Semisolid or Solid State Method: In this, the culture medium is impregnated in a carrier such as baggage, wheat bran, potato pulp, etc,. And the organism is allowed to grow on this. This method allows greater surface area for growth. The production of the desirable substance and the recovery is generally easier and satisfactory. A batch reactor is employed for most current applications of industrial microbiology. In essence the reactor is a vessel in which a medium and microorganisms are mixed and then given an optimum environment is which the microbial enzymes can act. The temperature and pH are regulated. Filtered air, sometimes enriched with oxygen, is bubbled though the mixture. Samples are removed for chemical and biological assay.
To prevent contamination, steam is directed through the various inlets to keep them sterilized, and pressure inside the vessel is maintained at a value greater than atmospheric pressure. At the end of a specified period, ranging from hours to days, the batch is drained from the vessel and the product is isolated and reified. Bakers Yeast Bakers yeast is used in baking industry to brings about the desired texture and flavor in the baked products. Selected strains of S. caesarian, which have the ability to grow rapidly, are generally used. Baker’s yeasts differ from the brewers and sine yeasts in that their growth habit is aerobic, produce high amounts of cell mass in sugar containing media, are stable during storage and are superior in dough performance.
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For large-scale production of bakers yeast, a selected strain of yeast is propagated aseptically under vigorous aeration a malt sugar medium for bout 24-48 hours and this is used to inoculate sterilized molasses-corn steep liquor medium of pH 4-5. The ferment is then vigorously aerated and at the end of the propagation period, the cells are collected by centrifugation, washed and further processes to get compressed yeast or active dry yeast after mixing with appropriate carrier material. To maximize cell yield and to have high viability, growth is allowed to occur at a constant out low sugar concentration, wanly Is control y s owe Telling. Organisms used for single cell protein production Organisms Yeasts- Candida SSP, Chromosomes fragile Orthodontia SSP Fungi- Espadrille, Penicillin, Fuchsia etc. Bacteria – Hydrogenates, Pseudonymous Celluloses etc.
Algae- Condescends Cactus, Spiraling maxima Substrates n-paraffin, whey ethanol, methanol starches sulfite waste, Coffee wastes, paper pulp, starches etc, Methane, cellulose waste, ethanol, starches, CA and Hydrogen In culture ponds Antibiotic production The major antibiotics used in medicine and the microorganisms used for producing these antibiotics are shown in Table In a typical process for manufacturing penicillin, an innocuous of Penicillin chronology is produced by inoculating a dense suspension of spores of the fungus onto a wheat bran-nutrient solution. The cultures are allowed to incubate for approximately 1 week at ICC and are then transferred to an innocuous tank.
Some Antibiotics Produced by Microorganisms Antibiotic Anthropometric B Backtracking Carbonic Collateralizing Chlorination Erythrocytes Fumbling Grievously Jamaican Neomycin Invoicing Instant Elimination Oxyacetylene Penicillin Polytypic B Streptomycin Tetracycline Viral A (adenine arbitrariness) Produced by Streptomycin nods Bacillus electrophoresis Streptomycin Hallstead Streptomycin refinances Streptomycin Venezuelan of total chemical synthesis Streptomycin urethras Espadrilles fumigates Penicillin grievously, Penicillin Anglicans Penicillin article Streptomycin kinematics’s Stereotypes Freddie Streptomycin envies, Streptomycin spheroids Streptomycin neurosis Streptomycin antibiotics Streptomycin ormolus Penicillin churchgoers Bacillus polygamy Streptomycin gripers Declaration and hydrogenation of Collateralizing; direct fermentation in decorticated medium Streptomycin antibiotics During the first day of the fermentation, there is a large increase in the biomass of encircled micelle.
