulin, or sources of fuel. Microbes are also used to change the DNA sequence of other organisms, such as changing plants to become resistant to insects or viruses.
Microbes & Terrorism and Warfare using microbes such as anthrax, smallpox etc as biological weapons http://microbes. Org/microbes-importance Explain the theory of evolution and why it is called a theory. 0 Based on the process of evolution- hereditary information in living things changes gradually through time; these changes result in structural and functional changes through many generations Two preconceptions: 0 All new species originate from preexisting species Closely related organisms have similar features because they evolved from a common ancestor In science facts are called theory e. . The theory of gravity and the theory of evolution. “Theory” scientific language is very different from “theory” used in common language. Theories are explanations and, in science, are always available for refutation or revision if required. Explain the ways that humans manipulate organisms for their own uses. 0 Biotechnology- when humans manipulate microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting 0 Genetic engineering 0 create new products and genetically modified organisms (Smog)0 Recombinant
DNA technology 0 allows microbes to be engineered to synthesize desirable proteins (I. E. Drugs, hormones, and enzymes) Gene therapy 0 replaces missing parts of defective genes in human cells through genetic engineering Summarize the relative burden of human disease caused by microbes. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Identify a third type of microorganism. Compare and contrast the relative sizes of the different microbes. Make a time line of the development of microbiology from the asses to today. List some recent microbiology discoveries of great impact.
Microbes are crucial to the cycling of nutrients and energy that are necessary for all life on earth. Medical microbiology Public Health and epidemiology environmental microbiology Explain the theory of evolution and why it is called a theory? Accumulation of changes that occur in a organism as they adapt to their environment. It is an observable phenomenon tested by science. It is considered a theory because it is well studied and well established happening. Explain the ways that humans manipulate organisms for their own uses Baker’s and brewer’s yeast food preservation: yogurts, cheeses, salami, moldy bread on wounds Honey.
Living factories to produce antibiotics, MS, ethanol Extract metals from ore in mines Environmental clean up after oil spills Summarize the relative burden of human disease caused by microbes skepticism (bloodstream infection) Influenza and pneumonia HIVE/AIDS Increasing number of emerging diseases (CARS, AIDS, Hope C, viral encephalitis) Other asses now linked are ulcers, certain cancers, schizophrenia, COD diarrhea Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms?
Prokaryotic- 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells, they also lack many cell structures such as organelles and a nucleus all prokaryotic are microorganisms, but only some eukaryote are eukaryotic – larger and have both a nucleus and organelles. Cell membrane and mitochondria Which of these is the correct scientific name for a common laboratory bacterium? Escherichia coli Taxonomy science of living things List some recent microbiology discoveries of great impact The use microbiology in the development of vaccines. Cranial infections can cause cervical cancer, gastric ulcers, liver cancer Explain the importance of scientific method With scientific method you formulate a hypothesis use a deductive approach to apply scientific method, experimentation, analysis, and testing leads to conclusions. Either disruptor or refute the hypothesis Create a mnemonic device for remembering the taxonomic categories Correctly write the binomial name for a microorganism The scientific name is always combined with the generic (genus) name. The generic art of the scientific name is capitalized and the species name begins with a lower case letter.
Both should be italicized or is handwriting underlined. Staphylococcus erasures Explain the difference between traditional and molecular approaches to taxonomy Which of the following is NOT considered a microorganism? A. Alga b. Bacterium c. Protozoan d. Mushroom Which process involves the deliberate alternation of an organism’s genetic material? A. Fermentation b. Biotechnology c. Decomposition d. Recombinant DNA technology Which of the following parts was absent from Leeuwenhoek microscopes? A. Focusing screw b. Lens c. Specimen holder . Condenser Bossiness refers to the a. Pantones generation of organisms from nonliving matter. B. Development of life forms from preexisting life forms c. Development of aseptic technique d. Germ theory of disease a. Spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter. A hypothesis can be defined as a scientific explanation that is subject to testing When a hypothesis has been thoroughly supported by long-term study and data, it is considered a theory How would you classify a virus a prokaryotic or eukaryotic neither a prokaryotic or a eukaryotic WHich of the following are prokaryotic? A, bacteria b. Archie c. Protests . Tooth a and b Order of the taxonomic categories going from most specie to general? Species, genus, family,order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain Organisms in the same family are more closely related than those in the same order. True or false True Eukaryote evolved from prokaryote (true or false) false- eukaryote and prokaryote emerge independently Prokaryote have no nucleus true In order to be called a theory, a scientific idea has to undergo a great deal of testing. (true or false) microbes are ubiquitous outrider the following items by size using 1 the smallest through 8= largest. Virus –amoeba –ricketiest -AIDS