The carbohydrate substrate is rapidly used during this early phase, providing the necessary carbon and energy for the production of fungal micelle. At a later stage, reduction of the carbohydrate concentration provides the necessary nutritional starvation conditions that favor penicillin production. The nitrogen required to support fungal growth comes from the corn steep liquor. The production of penicillin, a secondary metabolite (idiolect) not required for the growth of the fungus, lags hence the accumulation of fungal biomass (troposphere). The accumulation of penicillin occurs in the (audiotapes), which begins on the second day and reaches its maximal concentration a Tee cays later. En ten Termination Is completed, t concentration of penicillin having reached maximal achievable levels, the liquid medium containing the penicillin is separated from the fungal cells, using a rotating vacuum filter. Penicillin is recovered from the filtrate, using various extraction procedures. Streptomycin and various other antibiotics are produced using strains of Streptomycin gripers. As in penicillin fermentation, spores of S. gripers are inoculated into a medium to establish a culture tit a high mystical biomass for introduction into an innocuous tank, with subsequent use of the mystical innocuous to initiate the fermentation process in a production tank. The basic medium for the production of streptomycin contains soybean meal as the nitrogen sources, glucose as the carbon source, and sodium chloride.
Wine Fermentation Wine is produced by the fermentation of fruit Juices (traditionally the grape Juice) and is a installed product of fermentation using a wine yeast such as S. caesarian vary. Ellipsoids. The yeast ferments the sugars in the Juice and produces ethanol and carbon dioxide. The amount of alcohol produced depends on the kind of Juice, the yeast strain and the fermentation conditions. Fermentation practices differ from winery to winery and with the type of the wine to be produced. The general procedure adopted in wineries is shown in Fig 16. 2. Fermentation is normally carried out at low temperatures (5-60 C) for 7-11 days or longer and after the fermentation is over, the wine is allowed to settle and later clarified and stored for maturation at low temperatures.
During maturation, the wine undergoes chemical changes and these changes are responsible for the production of aroma and quiet. The range o alcohol in wine varies from ten per cent upwards and wines are fortified with alcohol to obtain fortified wines such as sherry pr port. The different types of wines produced and their main characteristics are shown in Table 16. 1 . Table. Different types of wines Class Red Table Wines Best known Examples Burgundy wines (dry) Red pinot, Pinot noir etc Claret wine (dry) – Cabernet, Zinfandel etc. Alcohol( %) 11 -12 Rose wines (dry or sweet) wines Vine Ross 1 1 – 12 White Table wines Chablis wines, (dry) -Pinot blank, pinot, etc Rhine wines (dry) – Reselling, Slavery, Chianti etc Sauterne wines (dry to sweet) -Semicolon Chateau etc.
Dessert Wines Port wines (red, white or tawny) Muscatel wines (sweet) Tacky wines (sweet) 19-21 Appetizer Wiles Sherries (dry or sweet) Vermouth (dry to sweet) 12-1611-12 Sparking Wines Champagne (pink or gold) Extra dry or sweet. Sparkling Burgundy (sweet or semi sweet) Beer Fermentation Beer, like wine is also an installed product of alcoholic fermentation of grain mash brought about by yeast. Basically, it involves the conversion of starch raw material into sugars and then into alcohol Beer normally contains a lower level of alcohol than nines. Traditionally, it is prepared from malted barley, although other starchy grins such as maize, rice etc. , are also used these days.
The process of beer production involves tow stages 91) malting, and (it) brewing. In the first stage, he starch in the grins is converted into fermentation sugars. Malt is prepared by first soaking the grains in water and then allowing to germinate at ICC. During germination, large amounts of amylase are produced and these are subsequently involved in the hydrolysis of starch into fermentation sugars. After the germination is over, the grains are dried at ICC. This is called as the green malt and serves as the raw material for the preparation of worth. Mat can be either used as such or mixed with other starchy adjuncts such as powdered malted grains.
In recent years, microbial enzymes have been used to saccharine the starch, thus bypassing the malting process and this has facilitated the use of any kind of starchy material in beer production. After malting, the powdered green malt, either alone or in combination with starchy adjuncts is mixed with warm water or allowed to saccharine. During this stage, starch is hydrolysis by the malt enzymes to fermentation sugars. This process is known as mashing. He nutrient rich medium obtained after mashing is known as the worth. This is then filtered and boiled with hops (papery scales of the female flowers of the hop vine Humus lupus) to provide characteristic flavor and aroma. This also serves as a mild preservative.
After cooling, the worth is inoculated with a pure culture of brewer’s yeast S. caesarian or S. Serviceableness (bottom yeast) and allowed to ferment at allow temperature. The fermentation is allowed to proceed at 10-1 OIC for 5-10 days. After the fermentation is over, the beer is clarified by passing through various filters. Sometimes it is pastures before bottling. The various types of beers and their alcohol content are shown in Table 16. 2. Different types of beer lope wells Deer Lager Deer Export Deer Alcohol% 2. 73 3. 93 4. 40 4. 69 4. 75 BOCK Deer Ale Deer Steroid Transformations The use of microorganisms to carry out beautifications of steroids is very important in the pharmaceutical industry.
The fungus Rhizomes airships, for example, hydroxylation progesterone, forming another steroid with the introduction of oxygen at the number 11 position. In a typical steroid transformation process, the microorganisms, such as Rhizomes agrarian, is grown in a fermentation tank, using an appropriate growth medium and incubation conditions to achieve a high biomass. In most cases, aeration and agitation are employed to achieve rapid growth. After the growth of the microorganisms, the steroid to be transformed is added, and so, for example, progesterone is added to a ferment containing R. Anglicans that has been growing for approximately 1 day, and the steroid is hydroxylation at the number 11 position to form 11-&-hydroxyprogesterone.
The product is then recovered by extraction with methyl chloride or various other solvents, purified cryptographically, and covered by crystallization. Steroid transformations brought about by microorganisms Microorganism Crematoriums simplex Reaction Introduction of double bond at 1,2 position Substrate to product Hydrogenation to prepositions Progesterone to 11 & heterogeneousness 9& Floor hydrogenation to 9& floor – 16 – & hydroxyl hydrochemistry Rhizomes Anglicans Hydroxylation at 11 & position Streptomycin righteousness Hydroxylation at 16 & position Curricular alumna Rockiness’s compound S to hydrochemistry Human Proteins Human Insulin, Tort example Is producer Day a recombinant Scenically cool strain Ana marketed as Humbling.
Other strains are used to produce human growth hormone, tumor necrosis factor (TNT), inherent (human recombinant beta interferon-trade name, betrayers), and interleukin-2 (human recombinant interleukin-trade name, propelling). Humbling is used to treat diabetes in cases where the individual is allergic to insulin harvested from cattle. Human growth factor is used to treat disease, such as dwarfism, resulting from a deficiency of this hormone. Interleukin-2 interferon, and TNT are important components of the natural human immune response, and their production may prove useful in treating some disease where increased levels of hose substances would be therapeutic. Interferon, for example, is important in the defense against viruses, and it may prove useful in treating viral infections.
TNT is a natural substance produced in the body in small amounts by certain white blood cells called macrophages that appears to kill some cancer cells and infectious microorganisms without adversely affecting most normal cells. The production of large amounts of TNT by recombinant bacteria is aiding in the investigation of its potential use in the treatment of cancer. Undoubtedly, recombinant DNA technology will permit the production of other useful human routines. Vaccines The use of vaccines is extremely important for preventing various serious diseases. The development and production of these vaccines constitute an important function of the pharmaceutical industry. The production of vaccines involves growing microorganisms possessing the antigenic properties needed to elicit a primary immune response.
Vaccines are produced either by mutant strains of pathogens or by attenuating or inactivating virulent pathogens without removing the antigens necessary for eliciting the immune response. Production of Some vitamins Using Microorganisms Vitamin Culture Medium Fermentation Conditions Yield Riboflavin Shabby gossip Glucose 6 cays at collagen, Soya aerobic oil, glycerin L- Sorbet (in Coelenterate vitamin synthesis) C oxidant subordination D-Servitor, 30% correctness 45 hours at 70% based on substrate used ICC, ascorbic 5-Kate laconic Coelenterate aid (in vitamin oxidant C synthesis) Vitamin 812 submission Glucose, 33 ICC at 100% on used based substrate subs.
Cacao correctness Protactinium’s Glucose Sherman correctness, ammonia cobalt, Ph 7. 0 3 days at ICC 23 MGM/L anaerobic days, aerobic +4 Commercial production of riboflavin by direct fermentation often uses the fungal pieces Rheumatic asphyxia or Shabby gossip. Riboflavin production using such fungi employs a medium containing glucose and/or corn oil/ corn oil may be added even when glucose is used as the primary growth substrate to increase yields of riboflavin. The fermentation using Shabby gossip to produce riboflavin is normally carried out at 26-ICC, pH 6-7. 5 for approximately 4-5 days. After growth of the yeast, the cells are recovered and used as a feed supplement for animals to supply needed riboflavin.
Production AT Amino Calls Molecular production AT ten Nolan access lysine Ana lutetium acid presently accounts for over 1 billion in annual worldwide sale (Figure 17. 22). Lysine: The direct production of L-lysine from carbohydrates uses a honeymooners- requiring cutthroat of Crematoriums glutamine. Cane molasses is generally used as the substrate, and the pH is maintained near neutrality by adding ammonia or urea. As the sugar is metabolize, lysine honeymooners-requiring cutthroat, about 50 g/L of lysine can be produced in 2 to 3 days. Glutamine Acids L- Glutamine acid and MS can be produced by direct fermentation, using strains of Overambitious, Retractable, and crematoriums. Cultures of C. glutamine and Overambitious flavor are widely used for the large-scale production of MS.
The fermentation process employs a glucose-mineral salts medium and periodic additions f urea as a nitrogen source during the course of the fermentation; the pH is maintained at 68 and he temperature at about ICC, and the medium is well aerated. Production of Enzymes Microbial production of useful industrial enzymes is advantageous because of the large number of enzymes and the virtually unlimited supply that can be produced by microorganisms. A generalized scheme for the microbial production of commercial enzymes processes include protease, amylase, loose isomerism, glucose oxides, rennin, pastiness, and lipase. The four extensively produced microbial enzymes are protease, classmates, alpha-amylase, and glucose isomerism.
Some enzymes produced by microorganisms Industry Analytical Application Sugar determination Glycogen Determination Uric acid determination Bread Baking Mashing-making beer Oxygen removal Enzyme Glucose oxides Calaboose oxides Rate oxides Amylase Protease Amylase Classmates Glucose oxides Amylase Amylase pectin’s inverters Rennin Protease, amylase Glucose oxides Pastiness Glucose oxides Marinades Protease, amylase Amylase Protease Protease Glucose oxides Source Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi Bacteria Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi, bacteria Fungi Bacteria, fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria, fungi Fungi, bacteria Fungi Baking Brewing Carbonated beverages Cereals Chocolate, cocoa Coffee Confectionery Dairy Dry cleaning Eggs, dried Fruit Juices Laundry Leather Meat Mayonnaise salad dressings Breakfast foods Syrups Coffee bean fermentation Soft-center candies Cheese Production Spot removal Glucose removal Clarification Oxygen removal Debiting of citrus spot removal removal Paper Cola-soul el laundry stars
Meat tenderly Ana oxygen Starch modification for Amylase paper coasting Pharmaceutical and Digestive aids Amylase clinical Protease Lipase Cellulose Wound debasement Streptomycin’s (tissue removal) streptococcal Protease Photographic Recovery of Silver Protease from spent film Plumbing Drain opener Keratin’s (protease) Starch and syrup Corn syrups Amylase, desalinate Glucose isomerism Production of glucose Classmates, amylase Textile Desiring of fabrics Amylase, protease Wine Clarification Pastiness Bacteria Fungi, bacteria Fungi, bacteria Fungi Fungi Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria Fungi Fungi, bacteria Fungi, bacteria Bacteria Fungi Bleaching of Metals Microbial mining by the process of bleaching recovers metals from ores that are not suitable for direct smelting because of their low metal content (Figure 17. 29). Bleaching uses microorganisms to alter the physical or chemical properties of a metallic ore so that the metal can be extracted. – MOMS is the equation for the general process carried out by T. MS +2 02 foreordains and related species, Where (M represents a divalent metal.
Because the metal sulfide (MS) is insoluble and the metal sulfate (MOMS) is usually water soluble, this transformation produces a readily laughable form of the metal. T. Reconsiders is a chemotherapeutic bacterium that derives energy through the oxidation of either a reduced sulfur compound or ferrous iron. It exerts its bleaching action by oxidation the metal sulfide being recovered directly, converting SO- t SASS-, and/or indirectly by oxidation the ferrous iron content of the ore to ferric iron. The ferric iron, in turn, chemically oxidized the metal to be recovered to a soluble form that can be leached from the ore. If the ore formation is sufficiently porous and overlays a water-impermeable stratum, it is possible to leach the ore in situ without first mining it.